Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Parasaissetia nigra
(pomegranate scale)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Parasaissetia nigra (pomegranate scale)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Parasaissetia nigra
  • Preferred Common Name
  • pomegranate scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

    If you can supply pictures for this datasheet please contact:

    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner, 1861)

Preferred Common Name

  • pomegranate scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Lecanium begoniae Douglas, 1892
  • Lecanium crassum Green, 1930
  • Lecanium depressum Targioni Tozzetti, 1867
  • Lecanium nigrum Nietner, 1861
  • Lecanium sideroxylium Kuwana, 1909
  • Lecanium signatum Newstead, 1917
  • Saissetia cuneiformis Leonardi, 1913
  • Saissetia depressa
  • Saissetia nigra (Nietner)
  • Saissetia perseae Brain, 1920

International Common Names

  • English: black coffee scale; brown scale; Hibiscus shield scale; nigra scale
  • Spanish: escama negra; escama ovalada; queresa negra del cheremoyo
  • French: cochenille brune

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Schildlaus, Schwarze Napf-; Schwarze Napfschildlaus
  • Netherlands: zwarte dopluis; zwarte schildluis

EPPO code

  • SAISNI (Parasaissetia nigra)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Coccidae
  •                                     Genus: Parasaissetia
  •                                         Species: Parasaissetia nigra

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresent
BeninPresent
Burkina FasoPresent
Cabo VerdePresent
CameroonPresent
ChadPresent
ComorosPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
Congo, Republic of thePresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
EgyptPresent
EritreaPresent
GhanaPresent
GuineaPresent
KenyaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MaliPresent
MauritiusPresent
MozambiquePresent
NamibiaPresent
NigeriaPresent
RéunionPresent
Saint HelenaPresent
São Tomé and PríncipePresent
SenegalPresent
SeychellesPresent
Sierra LeonePresent
South AfricaPresent, Widespread
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent
-Zanzibar IslandPresent
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

BangladeshPresent
BhutanPresent
BruneiPresent
ChinaPresent
-YunnanPresent
Cocos IslandsPresent
Hong KongPresent, Few occurrences
IndiaPresent
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresent
-AssamPresent
-BiharPresent
-GujaratPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-PunjabPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-TripuraPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-JavaPresent
-SulawesiPresent
-SumatraPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent
LaosPresent
MalaysiaPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SabahPresent
-SarawakPresent
MaldivesPresent
MongoliaPresent
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent
SingaporePresent
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanAbsent, Formerly present
ThailandPresent
VietnamPresent
YemenPresent, Few occurrences

Europe

AustriaAbsent
BelgiumAbsent, Formerly present
DenmarkAbsent, Formerly present
FrancePresent, Localized
GermanyAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
GreecePresentOriginal citation: Tsagkarakis et al. (2016)
ItalyAbsent, Formerly present
-SicilyPresent
NetherlandsPresent, Few occurrences
PortugalPresent, Localized
-AzoresPresent, Few occurrences
-MadeiraPresent, Widespread
SloveniaAbsent
SpainPresent, Localized
-Canary IslandsPresent, Localized
United KingdomAbsent, Formerly present
-EnglandAbsent, Formerly present

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresent
BarbadosPresent
BermudaPresent
British Virgin IslandsPresent
CanadaAbsent, Formerly present
-AlbertaAbsent, Formerly present
Cayman IslandsPresent
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
Dominican RepublicPresent
El SalvadorPresent
GrenadaPresent
GuadeloupePresent
GuatemalaPresent
HondurasPresent
JamaicaPresent
MartiniquePresent
MexicoPresent
NicaraguaPresent
PanamaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
Saint LuciaPresent
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, Few occurrences
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresent
United StatesPresent, Localized
-AlabamaPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-FloridaPresent
-HawaiiPresent
-KansasPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MarylandPresent
-MissouriPresent
-New MexicoPresent
-New YorkPresent
-OhioPresent
-OklahomaPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-TexasPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-WashingtonAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)

Oceania

American SamoaPresent
AustraliaPresent, Few occurrences
-New South WalesPresent
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
Cook IslandsPresent
Federated States of MicronesiaPresent
FijiPresent
French PolynesiaPresent
GuamPresent
KiribatiPresent
Marshall IslandsPresent, Localized
NauruPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
New ZealandPresent, Widespread
NiuePresent
Norfolk IslandPresent
PalauPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
SamoaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresent
TongaPresent
TuvaluPresent
VanuatuPresent
Wallis and FutunaPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent, Few occurrences
-Minas GeraisPresent, Few occurrences
-ParaPresentBelém and Tomé-Açu, metropolitan and Northeast Pará mesoregions
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ChilePresentIntroduced2017
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent, Localized
French GuianaPresent
GuyanaPresent
PeruPresent
SurinameAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
VenezuelaPresent

