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Datasheet

Sambucus nigra (elder)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Sambucus nigra
  • Preferred Common Name
  • elder
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • S. nigra is a component of woody scrub vegetation that may appear on previously disturbed ground that has remained uncultivated for some years. It does not withstand regular cultivation and chemical control app...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
S. nigra (Elderberry or Elderflower), young foliage and flowers.  Oxfordshire, UK. May 1999
TitleFlowers and foliage
CaptionS. nigra (Elderberry or Elderflower), young foliage and flowers. Oxfordshire, UK. May 1999
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway
S. nigra (Elderberry or Elderflower), young foliage and flowers.  Oxfordshire, UK. May 1999
Flowers and foliageS. nigra (Elderberry or Elderflower), young foliage and flowers. Oxfordshire, UK. May 1999©A.R. Pittaway

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Sambucus nigra L.

Preferred Common Name

  • elder

International Common Names

  • English: black elder; common elder; elderberry; European elder
  • Spanish: sambugo; sauco común
  • French: seu; sureau; sureau noir
  • Russian: buzina chernaya
  • Portuguese: sabugueiro; sabugueiro-negro

Local Common Names

  • Czech Republic: bez cherny
  • Germany: Schwarzer Holunder
  • Italy: sambuco nero
  • Netherlands: gewone Vlier
  • Norway: fläder
  • Poland: dziki bez czarny
  • Romania: soc negru; socul
  • Sweden: flaeder

EPPO code

  • SAMNI (Sambucus nigra)

Summary of Invasiveness

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S. nigra is a component of woody scrub vegetation that may appear on previously disturbed ground that has remained uncultivated for some years. It does not withstand regular cultivation and chemical control appears effective. It is generally invasive in hedgerows, roadsides and field margins, and unmanaged grasslands. Since it is frequently found as an understorey shrub in its native range, it is a potential woodland invasive in non-native areas. However, it is also a valuable fruit-producing tree and is likely to be further introduced as a commercial species.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Dipsacales
  •                         Family: Caprifoliaceae
  •                             Genus: Sambucus
  •                                 Species: Sambucus nigra

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Sambucus is a large genus with a variety of changing synonymy recorded and some apparent continuing taxonomic confusion. USDA-NRCS (2002) uses the all-embracing species concept of S. nigra including three subspecies, subsp. nigra native to Europe, and the North American natives subsp. canadensis (L.) R. Bolli and subsp. cerulea (Raf.) R. bolli, which are, however, raised to species rank in most taxonomies. S. nigra L. is used here in its strict sense as the European native species (=S. nigra subsp. nigra L.).

A range of cultivars of S. nigra have been described, including: Aurea, Guincho Purple and Laciniata (Boskovic and Tobutt, 1992), Sambu, Sampo, Samidan, Samdal and Samyl (Kaack, 1989; 1997), and Haschberg, Donau, Pragarten and Tulbing (Strauss and Novak, 1982). Some of these have been raised to forms, f. alba, f. aurea, f. lacinata and f. pendula (USDA-ARS, 2003), and some have been raised to varieties, var. aurea (Kulikov and Uleiskaya, 1993), var. lacinata (USDA-NRCS, 2002) and var. rotundifolia. Clearly, there remains some confusion as to the relative rank and classification of the intraspecific morphological variation found within the species. A natural hybrid between S. nigra and S. racemosa, found together with its parents in southern Sweden, was intermediate between the parents in inflorescence shape, flower size, and colour of flowers, pith and fruit (Nilsson, 1987).

