Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Salvia splendens
(scarlet sage)

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Datasheet

Salvia splendens (scarlet sage)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 08 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Documented Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Salvia splendens
  • Preferred Common Name
  • scarlet sage
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • S. splendens is a tender perennial plant listed as a casual alien, garden thug, naturalized, and a weed in the Global Compendium of Weeds (

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Salvia splendens Sellow ex Schult.

Preferred Common Name

  • scarlet sage

Other Scientific Names

  • Fenixanthes splendens (Sellow ex Schult.) Raf.
  • Jungia splendens (Sellow ex Schult.) Soják
  • Salvia brasiliensis Spreng.

International Common Names

  • English: bonfire salvia
  • Spanish: Coral
  • French: sauge écarlante; sauge écarlate; sauge rouge
  • Chinese: yi chuan hong

Local Common Names

  • Costa Rica: chirrite
  • Cuba: banderilla; banderilla colorade; mimos
  • Czech Republic: salvej zariva; salvia ohniva
  • El Salvador: chulita
  • Germany: Pracht- Salbei; Salvie
  • Guatemala: julia; julita
  • Jamaica: red salvia
  • Korea, Republic of: kkaekkot
  • Myanmar: kalya-ni
  • Netherlands: salie, vuur-
  • Puerto Rico: salvia

EPPO code

  • SALSP (Salvia splendens)

Summary of Invasiveness

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S. splendens is a tender perennial plant listed as a casual alien, garden thug, naturalized, and a weed in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). It is not currently known to be invasive and is considered a low risk species (Gilman and Howe, 1999; PIER, 2014). The species forms clumps where it grows freely and can tolerate shade and a wide range of soil types, but does not survive winters in temperate regions and is usually cultivated as an annual (Floridata, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014a). It is native to Brazil and possibly Colombia but has been introduced around the world as an ornamental and is known to have escaped cultivation in Puerto Rico and Europe (Liogier and Martorell, 2000; DAISIE, 2014). It is reported as a weed in central Africa and Australia (Randall, 2012). Considering these traits, and that other members of this genus have proved to be invasive (Weber, 2005; PIER, 2014), this species could become a pest in the future.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Lamiales
  •                         Family: Lamiaceae
  •                             Genus: Salvia
  •                                 Species: Salvia splendens

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The Lamiacae, or mint family, is a family of herbs, shrubs, and trees comprising about 200 genera and 3200 species, many with a long history of medicinal and food use (University of Hawaii, 2014). This family includes some of the most well-known herbs containing essential oils including lavender, sage, basil, mint and oregano. Many Lamiaceae species have square stems (although square stems are also found in other families), aromatic aerial parts when crushed, simple opposite leaves, and two-lipped flowers.

Consisting of between 700 and 900 species including the sage species, Salvia is the largest genus of the Lamiaceae family, being nearly cosmopolitan but primarily of tropical and subtropical regions (Whistler, 2000; Wagner and Lorence, 2014). Many Salvia species are grown for their aromatic leaves to be used in fragrances and cooking, for medicinal purposes, and as ornamentals (Whistler, 2000). The genus name derives from the Greek word ‘salve’, meaning to heal or save, in reference to the reputed curative properties which genus members have been famous for since Antiquity.

The species S. splendens is commonly called ‘scarlet sage’ for its strikingly red flowers, although many cultivars now exist with flowers in a wide range of colors including purple, pink, salmon, and white (Gilman and Howe, 1999). 

