Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Parasaissetia nigra
(pomegranate scale)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Parasaissetia nigra (pomegranate scale)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Parasaissetia nigra
  • Preferred Common Name
  • pomegranate scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

    If you can supply pictures for this datasheet please contact:

    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner, 1861)

Preferred Common Name

  • pomegranate scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Lecanium begoniae Douglas, 1892
  • Lecanium crassum Green, 1930
  • Lecanium depressum Targioni Tozzetti, 1867
  • Lecanium nigrum Nietner, 1861
  • Lecanium sideroxylium Kuwana, 1909
  • Lecanium signatum Newstead, 1917
  • Saissetia cuneiformis Leonardi, 1913
  • Saissetia depressa
  • Saissetia nigra (Nietner)
  • Saissetia perseae Brain, 1920

International Common Names

  • English: black coffee scale; brown scale; Hibiscus shield scale; nigra scale
  • Spanish: escama negra; escama ovalada; queresa negra del cheremoyo
  • French: cochenille brune

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Schildlaus, Schwarze Napf-; Schwarze Napfschildlaus
  • Netherlands: zwarte dopluis; zwarte schildluis

EPPO code

  • SAISNI (Parasaissetia nigra)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Coccidae
  •                                     Genus: Parasaissetia
  •                                         Species: Parasaissetia nigra

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
BeninPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
Burkina FasoPresentNHM (1970); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
Cabo VerdePresentNHM (1985); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
CameroonPresentNHM (1992); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
ChadPresentNHM (1973); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
ComorosPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentNHM (1977); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
Congo, Republic of thePresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
Côte d'IvoirePresentNHM (1989); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
EgyptPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
EritreaPresentNHM (1948); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
GhanaPresentNHM (1922); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
GuineaPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
KenyaPresentNHM (1986); NHM (1988); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
MadagascarPresentNHM (1970); NHM (1984); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
MaliPresentEPPO (2020); Muniappan et al. (2012)
MauritiusPresentNHM (1984); NHM (1990); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
MozambiquePresentNHM (1967); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
NamibiaPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
NigeriaPresentNHM (1979); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
RéunionPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
Saint HelenaPresentNHM (1959); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
São Tomé and PríncipePresentNHM (1956); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
SenegalPresentEPPO (2020)
SeychellesPresentNHM (1973); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
Sierra LeonePresentNHM (1945); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
South AfricaPresent, WidespreadNHM (1959); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
SudanPresentNHM (1981); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
TanzaniaPresentNHM (1988); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-Zanzibar IslandPresentNHM (1987); Ben-Dov (1993)
UgandaPresentNHM (1935); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
ZambiaPresentNHM (1959); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
ZimbabwePresentNHM (1973); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)

Asia

BangladeshPresentNHM (1980); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
BhutanPresentNHM (1985); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
BruneiPresentNHM (1992); Waterhouse (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
ChinaPresentEPPO (2020)
-YunnanPresentNHM (1938); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
Cocos IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
Hong KongPresent, Few occurrencesNHM (1990); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
IndiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentNHM (1990); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-AssamPresentNHM (1956); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-BiharPresentNHM (1906); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-GujaratPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-HaryanaPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020); NHM (Undated)
-Himachal PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-KarnatakaPresentNHM (1956); NHM (1983); NHM (1990); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-KeralaPresentNHM (1964); NHM (1985); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-MaharashtraPresentNHM (1963); NHM (1965); NHM (1981); NHM (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-PunjabPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-Tamil NaduPresentNHM (1940); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-TripuraPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-Uttar PradeshPresentNHM (1928); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-West BengalPresentNHM (1940); NHM (1964); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
IndonesiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-JavaPresentNHM (1979); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-SulawesiPresentNHM (1985); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-SumatraPresentNHM (1989); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
IsraelPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
JapanPresentEPPO (2020)
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentNHM (1960); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
LaosPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
MalaysiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentNHM (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-SabahPresentNHM (1971); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-SarawakPresentNHM (1962); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
MaldivesPresentWatson et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
MongoliaPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
MyanmarPresentNHM (1987); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
NepalPresentNHM (1965); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
PakistanPresentNHM (1975); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
PhilippinesPresentNHM (1985); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
Saudi ArabiaPresentNHM (1989); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
SingaporePresentNHM (1989); Waterhouse (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
Sri LankaPresentNHM (1980); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
TaiwanAbsent, Formerly presentNHM (1940); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
ThailandPresentBen-Dov (1993); NHM (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
VietnamPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
YemenPresent, Few occurrencesCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)