Description

Top of page S. nigra is a bushy, fast-growing shrub or small tree reaching 8-10 m tall and 20-30 cm diameter (Hegi, 1966). It often has straight, vigorous, erect shoots from the base, branches often arching. Bark is brownish-grey, often deeply furrowed and corky. Twigs are stout, greyish with prominent lenticels, leaflets 3-9 cm long, often 5-7 cm, ovate-lanceolate or ovate-elliptical, acuminate, rarely orbicular or deeply dissected, sparingly hairy on veins beneath, serrate; leaves with 5-7 leaflets, sometimes as few as 3, stipules none or small and subulate. Inflorescence flat topped, 10-20 cm in diameter, with 5 primary rays, Corolla c. 5 mm in diameter, flowers creamish white, anthers cream, fruits black, globose, 6-8 mm, sometimes greenish-yellow, containing 3-5 seeds.

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Tree
Woody

Distribution

Top of page It occurs in the whole of Europe (with the exception of the northernmost parts of the continent) and also in north-west Africa and south-west Asia. The approximate latitudinal limits of its native range are 34°N to 63°N.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ArmeniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
AzerbaijanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
China
-JiangsuPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2003
-ShandongPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2003
Georgia (Republic of)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
IndiaPresentIntroducedBanerjee, 1956
IranPresent
IraqPresent
SyriaPresent
TurkeyPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
Cape VerdePresent
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroducedBenoit-Vical, 1996
MoroccoPresent
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresent
TunisiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003

North America

USA
-ConnecticutPresentIntroduced Invasive
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroduced Invasive
-VirginiaPresentIntroduced Invasive
-WashingtonPresentIntroduced Invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003

South America

BoliviaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2003
ColombiaPresentIntroducedOrtiz de Boada & Cogua, 1989
EcuadorPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2003

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003; USDA-ARS, 2003
AndorraPresent
AustriaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
BelarusPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
BelgiumPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresent
BulgariaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003; USDA-ARS, 2003
CroatiaPresent
Czech RepublicPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
Czechoslovakia (former)Present
DenmarkPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
EstoniaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
FinlandPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003; USDA-ARS, 2003
FrancePresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
-CorsicaPresent
GermanyPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
GreecePresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003; USDA-ARS, 2003
HungaryPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
IcelandPresent
IrelandPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
ItalyPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
LatviaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
LiechtensteinPresent
LithuaniaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
LuxembourgPresent
MacedoniaPresent
MoldovaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003; USDA-ARS, 2003
NetherlandsPresentNativeJans and Drost, 1995
NorwayPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
PolandPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
PortugalPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003; USDA-ARS, 2003
-AzoresPresentRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
-MadeiraPresentUSDA-ARS, 2003
RomaniaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
Russian FederationPresent
-Central RussiaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003; USDA-ARS, 2003
-Northern RussiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
-Russia (Europe)Present
-Southern RussiaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003; USDA-ARS, 2003
SerbiaPresent
SlovakiaPresentNativeGaborcik et al., 1999
SloveniaPresentNativeCrepinsek et al., 2002
SpainPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
SwedenPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
SwitzerlandPresentNativeTinner et al., 1999
UKWidespreadNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
-Channel IslandsPresent
UkrainePresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
Yugoslavia (former)Present
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003; USDA-ARS, 2003

Oceania

Australia
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Gardens Sydney, 2003
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Gardens Sydney, 2003
New ZealandPresentIntroduced1867Owen, 1996; Williams, 1983; Williams and Karl, 1996

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page It has been introduced to various parts of North and South America, Africa, Asia and Australasia, though few exact records for first introduction exist. It was introduced into New Zealand in 1867 (Owen, 1996).

Risk of Introduction

Top of page Further introductions are likely as seed is widely available and there are a variety of cultivars available.