Growth Stages

Top of page
Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / external feeding
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / stunting or rosetting

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anysis saissetiae Parasite Eggs
Blastobasis lecaniella Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chilocorus nigrita Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chilocorus nigritus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccophagus caridei Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Coccophagus ceroplastae Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Coccophagus cowperi Parasite Adults/Nymphs California shrubs
Coccophagus indefinitus Parasite Myartseva et al. (2014)
Coccophagus lycimnia Parasite Adults/Nymphs Guam
Coccophagus minor Parasite Myartseva et al. (2014)
Coccophagus ochraceus Parasite Nymphs
Coccophagus pulvinariae Parasite Adults/Nymphs California shrubs
Coccophagus rusti Parasite Adults/Nymphs Guam
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Predator
Diadiplosis cocci Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
Dicrodiplosis fulva Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
Diversinervus elegans Parasite Nymphs California Citrus
Eccopsia bodkini Predator Adults/Nymphs
Halmus chalybeus Predator Adults/Nymphs Guam
Lecanobius cockerellii Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Metaphycus flavus Parasite USA Citrus
Metaphycus helvolus Parasite Nymphs California; Guam; Hawaii ornamental plants; shrubs
Metaphycus lounsburyi Parasite Guam
Metaphycus luteolus Parasite Guam
Metaphycus parasaissetiae Parasite Wen et al. (2009)
Metaphycus stanleyi Parasite Nymphs
Microterys newcombi Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Rhyzobius lophanthae Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
Rhyzobius ventralis Parasite Adults/Eggs/Nymphs
Scutellista caerulea Parasite Eggs Guam; Hawaii ornamental plants
Vitula toboga Predator Adults/Nymphs

References

Top of page

Almeida, L. F. V., Peronti, A. L. B. G., Martinelli, N. M., Wolff, V. R. S., 2018. A survey of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in citrus orchards in São Paulo, Brazil. Florida Entomologist, 101(3), 353-363. http://www.bioone.org/loi/flen doi: 10.1653/024.101.0324

Bartlett BR, 1978. Coccidae. In: Clausen CP, ed. Introduced parasites and predators of arthropod pests and weeds; a world review. Agriculture Handbook No. 480. Washington D.C., USA: United States Department of Agriculture, 57-74

Ben-Dov Y, 1978. Taxonomy of the nigra scale Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner) (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae), with observations on mass rearing and parasites of an Israeli strain. Phytoparasitica, 6(3):115-127

Ben-Dov Y, 1993. A systematic catalogue of the soft scale insects of the world (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Gainesville, USA: Sandhill Crane Press, Inc., 536 pp

CABI, EPPO, 1997. Parasaissetia nigra. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, December. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 573

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp

Crouch TE, Crouch NR, 2001. Insect infestations on leaves of the ethnomedicinal Pepper-bark tree Warburgia salutaris (Canellaceae). Durban Museum Novitates, 26:1-5

De Lotto G, 1967. The soft scales (Homoptera: Coccidae) of South Africa. I. South African Journal of Agricultural Science, 10:781-810

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Flanders SE, 1959. Biological control of Saissetia nigra (Nietn.) in California. Journal of Economic Entomology, 54:596-600

Germain JF, Bertaux F, 2003. Parasaissetia nigra, unknown host on the Cote d'Azur. (Parasaissetia nigra, hôte méconnu sur la Côte d'Azur.) PHM Revue Horticole, No.447:42-44

Gill RJ, 1988. The scale insects of California. Part 1. The soft scales (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). Technical Services in Agricultural Biosystematics and Plant Pathology. California Department of Food and Agriculture, 1:1-132

Granadino CA, Cave RD, 1997. Within-tree distribution of seven insect pests of soursop (Annona muricata) in Honduras. CEIBA, 38(2):161-166

Hammon AB, Williams ML, 1984. The soft scale insects of Florida (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas, 11:1-94

Jadav SS, Ajri DS, 1985. Chemical control of scale insects on pomegranate in Maharashtra. Indian Journal of Entomology, 47:63-65

Jadhav SS, Ajri DS, 1984. Life history of Scutellista cyanea an external egg parasite of the pomegranate scale. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities, 9(3):248-249

Li JiaZhi, Zhang ChunXia, Li GuoHua, 2006. Aschersonia kawakamii parasitizing in Parasaissetia nigra. Journal of Yunnan Agricultural University, 21(5):600-602