Europe

AustriaAbsentEPPO (2020)
BelgiumAbsent, Formerly presentEPPO (2020)
DenmarkAbsent, Formerly presentEPPO (2020)
FrancePresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
GermanyAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2020)
GreecePresentCABI (Undated); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Tsagkarakis et al. (2016)
ItalyAbsent, Formerly presentEPPO (2020)
NetherlandsAbsent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2020)
PortugalPresent, LocalizedMontiero-Guimaraes (1973); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-AzoresPresent, Few occurrencesBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-MadeiraPresent, WidespreadBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
SloveniaAbsentEPPO (2020)
SpainPresent, LocalizedBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-Canary IslandsPresent, LocalizedBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
United KingdomAbsent, Formerly presentEPPO (2020)
-EnglandAbsent, Formerly presentEPPO (2020)

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentNHM (1945); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
BarbadosPresentNHM (1985); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
BermudaPresentNHM (1989); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
British Virgin IslandsPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
CanadaAbsent, Formerly presentEPPO (2020)
-AlbertaAbsent, Formerly presentEPPO (2020)
Cayman IslandsPresentEPPO (2020)
Costa RicaPresentNHM (1990); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
CubaPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
Dominican RepublicPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
El SalvadorPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
GrenadaPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
GuadeloupePresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
GuatemalaPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
HondurasPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
JamaicaPresentBen-Dov (1993); NHM (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
MartiniquePresentEPPO (2020); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997)
MexicoPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
NicaraguaPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
PanamaPresentNHM (1983); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
Puerto RicoPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
Saint LuciaPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, Few occurrencesNHM (1992); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-AlabamaPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-CaliforniaPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-FloridaPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-HawaiiPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-KansasPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-LouisianaPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-MarylandPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-MissouriPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-New MexicoPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-New YorkPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-OhioPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-OklahomaPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-PennsylvaniaPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-TexasPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-VirginiaPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-WashingtonAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2020)

Oceania

American SamoaPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
AustraliaPresent, Few occurrencesCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-New South WalesPresentBen-Dov (1993); NHM (1996); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-Northern TerritoryPresentNHM (1983); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-QueenslandPresentNHM (1996); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-VictoriaPresentNHM (1928); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-Western AustraliaPresentNHM (1990); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
Cook IslandsPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
FijiPresentNHM (1944); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
French PolynesiaPresentNHM (1952); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
GuamPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
KiribatiPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
Marshall IslandsPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
NauruPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
New CaledoniaPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
New ZealandPresent, WidespreadNHM (1934); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
NiuePresentWilliams and Watson (1990); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
Norfolk IslandPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
PalauPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
Papua New GuineaPresentNHM (1971); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); NHM (1997); EPPO (2020)
SamoaPresentNHM (1925); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
Solomon IslandsPresentNHM (1954); Williams and Watson (1990); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
TongaPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
TuvaluPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
VanuatuPresentNHM (1925); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
Wallis and FutunaPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)