Habitat

Top of page Under natural conditions the species is a component of brushwood of various types of forest communities on fertile and relatively humid soils containing carbonates. S. nigra very easily colonizes both natural and man-made forests and many locations of the species have an anthropogenic origin. It has a somewhat invasive character, especially in disturbed sites such as abandoned fields or grasslands (Kollmann, 1995; Decaens et al., 1997) and even communal rubbish or rubble heaps. It also colonizes forests and poplar plantations established on abandoned agricultural land, often forming a dense understorey (Duvigneaud et al., 1981). S. nigra is also a shrub of open areas and woodland edges and is associated with eutrophic and disturbed soils and thick S. nigra scrub can develop in open areas of woodland (Mayer and Reimoser, 1978). S. nigra is one of the commonest riparian shrubs within the catchment of the Great Ouse and other managed watercourses in eastern England (Mason and Macdonald, 1990; Harper et al., 1997). S. nigra is also described from a grassy scrub landscape formed in recently grazed areas at the edges of a marsh (Jans and Drost, 1995) and is associated with post-1837 hedges in a study of hedgerow field boundaries in the parish of Knock, County Mayo, Ireland (Condon and Jarvis, 1989).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page It is known to invade abandoned fields and grasslands (Kollmann, 1995; Decaens et al., 1997) and poplar plantations established on abandoned agricultural land (Duvigneaud et al., 1981).

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number of S. nigra is 2n=28, with 2n=36 also reported.

Physiology and Phenology

Flowering is generally in June and July in Europe. Seed dormancy is orthodox.

Reproductive Biology

Wertheim (1981) describes propagation in cultivation of S. nigra from cuttings taken in the winter, preferably from strong unbranched 1-year shoots and Strauss (1978) indicates propagation of cultivars can be from hardwood cuttings in October, from softwood cuttings under glass in the summer, or from suckers.

Environmental Requirements

S. nigra is strictly stenohydric (Linnenbrink et al., 1993), mesophytic, nitrophilous, frost tolerant and somewhat drought tolerant species, tolerating annual rainfall below 500 mm (Eichstadt and Mahn, 1993). It does have very specific site requirements and is tolerant to soils of low fertility and exposed areas. The species grows mostly on lowlands and on lower levels of mountains. It has an altitudinal limit of 1550 m in the Alps in Europe, 2200 m in Africa in the Atlas and 2300 m in the Pontus Mountains in Asia. It has the ability to regenerate rapidly if cut and is generally noted as shade tolerant, though Kollmann and Reiner (1996) describe S. nigra as not establishing easily in strongly shaded environments. S. nigra is tolerant to pollutants in the soil; it is able to survive on heavily contaminated land within 1-2 km of the copper smelter 'Legnica' in western Poland (Rebele et al., 1993).

Associations

S. nigra is described from a variety of woodland habitats in Europe. Helliwell et al. (1996) list S. nigra as one element of dense shrub understorey in disturbed ash/oak woodland and Sgardelis and Usher (1994) also indicate S. nigra as forming a dense understorey in a mixed deciduous and coniferous woodland in the UK. S. nigra is also described as a minor forest tree or shrub species, present in mountain and/or marginal areas of Italy (Bounous and Peano, 1990). Hetsch and Schmitt (1993) identify a distinct Humulus lupus / S. nigra community from forest margins in northern Germany. Characteristic shrub associations dominated by S. nigra are successional to ruderal forest characterized by Acer spp., bottomland species and on dry sites, Robinia pseudoacacia (Fischer, 1975). In studies in a deciduous forest in southern Poland over 5 years, the browse of Euonymus europaea, S. nigra and Crataegus oxyacantha were most preferred by deer (Bobek et al., 1979). In a study of food requirements, S. nigra is also listed by Negrutiu and Boghez (1972) as one of the most important species for roe deer.

