Amelanchier lamarckii (snowy mespilus)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Soil Tolerances
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Impact Summary
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Amelanchier lamarckii F.G. Schroed. 1968
Preferred Common Name
- snowy mespilus
Other Scientific Names
- Amelanchier aborea
- Amelanchier botrypium DC.
- Amelanchier canadensis auct., non (L.) Medicus
- Amelanchier canadensis subsp. confusa
- Amelanchier confusa Dandy
- Amelanchier grandiflora auct., non Rehder. 1920
- Amelanchier intermedia Non Spach
- Amelanchier laevis auct., non Wigand
- Amelanchier x grandiflora Rehder, 1920
- Amelanchier x lamarckii F.G. Schroed.
- Crataegus racemosa Lam. non Lindl.
- Mespilus arborea Michx. f., 1812
International Common Names
- English: apple serviceberry; downy serviceberry; June berry; juneberry; Lamarck serviceberry; service berry; serviceberry; snowy mespile
- French: néflier des rochers
Local Common Names
- Finland: rustouomipihlaja
- Germany: Felsenbirne, Grossblütige; Felsenbirne, Kupfer-; Kupfer-felsenbirne
- Italy: nespolino di Lamarck; pero corvino
- Netherlands: drents krentenboompje; Krentenboompje
- Norway: Kanadasøtmispel
- Sweden: prakthäggmistel
- AMELM (Amelanchier lamarckii)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
A. lamarckii is an attractive tree of horticultural interest with showy flowers and fruit; the latter are also edible. It exhibits good autumn colour and provides year-round interest. The species is probably native to North America, and has been introduced to Europe where it has been grown in gardens and has become naturalized on light acid soils. A. lamarckii is listed on NOBANIS – the European Network on Invasive Alien Species - as potentially invasive in a number of European countries.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Rosales
- Family: Rosaceae
- Genus: Amelanchier
- Species: Amelanchier lamarckii
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
There are considered to be 25 species of Amelanchier, nearly all found in North America, with one species originating in Europe (Amelanchier ovalis) and one species originating in East Asia (Amelanchier asiatica). A key to the genus Amelanchier can be found in Krüssmann (1984).
The taxonomy and distribution of the genus Amelanchier in Europe has remained confused. Schroeder (1970) attempted to clarify the situation on his paper ‘Amelanchier – Atern als Neophyten in Europe’, written in German, which he summarized in English.
Clapham et al. (1987) suggest that the British A. lamarckii appears to be a complex hybrid that probably arose in cultivation, combining features of Amelanchier laevis, Amelanchier canadensis and Amelanchier arborea. However, Schroeder (1970) does not accept that the hybrids have arisen in European gardens and instead proposes that A. lamarckii, along with Amelanchier confusa and Amelanchier spicata, are undoubtedly of North American origin. However, rather than being known as distinct species in North America they are instead considered as microspecies.
Furthermore, nomenclature is confusing, with A. arborea being the accepted name in the USA (Wageningen University, 2009). Such confusion has made it unclear as to whether all plants sold under the species name A. lamarckii are in fact A. lamarckii (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2009).
Schroeder (1968) suggested the nomen novem A. lamarckii, which is now the accepted name for this species.
DescriptionTop of page
Amelanchier is a genus of deciduous shrubs and small trees. Clapham et al. (1981) describe A. lamarckii as follows:
“Flowers in racemes. Shrub or small tree to 12 m, with simple broadly elliptic finely serrate leaves 3-7 cm, coppery red when young, and a slender spreading or drooping inflorescence of many flowers with white linear-oblong petals 1.5-2 cm; carpels 5; fruits small, globose, blackish purple”.
Petals 5, stamens 10-20 and styles 5.