South America

ArgentinaPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
BoliviaPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
BrazilAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
-Minas GeraisPresent, Few occurrencesCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020); NHM (Undated)
-ParaPresentWolff et al. (2016)Belém and Tomé-Açu, metropolitan and Northeast Pará mesoregions
-Rio Grande do SulAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
-Sao PauloPresentAlmeida et al. (2018); EPPO (2020)
ColombiaPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
EcuadorPresent, LocalizedBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
French GuianaPresentEPPO (2020)
GuyanaPresentNHM (1991); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
PeruPresentNHM (1960); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)
SurinameAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2020)
VenezuelaPresentNHM (1979); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2020)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / external feeding
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / stunting or rosetting

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anysis saissetiae Parasite Eggs
Blastobasis lecaniella Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chilocorus nigrita Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chilocorus nigritus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccophagus caridei Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Coccophagus ceroplastae Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Coccophagus cowperi Parasite Adults/Nymphs California shrubs
Coccophagus indefinitus Parasite Myartseva et al., 2014
Coccophagus lycimnia Parasite Adults/Nymphs Guam
Coccophagus minor Parasite Myartseva et al., 2014
Coccophagus ochraceus Parasite Nymphs
Coccophagus pulvinariae Parasite Adults/Nymphs California shrubs
Coccophagus rusti Parasite Adults/Nymphs Guam
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Predator
Diadiplosis cocci Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
Dicrodiplosis fulva Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
Diversinervus elegans Parasite Nymphs California Citrus
Eccopsia bodkini Predator Adults/Nymphs
Halmus chalybeus Predator Adults/Nymphs Guam
Lecanobius cockerellii Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Metaphycus flavus Parasite USA Citrus
Metaphycus helvolus Parasite Nymphs California; Guam; Hawaii ornamental plants; shrubs
Metaphycus lounsburyi Parasite Guam
Metaphycus luteolus Parasite Guam
Metaphycus parasaissetiae Parasite Wen et al., 2009
Metaphycus stanleyi Parasite Nymphs
Microterys newcombi Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Rhyzobius lophanthae Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
Rhyzobius ventralis Parasite Adults/Eggs/Nymphs
Scutellista caerulea Parasite Eggs Guam; Hawaii ornamental plants
Vitula toboga Predator Adults/Nymphs

References

Top of page

Almeida, L. F. V., Peronti, A. L. B. G., Martinelli, N. M., Wolff, V. R. S., 2018. A survey of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in citrus orchards in São Paulo, Brazil. Florida Entomologist, 101(3), 353-363. http://www.bioone.org/loi/flen doi: 10.1653/024.101.0324

Bartlett BR, 1978. Coccidae. In: Clausen CP, ed. Introduced parasites and predators of arthropod pests and weeds; a world review. Agriculture Handbook No. 480. Washington D.C., USA: United States Department of Agriculture, 57-74

Ben-Dov Y, 1978. Taxonomy of the nigra scale Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner) (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae), with observations on mass rearing and parasites of an Israeli strain. Phytoparasitica, 6(3):115-127

Ben-Dov Y, 1993. A systematic catalogue of the soft scale insects of the world (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Gainesville, USA: Sandhill Crane Press, Inc., 536 pp

CABI, EPPO, 1997. Parasaissetia nigra. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, December. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 573

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp

Crouch TE, Crouch NR, 2001. Insect infestations on leaves of the ethnomedicinal Pepper-bark tree Warburgia salutaris (Canellaceae). Durban Museum Novitates, 26:1-5

De Lotto G, 1967. The soft scales (Homoptera: Coccidae) of South Africa. I. South African Journal of Agricultural Science, 10:781-810

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Flanders SE, 1959. Biological control of Saissetia nigra (Nietn.) in California. Journal of Economic Entomology, 54:596-600

Germain JF, Bertaux F, 2003. Parasaissetia nigra, unknown host on the Cote d'Azur. (Parasaissetia nigra, hôte méconnu sur la Côte d'Azur.) PHM Revue Horticole, No.447:42-44

Gill RJ, 1988. The scale insects of California. Part 1. The soft scales (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). Technical Services in Agricultural Biosystematics and Plant Pathology. California Department of Food and Agriculture, 1:1-132

Granadino CA, Cave RD, 1997. Within-tree distribution of seven insect pests of soursop (Annona muricata) in Honduras. CEIBA, 38(2):161-166

Hammon AB, Williams ML, 1984. The soft scale insects of Florida (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas, 11:1-94

Jadav SS, Ajri DS, 1985. Chemical control of scale insects on pomegranate in Maharashtra. Indian Journal of Entomology, 47:63-65

Jadhav SS, Ajri DS, 1984. Life history of Scutellista cyanea an external egg parasite of the pomegranate scale. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities, 9(3):248-249

Li JiaZhi, Zhang ChunXia, Li GuoHua, 2006. Aschersonia kawakamii parasitizing in Parasaissetia nigra. Journal of Yunnan Agricultural University, 21(5):600-602

Mani M, Krishnamoorthy A, 1999. The nigra scale, Parasaissetia nigra and its natural enemy on custard apple in Karnataka. Insect Environment, 5(1):20

Mestre Novoa N, Hamon AB, BaróOviedo I, Reyes Hernández M, 2001. New records of Coccoidea (Homoptera: Sternorrhyncha) for Cuba. (Nuevos registros de Coccoidea (Homoptera: Sternorrhyncha) para Cuba.) Insecta Mundi, 15(1):59-61

Montiero-Guimaraes JA, 1973. Catalogo das pragas das culturas em Portugal continental (Edicao provisoria). Volume I Insecta: Pequenas Ordens e Coccoidea. Portugal: Direcao-geral dos Servicos Agricolas (Laboratorio de Fitofarmacologia) Comissao reguladora dos produtos quimicos e Farmaceuticos

Muniappan R, Watson GW, Vaughan L, Gilbertson R, Noussourou M, 2012. New records of mealybugs, scale insects, and whiteflies (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) from Mali and Senegal. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology, 28(1):1-7. http://scentsoc.org/Volumes/JAUE/28/28001.pdf

Myartseva SN, Ruíz-Cancino E, Coronado-Blanco JM, 2014. Parasaissetia nigra (Hemiptera: Coccidae) and its parasitoids from the genus Coccophagus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), with description of a new species from Tamaulipas, México. Florida Entomologist, 97(3):1015-1020. http://www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/

Myartseva SN, Ruiz-Cancino E, Coronado-Blanco JM, 2014. Two new species of the genus Coccophagus Westwood, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) from the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico. (Dos especies nuevas del género Coccophagus Westwood, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) del Estado de Tamaulipas, México.) Acta Zoologica Mexicana, 30(1):135-143. http://www1.inecol.edu.mx/azm/AZM30(1)-2014/azm-30-1-10-Myartseva-et-al.pdf

Rani BJ, Sridhar V, 2005. Record of arthropod pests on Kalmegh, Andrographis paniculata - an important medicinal plant. Insect Environment, 11(2):89-91

Shevale BS, Kaulgud SN, 1998. Population dynamics of pests of pomegranate Punica granatum Linnaeus. In: Advances in IPM for horticultural crops. Proceedings of the First National Symposium on Pest Management in Horticultural Crops: environmental implications and thrusts, Bangalore, India, 15-17 October 1997 [ed. by Reddy PP, Kumar NKK, Verghese A] Bangalore, India: Association for Advancement of Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, 47-51

Shivaramakrishnan VR, Nagaveni HC, Rajamuthukrishnan, 1987. Poor seed setting in sandal (Santalum album L.). Myforest, 23(2;4):101-103;243-244

Shree MP, Manjunatha S, 2000. Incidence of black scale insects (Saissetia nigra, N.) infesting mulberry in Kanakapura taluk (Bangalore Rural District, Karnataka State). Entomon, 25(2):91-96

Simões AMA, Cecílio A, Ilharco FA, Aguiar MF, Franco JC, 2006. New records of hymenopteran parasitoid species from citrus orchards in Terceira Island (Azores, Portugal). Bulletin OILB/SROP, 29(3):189-193