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
63 34 0 2300

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -39
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 4 20
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 15 31
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -17 7

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration00number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall4001800mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Summer
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aphis sambuci Herbivore Growing point/Stems
Placochela nigripes Herbivore Inflorescence

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Placochela nigripes induces galling of flower buds in S. nigra (Robbins, 1999). In Germany, a disease of S. nigra and S. racemosa was observed with foliar symptoms such as reddening, yellowing, reduced leaf size and premature leaf drop as well as dieback and decline. Mycoplasma-like organisms were detected in about 40% of affected plants (Lederer and Seemuller, 1991). Banerjee (1956) presents the biology of Auricularia auricula-judae (Linn.) Schoet. causing rot in S. nigra and describes the progress of decay in infected trees in Scotland, UK. Potential enemies to cultivated S. nigra in the Netherlands include the arthropod pest Synanthedon culiciformis. With respect to elderberry production, Muller (1977) describes difficulties in controlling Aphis sambuci using sprays.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page Birds feeding on the fruit are likely to be the main dispersal agents of seed, though other small mammals may also have a role. For example, increased gull colonization in offshore islands is thought to encourage the rapid dominance of S. nigra. Seed are likely to be dispersed along watercourses but their viability following immersion in water is not known. Intentional introduction is likely due to the commercial value of S. nigra and the availability as seed from mail order companies and various websites.

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
MailInternet Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx seeds
Fruits (inc. pods) seeds
Growing medium accompanying plants seeds
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants flowers; fruits; seeds; stems; whole plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches stems
True seeds (inc. grain) seeds
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Leaves
Wood

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) None
Crop production None
Environment (generally) None
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production Negative
Human health None
Livestock production None
Native fauna Positive
Native flora None
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Impact

Top of page There are no studies as to the economic effects of invasion by S. nigra. There are, however, positive impacts from commercial sale of the flowers, fruits and their processed products.

Environmental Impact

Top of page The effects of S. nigra invasion have not been quantified, but where they form dense stands along watercourse, they may be expected to have effects on local hydrology.

Impact: Biodiversity

Top of page The copious fruit production is a valuable source of food for birds and other wildlife, and as such, the presence of S. nigra will probably have only positive effects on fauna biodiversity, whereas effects on other plant species are unknown.

Social Impact

Top of page S. nigra is often well utilized by local people as valuable fruit and flower crop. In such contexts it has a positive social impact.

Risk and Impact Factors

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Uses

Top of page S. nigra has a wide range of uses. It is frequently cultivated across parts of Europe for elderberry production (Steffek, 2002). Fruits of the species are used for making confitures, jellies, juice and also for the extraction of dyestuffs (Bounous and Peano, 1990) and many cultivars of the species have been selected for these purposes (Smatana et al., 1988; Christensen, 1996; Kaack, 1997). The flowers of S. nigra are also used in the preparation of drinks and medicines (Pleva, 1982). Bridle and Timberlake (1997) and Bronnum-Hansen and Hansen (1983) identify S. nigra as a source of anthocyanin food colourant. The species has been planted as a garden tree for centuries, and as an ornamental, decorative plant for amenity purposes. It has also been planted for erosion control.

The wood of Sambucus nigra is heavy and quite durable, but poorly used due to the rather small dimensions of the timber. It has, however, been used as a source of sawn or hewn building timbers and for the production of exterior fittings: fences, woodware and for industrial and domestic woodware. Due to its whiteness, close grain and good cutting and polishing properties, the wood is very suitable for making pegs and other small wooden items including use by watchmakers and others concerned with delicate instruments (Metcalfe, 1948). It is sometimes used for fence poles in traditional rural economies. The pith from 1-year-old branches is used in microscopy for making sections of plants.

Dried fruits, flowers and cortex from this tree have been used as diaphoretic and diuretic medicines (Villar Perez et al., 1987). The medicinal properties of S. nigra and its toxicity have been known since antiquity, and have also been used as a source of natural pesticides. The medicinal properties of S. nigra are widely referred to in the literature. Products of S. nigra (sambucol) are natural remedies with antiviral properties, especially against different strains of influenza virus (Barak et al., 2001). Nemeth and Bernath (2001) list S. nigra among the main medicinal species collected from natural populations in Hungary. S. nigra is used in Turkish folk remedies for the treatment of various diseases which are thought to be inflammatory in nature (Yesilada et al., 1997). S. nigra is one of a list of plants identified by Benoit-Vical et al. (1996) that are frequently used to treat malaria. Based on a survey in the Lattari Mountains in Italy, S. nigra was identified as one of several species in which medicinal properties are of significance (Feo and Senatore, 1993). S. nigra is used in the treatment of oedematous swellings, dry coryza of infants, and respiratory problems (Parmar et al., 1993). Efremov et al. (1994) recommended commercial exploitation of S. nigra as a medicinal plant.