Description

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Tender perennial herb, suffruticose, to 90 cm tall. Petiole 3-4.5 cm, glabrous; leaf blade ovate to triangular-ovate, 2.5-7 × 2-4.5 cm, glabrous, abaxially glandular, base truncate or ± rounded, margin serrate, apex acuminate. 2-6-flowered, in racemes to 20 cm; bracts ovate, red, enveloping flowers in bud, apex caudate-acuminate. Pedicel 4-7 mm, red glandular villous. Calyx red, campanulate, ca. 1.6 cm in flower, dilated to 2 cm after anthesis, red glandular, veins villous, 2-lipped to ca. 1/3 its length; upper lip triangular-ovate, 5-6 × 10 mm, apex mucronate; lower lip slightly longer than upper, deeply 2-toothed, teeth triangular. Corolla scarlet, 4-4.2 cm, pubescent; tube slightly dilated at throat; upper lip straight, somewhat concave, oblong, 8-9 × ca. 4 mm; lower lip shorter than upper. Filaments ca. 5 mm; connectives ca. 1.3 cm. Nutlets dark brown, ellipsoid, ca. 3.5 mm, apex irregularly pleated, margin (or midvein) narrowly winged. Flowers March-October [Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014].

Plant Type

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Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

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S. splendens is native to Brazil (Forzza et al., 2014), and possibly Colombia (Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014) although it has also been reported as introduced to Colombia (Govaerts, 2014). The species is an introduced species to the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012), central Africa (Randall, 2012) and most tropical and temperate climates (Flora Mesoamericana, 2014). It is cultivated in the Pacific region.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresent only in captivity/cultivationFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
IndiaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
JapanPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012Naturalised
MyanmarPresent only in captivity/cultivationKress et al., 2003
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedPelser et al., 2014
SingaporePresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al., 2009Cultivated only

Africa

Equatorial GuineaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014Gulf of Guinea Is.
GhanaPresentIntroducedBurkhill, 1985
NigeriaPresentIntroducedBurkhill, 1985

North America

MexicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; Flora Mesoamericana, 2014; Govaerts, 2014
USAPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
-ConnecticutPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-FloridaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFloridata, 2014; Govaerts, 2014
-MassachusettsPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-OhioPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-UtahPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-WisconsinPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; Govaerts, 2014
Costa RicaPresentFlora Mesoamericana, 2014; Govaerts, 2014
CubaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; Govaerts, 2014
El SalvadorPresentFlora Mesoamericana, 2014; Govaerts, 2014
GuatemalaPresentFlora Mesoamericana, 2014; Govaerts, 2014
HondurasPresentFlora Mesoamericana, 2014; Govaerts, 2014
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; Govaerts, 2014
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
NicaraguaPresentFlora Mesoamericana, 2014; Govaerts, 2014
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedLiogier and Martorell, 2000; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; Govaerts, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014Cultivation escape

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014Northeastern and northwestern Argentina
BoliviaPresent only in captivity/cultivationBolivia Checklist, 2014La Paz, Santa Cruz, Cochabamba
BrazilPresentNativeLiogier and Martorell, 2000; Forzza et al., 2014; Govaerts, 2014
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNativeForzza et al., 2014South east and Atlantic forest
ColombiaPresent only in captivity/cultivationNativeGovaerts, 2014; Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014Altiplanos de Santa Rosa de Osos, Rionegro y Sonsón, Valle del Rio Porce, Vertiente oriental de la Cordillera Occidental
EcuadorPresent only in captivity/cultivationVascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014
PeruPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014; Peru Checklist, 2014
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014

Europe

Czech RepublicPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012; DAISIE, 2014; Govaerts, 2014Casual alien
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
PortugalPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AzoresPresentIntroduced Not invasive DAISIE, 2014
SpainPresentIntroduced Not invasive DAISIE, 2014
UkrainePresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012Naturalised
FijiPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014

History of Introduction and Spread

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S. splendens is native to southeastern Brazil, but was introduced elsewhere for use as an ornamental, and today is commonly grown in most tropical and temperate regions worldwide (Flora Mesoamericana, 2014). In Europe the species was reportedly introduced to Italy and the Czech Republic sometime in the sixteenth century (DAISIE, 2014), and was being cultivated in English hothouses and gardens by 1832 (Paxton and Harrison, 1832). The species has been present in the West Indies since at least 1911, as it was reportedly cultivated in Jayuya, Puerto Rico in volume 4 of Urban’s work on the Antilles (Urban, 1898-1928), and specimens of S. splendens from Puerto Rico were collected in the early twentieth century (Smithsonian Herbarium Collections).

Risk of Introduction

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S. splendens is not known to be invasive (Gilman and Howe, 1999), but is weedy in central Africa and South-Eastern Australian Bushland (Randall, 2012) and a cultivation escape in Puerto Rico (Liogier and Martorell, 2000) as well as various parts of Europe (DAISIE, 2014). The species is listed as a casual alien, garden thug, naturalized, and a weed in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). It forms clumps where it grows freely and can tolerate shade and a wide range of soil types, but does not survive winters in temperate regions and is usually cultivated as an annual (Floridata, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014a). A recent risk assessment for S. splendens gave the species a low risk score of 4 (score of 6 or higher = reject for import, likely to be an environmental pest) (PIER, 2014), but risk of introduction may rise in time considering its demonstrated invasive characteristics, its wide distribution beyond its native range, and the fact that other members of this genus have proved to be invasive (Weber, 2005; PIER, 2014).

Habitat

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S. splendens has long been widely cultivated in urban areas such as botanical and home gardens, hothouses, roadsides and curbs (Paxton and Harrison, 1832; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014a; Floridata, 2014). Outside of cultivation, the species has been found in disturbed areas (Peru Checklist, 2014) and has reportedly escaped to hillsides in Puerto Rico (Liogier and Martorell, 2000). It occurs in pre-montane and lower montane rainforests in Colombia and in the Yungas vegetation zone in Bolivia (Bolivia Checklist, 2014; Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014). 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Gametophytic count = 8, 22; sporophytic count = 32, 44 (IPCN Chromosome Reports, 2014). Many cultivars of the species exist as a result of horticultural research, with flowers not only red but purple, white, and shades between (Whistler, 2000; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014a).

Reproductive Biology

S. splendens reproduces by seeds.

Environmental Requirements

S. splendens is moderately drought tolerant and can grow in a range of soil types from clay and sand, to acidic and loam (Gilman and Howe, 1999). The species thrives in full sun in cooler climates but tolerates shade, especially in areas with very hot summers (Gilman and Howe, 1999; Floridata, 2014). It prefers average to slightly dry, well-drained soil and although a tender perennial is usually cultivated as an annual in the USA as it can only survive light freezes (Whistler, 2000; Floridata, 2014).

The species generally grows at premontane and lower montane elevations, between 0 and 3000 m (Flora Mesoamericana, 2014). In Antioquia, Colombia the species occurs between elevations of 1000 and 2000 m (Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014), while in Ecuador the species is cultivated at elevations between 1000 and 1500 m (Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014). In the Yungas, the species has been reported to occur at elevations of 1500–2000 m (Bolivia Checklist, 2014), and at higher elevations of 2000-2500 m in Peru (Peru Checklist, 2014). In Colombia and Puerto Rico the species reportedly grows on hillsides and slopes (Liogier and Martorell, 2000; Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Natural enemies include slugs, which eat foliage and can result in poor plant growth; aphids, which suck plant juices and can coat the plant’s leaves with sticky honeydew; and sweet potato whiteflies, which may cause mild to severe infestations (Gilman and Howe, 1999).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Due to its wide popularity as a cultivated ornamental, S. splendens has spread beyond its native South American range primarily through cultivation escape, as in the case of Puerto Rico (Liogier and Martorell, 2000). In Europe the species was reportedly introduced to Italy and the Czech Republic sometime in the sixteenth century; in the Czech Republic, it was spread by way of animals, plants and their pests that were intentionally brought to the country in captivity, farm, field or laboratory and then escaped or were released unintentionally to the wild (DAISIE, 2014). The species was also unintentionally released into the wild from cultivation in the Azores, Portugal, and in Spain the species accidentally spread through live food trade, animals and plants used for ornamental purposes in parks and gardening (DAISIE, 2014). It has been cultivated in hothouses and gardens in England since at least 1832 (Paxton and Harrison, 1832) and is cultivated across China (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014), the Asia Pacific (Chong et al., 2009) and other parts of South and Central America (Flora Mesoamericana, 2014).

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Negative

Impact: Environmental

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In cultivation, S. splendens is generally considered an easily controllable annual plant (Floridata, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014a), although it does form clumps and has been known to escape from cultivation and naturalize in introduced environments (Liogier and Martorell, 2000; Whistler, 2000; Randall, 2012; DAISIE, 2014). There have been no significant negative environmental impacts reported, but risk may rise in time considering the species’ continued popularity as an ornamental around the world.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Fast growing
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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S. splendens has been introduced to tropical and temperate regions around the world as an ornamental plant (Whistler, 2000; Govaerts, 2014). 

Uses List

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General

  • Ornamental

Ornamental

  • Potted plant

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Because S. splendens is considered low risk and has not been reported to be invasive, there is a lack of information on methods of prevention and control. Considering its wide distribution due to its use as an ornamental, and that other members of this genus have proved to be invasive (Weber, 2003; PIER, 2014), this species could become a pest in the future.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Bolivia Checklist, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Bolivia, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=13

Burkhill HM, 1985. The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa, Volume 3. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.

Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore. National University of Singapore, Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, 273 pp.

DAISIE, 2014. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

Flora Mesoamericana, 2014. Flora Mesoamericana. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FM

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Floridata, 2014. FLORIDATAbase website. Tallahassee, Florida, USA: Floridata.com. http://www.floridata.com/

Forzza RC; Leitman PM; Costa AF; Carvalho Jr AA, et al. , 2014. List of species of the Flora of Brazil (Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br

Gilman EF; Howe T, 1999. Salvia Splendens, Fact Sheet FPS-528., USA: Environmental Horticulture Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS), University of Florida. http://hort.ifas.ufl.edu/database/documents/pdf/shrub_fact_sheets/salspla.pdf

Govaerts R, 2014. World Checklist of Lamiaceae. Richmond, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

IPCN Chromosome Reports, 2014. Index to Plant Chromosome Numbers (IPCN), Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/IPCN

Kress WJ; Defilipps RA; Farr E; Kyi DYY, 2003. A checklist of the trees, shrubs, herbs, and climbers of Myanmar. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 45:1-590.

Liogier HA; Martorell LF, 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, 2nd edition revised. San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico, 382 pp.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015. Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder. St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/plantfinder/plantfindersearch.aspx

Paxton J; Harrison J, 1832. The Horticultural Register and General Magazine, Vol 1. Sheffield, UK: Harfield and Jones.

Pelser PB; Barcelona JF; Nickrent DL, 2014. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Peru Checklist, 2014. The Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PEC

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

University of Hawaii, 2014. Department of Botany Vascular Plant Family Access Page: Lamiaceae (Labiatae). Honolulu, USA: University of Hawaii. http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/lami.htm

Urban I, 1898-1928. Symbolae Antillanae: Seu fundamenta florae Indiae Occidentalis. Berolini, Germany: Fratres Borntraeger.

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of the Department of Antioquia (Colombia), Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CV

Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CE

Wagner WL; Lorence DH, 2014. Flora of the Marquesas Islands website. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/index.htm

Weber E, 2003. Invasive Plant Species of the World. A Reference Guide to Environmental Weeds. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Whistler WA, 2000. Tropical ornamentals. Portland, Oregon, USA: Timber Press.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm
Flora of the Marquesas Islandshttp://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/query.cfm
Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Familieshttp://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
Plants of Myanmarhttp://botany.si.edu/myanmar/

Contributors

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24/08/2014 Original text by:

Marianne Jennifer Datiles, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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