Mani M, Krishnamoorthy A, 1999. The nigra scale, Parasaissetia nigra and its natural enemy on custard apple in Karnataka. Insect Environment, 5(1):20

Mestre Novoa N, Hamon AB, BaróOviedo I, Reyes Hernández M, 2001. New records of Coccoidea (Homoptera: Sternorrhyncha) for Cuba. (Nuevos registros de Coccoidea (Homoptera: Sternorrhyncha) para Cuba.) Insecta Mundi, 15(1):59-61

Montiero-Guimaraes JA, 1973. Catalogo das pragas das culturas em Portugal continental (Edicao provisoria). Volume I Insecta: Pequenas Ordens e Coccoidea. Portugal: Direcao-geral dos Servicos Agricolas (Laboratorio de Fitofarmacologia) Comissao reguladora dos produtos quimicos e Farmaceuticos

Muniappan R, Watson GW, Vaughan L, Gilbertson R, Noussourou M, 2012. New records of mealybugs, scale insects, and whiteflies (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) from Mali and Senegal. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology, 28(1):1-7. http://scentsoc.org/Volumes/JAUE/28/28001.pdf

Myartseva SN, Ruíz-Cancino E, Coronado-Blanco JM, 2014. Parasaissetia nigra (Hemiptera: Coccidae) and its parasitoids from the genus Coccophagus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), with description of a new species from Tamaulipas, México. Florida Entomologist, 97(3):1015-1020. http://www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/

Myartseva SN, Ruiz-Cancino E, Coronado-Blanco JM, 2014. Two new species of the genus Coccophagus Westwood, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) from the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico. (Dos especies nuevas del género Coccophagus Westwood, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) del Estado de Tamaulipas, México.) Acta Zoologica Mexicana, 30(1):135-143. http://www1.inecol.edu.mx/azm/AZM30(1)-2014/azm-30-1-10-Myartseva-et-al.pdf

Rani BJ, Sridhar V, 2005. Record of arthropod pests on Kalmegh, Andrographis paniculata - an important medicinal plant. Insect Environment, 11(2):89-91

Shevale BS, Kaulgud SN, 1998. Population dynamics of pests of pomegranate Punica granatum Linnaeus. In: Advances in IPM for horticultural crops. Proceedings of the First National Symposium on Pest Management in Horticultural Crops: environmental implications and thrusts, Bangalore, India, 15-17 October 1997 [ed. by Reddy PP, Kumar NKK, Verghese A] Bangalore, India: Association for Advancement of Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, 47-51

Shivaramakrishnan VR, Nagaveni HC, Rajamuthukrishnan, 1987. Poor seed setting in sandal (Santalum album L.). Myforest, 23(2;4):101-103;243-244

Shree MP, Manjunatha S, 2000. Incidence of black scale insects (Saissetia nigra, N.) infesting mulberry in Kanakapura taluk (Bangalore Rural District, Karnataka State). Entomon, 25(2):91-96

Simões AMA, Cecílio A, Ilharco FA, Aguiar MF, Franco JC, 2006. New records of hymenopteran parasitoid species from citrus orchards in Terceira Island (Azores, Portugal). Bulletin OILB/SROP, 29(3):189-193

Smith RH, 1944. Bionomics and control of the nigra scale, Saissetia nigra. Hilgardia, 16:225-288

Tang FD, 1991. The Coccidae of China. Taiyuan, China: Shanxi United Universities Press

Wang Sen, Pan XiaoFang, Li ZhenXia, 2005. The leading pests for Manilkara zapota and their control. South China Fruits, No.4:48-49

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp

Waterhouse DF, Norris KR, 1987. Biological control: Pacific prospects. viii + 454pp

Watson GW, Ooi PAC, Girling DJ, 1995. Insects on plants in the Maldives and their management. Ascot, UK: International Institute of Biological Control

Wen LiNa, Fu YueGuan, Zhang FangPing, Jin QiAn, Zhang JingBao, 2009. Bionomics of Metaphycus parasaissetiae Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), a parasitoid of Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) adults. Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 25(2):112-119

Williams DJ, Watson GW, 1990. The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 267 pp

Wolff VRS, Kondo T, Peronti ALBG, Noronha ACS, 2016. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) in Brazil. Neotropical Entomology, 45(3):274-279. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13744-016-0365-2

Zhang YanZhou, Huang DaWei, Fu YueGuan, Peng ZhengQiang, 2007. A new species of Metaphycus Mercet (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from China, parasitoid of Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner) (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Entomological News, 118(1):68-72. http://www.acnatsci.org/hosted/aes