S. nigra is classified as a useful reservoir of aphid parasites with respect to management programmes (Stary and Neemec, 1986). Smith and Secoy (1981) also identify S. nigra as being used for agricultural pest control in western Europe before 1850. In a study of Central European forests on the ecological protection of forest against insect pests, S. nigra was found to be advantageous only against Epiblema nigricana (Turcek, 1963).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Revegetation

General

  • Ornamental

Materials

  • Pesticide
  • Poisonous to mammals
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Wood Products

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Roundwood

  • Posts

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Exterior fittings
  • Fences

Woodware

  • Brushes
  • Cutlery
  • Industrial and domestic woodware
  • Tool handles

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page The North American native S. canadensis is closely related to S. nigra but may be separated by the teeth of the leaves being smaller and sharper than in S. nigra and the leaf points attenuated. The hummocky inflorescence in the later and protracted flowering period is also very characteristic (Wiggington and Graham, 1981).

Prevention and Control

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Mechanical Control

Clive (1964) indicates that the mechanical crushing of dense scrub, in which S. nigra was an element, is a viable option for scrub control. In winter cereal crops it was found that S. nigra were favoured by reduced cultivation and by direct drilling (Pollard and Cussans, 1981), suggesting that increasing cultivation was required to reduce the incidence of this weed.

Chemical Control

Growth suppression was pronounced in young S. nigra plants treated with CCC (Jasa, 1972), controlled by ammonium sulphamate (Bergmann, 1968) and considerable die-back to complete root kill with increasing doses of picloram. Low-volume applications of a new herbicide, 1:1 -ethylene-2:2 -dipyrilium dibromide gave good top-kill of various brush species, including S. nigra, though there was basal regeneration (Brian et al., 1958). S. nigra can be controlled by cutting down or burning.

Biological Control

There are no records of biological control being employed on S. nigra.

Integrated Control

Regular cutting proved satisfactory for reducing dominant tall vegetation if combined with selective herbicides for problem weeds such as S. nigra (Worrall and Palmer, 1988).

References

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Banerjee, S, 1956. On the biology of Auricularia auricula judae (Linn.) Schoet. causing rot in Elder (Sambucus nigra L.). In: Proceedings of the National Institute of Sciences of India, New Delhi, 22(6).

Barak V, Halperin T, Kalickman I, 2001. The effect of Sambucol, a black elderberry based, natural product, on the production of human cytokines: I. Inflammatory cytokines. European Cytokine Network, 12(2):290-296.

Benoit-Vical F, Valentin A, Pelissier Y, Marion C, Castel D, Milhau M, Mallie M, Bastide JM, Diafouka F, Kone Bamba D, Malan A, Kone M, Loukou Y, Monet D, Ake Assi L, Yapo A, 1996. In vitro confirmation of the antimalarial activity of some plants of African origin used in traditional medicine. Medecine d'Afrique Noire, 43(7):393-400.

Bergmann, JH, 1968. Control of coppice shoots and dwarf shrubs with sulphamate. Sozial. Forstw., Berl. 18(2):55-57.

Bobek B, Perzanowski K, Siwanowicz J, Zielinski J, 1979. Deer pressure on forage in a deciduous forest. Oikos, 32(3):373-380.

Boratynski A, Browicz K, Zielinski J, 1992. Chorology of trees and shrubs in Greece. Ed. 2, 286 pp.; 6 pp. of ref. Poznan/Kórnik, Poland: Institute of Dendrology.