Plant TypeTop of page Perennial
DistributionTop of page
Native to eastern Canada and is presumed to have been brought over to France in the second half of the nineteenth century and disseminated from there. Along with Amelanchier laevis, A. lamarckii is one of the most frequently found species in northern European nurseries and gardens due to its glorious red autumn colours (Krüssmann, 1984). It has become naturalized in Europe especially where acid soils prevail, as in southeast England (Schroeder, 1970). A detailed key to the naturalized European species A. lamarckii, Amelanchier confusa and Amelanchier spicata can be found in Schroeder (1970).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Canada||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-New Brunswick||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-Nova Scotia||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-Ontario||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-Quebec||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|USA||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Alabama||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-Arkansas||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-Connecticut||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-Delaware||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-District of Columbia||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-Florida||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-Georgia||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-Illinois||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-Indiana||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-Iowa||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-Kansas||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-Kentucky||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-Louisiana||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-Maine||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-Maryland||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-Massachusetts||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-Minnesota||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-Mississippi||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-Missouri||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-Nebraska||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-New Hampshire||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-New Jersey||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-New York||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-North Carolina||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-Ohio||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-Oklahoma||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-Pennsylvania||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-Rhode Island||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-South Carolina||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-Tennessee||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-Texas||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-Vermont||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-Virginia||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-West Virginia||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|-Wisconsin||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2011|
|Belgium||Present||Introduced||Kurtto, 2009; NOBANIS, 2009|
|Czech Republic||Present||Introduced||Pysek et al., 2002||First recorded 1877|
|Denmark||Present||Introduced||Kurtto, 2009; NOBANIS, 2009|
|Finland||Present, few occurrences||NOBANIS, 2009||Potentially invasive|
|Germany||Present||Introduced||Kurtto, 2009; NOBANIS, 2009|
|Netherlands||Present||Introduced||Kurtto, 2009; Wageningen University, 2009||Frequent naturalised species|
|Norway||Present, few occurrences||Not invasive||Kurtto, 2009; NOBANIS, 2009||Established|
|Sweden||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Kurtto, 2009; NOBANIS, 2009|
|UK||Present||Introduced||Kurtto, 2009; Natural England, 2009; Stace et al., 2009|
|-Channel Islands||Present||Introduced||Kurtto, 2009|
HabitatTop of page
Grown in gardens and has become naturalized on light acid soils (Clapham et al., 1987). In the UK, it is restricted to acid, mostly sandy soils of rather variable water content, belonging to the Querco-Betuletum vegetation type (Schroeder, 1970). It is found in both mixed conifer/broadleaf and broadleaf forests, urban areas and wetlands (NOBANIS, 2009).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Urban / peri-urban areas||Present, no further details|
|Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Present, no further details|
|Wetlands||Present, no further details|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Associated woody plants include Betula pendula, Betula pubescens, Frangula alnus, Sorbus acuparia, Calluna vulgaris, Vaccinium myrtillus and Rhododendron ponticum (Schroeder, 1970).
Soil TolerancesTop of page
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Although the species is generally pest free (RHS, 2009), fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora has been reported on serviceberries (Amelanchier spp.) (Van der Zwet and Keil, 1979 in Momol and Aldwinckle, 2000).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Vector Transmission (biotic)
Seeds dispersed by birds (thrush, blackbird, wood pigeon).
A. lamarckii has been intentionally introduced across Europe via the horticultural trade.
Pathway CausesTop of page
Impact SummaryTop of page
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Tolerant of shade
- Long lived
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
- Difficult to identify/detect in the field
UsesTop of page
Amelanchier is easily cultivated and very hardy. A. lamarckii has flowers that are showy, but short lived; however, the foliage gives good autumn colour (Chittenden, 1956).
The berries ripen in June hence the common name Juneberry and resemble blueberries in colour, size and taste (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2009). They are used in jams, jellies and pies.
The berries are also a major attraction for birds, including the blackbird, fieldfare, greenfinch, mistlethrush, red wing and song thrush. Crops of soft fruit can be protected from birds by planting A. lamarckii alongside to give the birds something else to feed on (Natural England, 2009).
Uses ListTop of page
Human food and beverage
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
A. lamarckii is often confused with Amelanchier laevis. The foliage is fully open and glabrous at flowering time in the latter, which also flowers 1-2 weeks earlier than A. lamarckii (Krüssmann, 1984).
A detailed key to the naturalized European species A. lamarckii, Amelanchier confusa and Amelanchier spicata can be found in Schroeder (1970). See also the datasheet on A. spicata in this Compendium.
ReferencesTop of page
Kurtto A, 2009. Rosaceae (proparte majore). Euro+Med Plantbase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. Palermo, Italy: Università degli Studi di Palermo, unpaginated. http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed/
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2009. Amelanchier lamarckii. Amelanchier lamarckii. Missouri, USA: Kemper Center for Home Gardening, Missouri Botanical Garden, unpaginated. http://www.mobot.org/GARDENINGHELP
Momol MT; Aldwinckle HS, 2000. Genetic diversity and host range of Erwinia amylovora. In: Fire blight: the disease and its causative agent, Erwinia amylovora [ed. by Vanneste, J. L.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI, 55-72. http://www.cabi.org/CABeBooks/default.aspx?site=107&page=45&LoadModule=PDFHier&BookID=46
Momol MT; Aldwinckle HS, 2000. Genetic diversity and host range of Erwinia amylovora. In: Vanneste JL, ed. Fire blight the disease and its causative agent, Erwinia amylovora. Wallingford, Oxon UK: CABI Publishing, 55-72.
Natural England, 2009. Snowy mespile - Amelanchier lamarkii. Snowy mespile - Amelanchier lamarkii. Sheffield, UK: Natural England, unpaginated. http://www.plantpress.com/wildlife/o906-snowymespile.php
Stace C; Meijden R van der; Kort I de, 2009. Amelanchier lamarckii (Juneberry). Interactive Flora of NW Europe. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: NLBIF, unpaginated. http://nlbif.eti.uva.nl/bis/flora.php?menuentry=soorten&id=2766
Wageningen University, 2009. Amelanchier lamarckii Schröder. Forest ecology and forest management group tree factsheet. Amelanchier lamarckii Schröder. Forest ecology and forest management group tree factsheet., The Netherlands: Wageningen University, unpaginated. http://webdocs.dow.wur.nl/internet/fem/uk/trees/amelamf.pdf
ContributorsTop of page
15/12/09 Original text by:
Vicki Bonham, CABI, Nosworthy Way, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8DE, UK
Distribution MapsTop of page
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