Smith RH, 1944. Bionomics and control of the nigra scale, Saissetia nigra. Hilgardia, 16:225-288

Tang FD, 1991. The Coccidae of China. Taiyuan, China: Shanxi United Universities Press

Wang Sen, Pan XiaoFang, Li ZhenXia, 2005. The leading pests for Manilkara zapota and their control. South China Fruits, No.4:48-49

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp

Waterhouse DF, Norris KR, 1987. Biological control: Pacific prospects. viii + 454pp

Watson GW, Ooi PAC, Girling DJ, 1995. Insects on plants in the Maldives and their management. Ascot, UK: International Institute of Biological Control

Wen LiNa, Fu YueGuan, Zhang FangPing, Jin QiAn, Zhang JingBao, 2009. Bionomics of Metaphycus parasaissetiae Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), a parasitoid of Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) adults. Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 25(2):112-119

Williams DJ, Watson GW, 1990. The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 267 pp

Wolff VRS, Kondo T, Peronti ALBG, Noronha ACS, 2016. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) in Brazil. Neotropical Entomology, 45(3):274-279. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13744-016-0365-2

Zhang YanZhou, Huang DaWei, Fu YueGuan, Peng ZhengQiang, 2007. A new species of Metaphycus Mercet (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from China, parasitoid of Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner) (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Entomological News, 118(1):68-72. http://www.acnatsci.org/hosted/aes

Distribution References

Almeida L F V, Peronti A L B G, Martinelli N M, Wolff V R S, 2018. A survey of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in citrus orchards in São Paulo, Brazil. Florida Entomologist. 101 (3), 353-363. http://www.bioone.org/loi/flen DOI:10.1653/024.101.0324

Ben-Dov Y, 1993. A systematic catalogue of the soft scale insects of the world (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Gainesville, USA: Sandhill Crane Press, Inc. xxviii + 536 pp.

CABI, EPPO, 1997. Parasaissetia nigra. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 573.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

EPPO, 2014. EPPO Global database (available online). Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

Montiero-Guimaraes JA, 1973. (Catalogo das pragas das culturas em Portugal continental (Edicao provisoria)). In: Insecta: Pequenas Ordens e Coccoidea. Portugal: Direcao-geral dos Servicos Agricolas (Laboratorio de Fitofarmacologia) Comissao reguladora dos produtos quimicos e Farmaceuticos, I

Muniappan R, Watson G W, Vaughan L, Gilbertson R, Noussourou M, 2012. New records of mealybugs, scale insects, and whiteflies (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) from Mali and Senegal. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology. 28 (1), 1-7. http://scentsoc.org/Volumes/JAUE/28/28001.pdf DOI:10.3954/1523-5475-28.1.1

NHM, 1906. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1922. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1925. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1928. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1934. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1935. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1938. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1940. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1944. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1945. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1948. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1952. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1954. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1956. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1959. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1960. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1962. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1963. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1964. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1965. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1967. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1970. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1971. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1973. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1975. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1977. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1979. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1980. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1981. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1983. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1984. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1985. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1986. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1987. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1988. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1989. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1990. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1991. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1992. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1993. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1996. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1997. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, Undated. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NPPO of the Netherlands, 2013. Pest status of harmful organisms in the Netherlands., Wageningen, Netherlands:

Waterhouse D F, 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. v + 141 pp.

Watson G W, Ooi P A C, Girling D J, 1995. Insects on plants in the Maldives and their management. Ascot, UK: International Institute of Biological Control (IIBC). 124 pp.

Williams D J, Watson G W, 1990. The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. In: The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. 267 pp.

Wolff V R S, Kondo T, Peronti A L B G, Noronha A C S, 2016. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) in Brazil. Neotropical Entomology. 45 (3), 274-279. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13744-016-0365-2 DOI:10.1007/s13744-016-0365-2

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map