Bounous G, Peano C, 1990. Forgotten fruits. [Frutti dimenticati.] Monti e Boschi, 41(4):23-32; 26 ref.

Bounous G, Peano C, 1990. Forgotten fruits. Monti e Boschi, 41(4):23-32.

Brian, RC, Homer, RF, Stubbs, J, 1958. A new herbicide 1:1 ethylene 2:2 dipyrilium dibromide. Nature, Lond. 181:446-447.

Bridle P, Timberlake CF, 1997. Anthocyanins as natural food colours - selected aspects. Food Chemistry, 58(1/2):103-109.

Bronnum-Hansen K, Hansen SH, 1983. High performance liquid chromatographic separation of anthocyanins of Sambucus nigra L. Journal of Chromatography, 262:385-392.

Browicz K, 1982. Chorology of trees and shrubs in South-West Asia and adjacent regions. Vol. 1, 172pp.; Limited edition of 400 copies; 259 ref. Warszawa, Poznan, Poland: Institute of Dendrology, Polish Academy of Sciences.

Christensen JV, 1996. Fruit and berry varieties for the garden [Sorter af frugt og baer til haven.]. Gron Viden, Havebrug, No. 93: 20 pp.

Christensen JV, 1996. Fruit and berry varieties for the garden. Gron Viden, Havebrug, 93:20.

Clive PJB, 1964. Crushing scrub. Quarterly Journal of Forestry, 58(2):163-165.

Condon FA, Jarvis PJ, 1989. Trees and shrubs in the hedgerows of Knock, Co Mayo, Western Ireland. Irish Naturalists' Journal, 23(1):12-16.

Crepinsek Z, Kajfez-Bogataj L, Bergant K, 2002. Correlation between spring phenophases and North Atlantic Oscillation index in Slovenia. Zbornik Biotehnis^hacek~ke Fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani. Kmetijstvo, 79(1):89-98; 19 ref.

Decadns T, Dutoit T, Alard D, 1997. Earthworm community characteristics during afforestation of abandoned chalk grasslands (Upper Normandy, France). European Journal of Soil Biology, 33(1):1-11; 40 ref.

Decaens T, Dutoit T, Alard D, 1997. Earthworm community characteristics during afforestation of abandoned chalk grasslands (Upper Normandy, France). European Journal of Soil Biology, 33(1):1-11.

Duvigneaud P, Brichard C, Timperman J, 1981. A 'poplar plantation' biogeocenosis in the Brussels ecosystem. I Introduction, II Biomass and productivity. [Une biogeocenose 'plantation de Populus' dans l'ecosysteme Bruxellois. I Introduction, II Phytomasses et productivites.] Bulletin Trimestriel, Centre de Populiculture du Hainaut, No. 4, 24-35.

Duvigneaud P, Brichard C, Timperman J, 1981. A 'poplar plantation' biogeocenosis in the Brussels ecosystem. I Introduction, II Biomass and productivity. Bulletin Trimestriel, Centre de Populiculture du Hainaut, 4:24-35.

Efremov AP, Luk' yanov OL, Zaiko LN, Semenyuk NV, 1994. Reserves of raw material of wild growing medicinal plants between rivers Laba and Urup (Krasnodarskii Krai). Rastitel'nye Resursy, 30(1/2):65-72.

EichstSdt U, Mahn EG, 1993. Comparative vegetation studies on windbreak hedges and other types of hedge on the Querfurt plateau (dry region of central Germany). Phytocoenologia, 23:519-537; 25 ref.

Escudero A, Arco JM del, Sanz IC, Ayala J, Del Arco JM, 1992. Effects of leaf longevity and retranslocation efficiency on the retention time of nutrients in the leaf biomass of different woody species. Oecologia, 90(1):80-87.

Feo V de, Senatore F, 1993. Medicinal plants and phytotherapy in the Amalfitan Coast, Salerno Province, Campania, Southern Italy. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 39(1):39-51.

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