Distribution References

Almeida L F V, Peronti A L B G, Martinelli N M, Wolff V R S, 2018. A survey of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in citrus orchards in São Paulo, Brazil. Florida Entomologist. 101 (3), 353-363. http://www.bioone.org/loi/flen DOI:10.1653/024.101.0324

Amouroux P, Crochard D, Germain J F, Correa M, Ampuero J, Groussier G, Kreiter P, Malausa T, Zaviezo T, 2017. Genetic diversity of armored scales (Hemiptera: diaspididae) and soft scales (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in Chile. Scientific Reports. 7 (1), 2014. DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-01997-6

Ben-Dov Y, 1993. A systematic catalogue of the soft scale insects of the world (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Gainesville, USA: Sandhill Crane Press, Inc. xxviii + 536 pp.

CABI, EPPO, 1997. Parasaissetia nigra. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 573. DOI:10.1079/DMPP/20066600573

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cham A K, Luna-Esquivel G, Robles-Bermúdez A, Ríos-Velasco C, Coronado-Blanco J M, Cambero-Campos O J, 2019. Insects associated with the soursop (Annona muricata L.) crop in Nayarit, Mexico. Florida Entomologist. 102 (2), 359-365. DOI:10.1653/024.102.0211

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

Kondo T, Rodríguez J M M, Díaz M F, Luna O J D, Goenaga E P, 2018. Description of two new species of Cryptinglisia Cockerell (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Coccidae) associated with rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) in Colombia. Zootaxa. 4420 (3), 379-390. DOI:10.11646/zootaxa.4420.3.4

Kotikal Y K, Ananda N, Balikai R A, 2011. Seasonal incidence of major sucking pests of pomegranate and their relation with weather parameters in India. Acta Horticulturae. 589-596. http://www.actahort.org/books/890/890_83.htm

Mazzeo G, Nucifora S, Longo S, 2020. Definitive confirmation of establishment of Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner) (Hemiptera, Coccidae) in Sicily (Italy), with notes on its association with a new host, Syzygium myrtifolium Walp. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin. 50 (2), 295-298. DOI:10.1111/epp.12659

Montiero-Guimaraes JA, 1973. (Catalogo das pragas das culturas em Portugal continental (Edicao provisoria)). In: Insecta: Pequenas Ordens e Coccoidea. Portugal: Direcao-geral dos Servicos Agricolas (Laboratorio de Fitofarmacologia) Comissao reguladora dos produtos quimicos e Farmaceuticos, I

Muniappan R, Watson G W, Vaughan L, Gilbertson R, Noussourou M, 2012. New records of mealybugs, scale insects, and whiteflies (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) from Mali and Senegal. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology. 28 (1), 1-7. http://scentsoc.org/Volumes/JAUE/28/28001.pdf DOI:10.3954/1523-5475-28.1.1

NHM, 1906. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1922. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1925. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1928. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1934. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1935. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1938. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1940. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1944. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1945. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1948. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1952. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1954. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1956. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1959. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1960. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1962. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1963. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1964. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1965. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1967. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1970. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1971. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1973. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1975. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1977. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1979. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1980. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1981. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1983. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1984. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1985. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1986. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1987. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1988. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1989. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1990. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1991. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1992. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1993. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1996. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1997. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, Undated. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NPPO of the Netherlands, 2013. Pest status of harmful organisms in the Netherlands., Wageningen, Netherlands:

Rakimov A, Ben-Dov Y, White V, Hoffmann A A, 2013. Soft scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) on grapevines in Australia. Australian Journal of Entomology. 52 (4), 371-378. DOI:10.1111/aen.12039

Suh SooJung, Bombay K, 2015. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) found on dracaena and ficus plants (Asparagales: Asparagaceae, Rosales: Moraceae) from southeastern Asia. Insecta Mundi. 1-10. http://centerforsystematicentomology.org/default.asp?action=insectamundi&id=insecta_new&year=2015

Waterhouse D F, 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. v + 141 pp.

Watson G W, Ooi P A C, Girling D J, 1995. Insects on plants in the Maldives and their management. Ascot, UK: International Institute of Biological Control (IIBC). 124 pp.

Williams D J, Watson G W, 1990. The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. In: The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. 267 pp.

Wolff V R S, Kondo T, Peronti A L B G, Noronha A C S, 2016. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) in Brazil. Neotropical Entomology. 45 (3), 274-279. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13744-016-0365-2 DOI:10.1007/s13744-016-0365-2

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map
Select a dataset
Map Legends
  • CABI Summary Records
Map Filters
Extent
Invasive
Origin
Third party data sources: