Invasive Species Compendium

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Sansevieria trifasciata
(mother-in-law’s tongue)

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Datasheet

Sansevieria trifasciata (mother-in-law’s tongue)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Sansevieria trifasciata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • mother-in-law’s tongue
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • S. trifasciata is a very aggressive invasive plant able to grow in a great range of sunlit exposures (from complete sunny open areas to partial shaded areas). Additionally, this species is drought and heat tole...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Sansevieria trifasciata (mother in law's tongue, snake plant); habit and habitat, with Laysan albatross chick at Enlisted Woods Sand Island, Midway Atoll.  June 10, 2008.
TitleInvasive habit
CaptionSansevieria trifasciata (mother in law's tongue, snake plant); habit and habitat, with Laysan albatross chick at Enlisted Woods Sand Island, Midway Atoll. June 10, 2008.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Sansevieria trifasciata (mother in law's tongue, snake plant); habit and habitat, with Laysan albatross chick at Enlisted Woods Sand Island, Midway Atoll.  June 10, 2008.
Invasive habitSansevieria trifasciata (mother in law's tongue, snake plant); habit and habitat, with Laysan albatross chick at Enlisted Woods Sand Island, Midway Atoll. June 10, 2008.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Sansevieria trifasciata (mother in law's tongue, snake plant); habit at Enlisted Woods Sand Island, Midway Atoll.  June 10, 2008.
TitleHabit
CaptionSansevieria trifasciata (mother in law's tongue, snake plant); habit at Enlisted Woods Sand Island, Midway Atoll. June 10, 2008.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Sansevieria trifasciata (mother in law's tongue, snake plant); habit at Enlisted Woods Sand Island, Midway Atoll.  June 10, 2008.
HabitSansevieria trifasciata (mother in law's tongue, snake plant); habit at Enlisted Woods Sand Island, Midway Atoll. June 10, 2008.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Sansevieria trifasciata (mother in law's tongue, snake plant); habit at Old water treatment facility Sand Island, Midway Atoll.  June 04, 2008.
TitleInvasive habit
CaptionSansevieria trifasciata (mother in law's tongue, snake plant); habit at Old water treatment facility Sand Island, Midway Atoll. June 04, 2008.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Sansevieria trifasciata (mother in law's tongue, snake plant); habit at Old water treatment facility Sand Island, Midway Atoll.  June 04, 2008.
Invasive habitSansevieria trifasciata (mother in law's tongue, snake plant); habit at Old water treatment facility Sand Island, Midway Atoll. June 04, 2008.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Sansevieria trifasciata (mother in law's tongue, snake plant); variegated dwarf variety at Kihei, Maui.  February 15, 2011
TitleVariegated dwarf variety
CaptionSansevieria trifasciata (mother in law's tongue, snake plant); variegated dwarf variety at Kihei, Maui. February 15, 2011
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Sansevieria trifasciata (mother in law's tongue, snake plant); variegated dwarf variety at Kihei, Maui.  February 15, 2011
Variegated dwarf varietySansevieria trifasciata (mother in law's tongue, snake plant); variegated dwarf variety at Kihei, Maui. February 15, 2011©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Sansevieria trifasciata Prain, 1903

Preferred Common Name

  • mother-in-law’s tongue

Other Scientific Names

  • Aletris hyacinthoides var. zeylanica L.
  • Sansevieria jacquinii N.E.Br.
  • Sansevieria laurentii
  • Sansevieria laurentis De Wild.
  • Sansevieria trifasciata var. laurentii (De Wild.) N.E.Br.
  • Sansevieria zeylanica var. laurentii (De Wild.) L.H.Bailey

International Common Names

  • English: good-luck plant; iguanatail; konje hemp; snake plant; viper’s bowstring hemp
  • Spanish: lengua de suegra; lengua de vaca; sansevieria
  • French: chanvre d'Afrique; langue de belle-mère

Local Common Names

  • Cook Islands: riri
  • Costa Rica: Espada de Judas; Espada del Diablo
  • Germany: Bogenhanf
  • Guam: tigre
  • Jamaica: tiger cat
  • Lesser Antilles: oreillo di burian; rhamni; yerba ci cinta; yerba di colebas
  • Palau: kitelel
  • Tonga: alelo; elelo; ngata

EPPO code

  • SAHTR (Sansevieria trifasciata)

Summary of Invasiveness

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S. trifasciata is a very aggressive invasive plant able to grow in a great range of sunlit exposures (from complete sunny open areas to partial shaded areas). Additionally, this species is drought and heat tolerant (Gilman, 1999). S. trifasciata is able to reproductive by seeds but also by leaf segments and rhizomes. Segments of leaves and rhizomes resprout easily and grow rapidly forming dense and virtually impenetrable thickets (Arnold, 2004). S. trifasciata is a succulent perennial herb included in the Global Compendium of Weeds and considered a “noxious weed” (Randall, 2012).  

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Liliales
  •                         Family: Agavaceae
  •                             Genus: Sansevieria
  •                                 Species: Sansevieria trifasciata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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While many botanists have adopted the APG III system of classification for the orders and families of flowering plants, which places Sansevieria in the family Asparagaceae, the CAB Thesaurus continues to use the Cronquist system which places it under Agavaceae. The taxonomic tree in the Identity section reflects this positioning. The Notes below describe how Sansevieria is placed within the APG system. USDA-ARS (2012) places Sansevieria within the subfamily Nolinoideae in the Asparagaceae, but notes that the genus is sometimes also placed in the Agavaceae, Convallariaceae, Dracaenaceae, Liliaceae or Ruscaceae.

The family Asparagales includes about 153 genera and 2480 species that are distributed worldwide. This family is subdivided into seven subfamilies: Aphyllanthoideae, Agavoideae, Brodiaeoideae, Scilloideae, Lomandroideae, Asparagoideae, and Nolinoideae. For some authors, the classification of this family is highly unsatisfactory. There are no specific traits that characterize this family, and some of the subfamilies are difficult to recognize while others are very distinctive (Stevens, 2012). Sansevieria is a genus of xerophytic perennial herbs including about 60 species distributed in tropical and southern Africa, Madagascar, and Arabia. In addition, there are many hybrids and horticultural variants and as a result the classification of plants within this genus is often very difficult (Acevedo Rodríguez and Strong, 2005). Within the genus Sansevieria, the species S. trifasciata is the species most commercialized in the nursery and landscape trade. Henley et al. (1991) reported that at least 20 cultivars of this species were sold in nurseries around the world.

Description

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S. trifasciata is a succulent plant with stout creeping rhizomes. Leaves 1 or 2 together, linear-oblanceolate, stiffly erect, 30-100 × 3 cm, the apex tapering to a stiff green point; the blades are transversely banded with contrasting green and whitish zones; margins are green. The inflorescence is pedunculate, 30-75 cm long. Flowers are solitary or in clusters of 2 or 3, pedicels up to 5 mm long; perianth tube 1 cm long or less, the linear lobes up to 2 cm long, white or greenish white. Fruits are subglobose to oblong-ellipsoid, 7-9 × 5-8 mm, bright orange (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005).

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Succulent
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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S. trifasciata is native to tropical Africa. It was introduced to America, Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands as an ornamental and fibre crop (ISSG, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2012). Considering that this species is widely cultivated, it is highly probable that geographic distribution includes more locations than are listed.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Hong KongPresentIntroducedWu, 2001
IndiaPresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012East Himalaya
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012
MyanmarPresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012
SingaporePresentIntroduced Invasive Chong et al., 2009

Africa

Central African RepublicPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012
CongoPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012
Equatorial GuineaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012
GabonPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012
Guinea-BissauPresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012
MauritiusPresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012
NigeriaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012
RwandaPresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012
SeychellesPresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedAcebes et al., 2001

North America

BermudaPresentIntroducedVarnham, 2006
MexicoPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 1994Cultivated in Chiapas, Colima, Oaxaca, Tabasco, Veracruz
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Invasive Garofalo et al., 2000
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Flynn and Lorence, 2002Cultivated

Central America and Caribbean

BelizePresentIntroducedBalick et al., 2000Cultivated
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Guana and Tortola
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedHammel et al., 2003Cultivated. Sansevieria trifasciata var. laurentii
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive González-Torres et al., 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 1994Cultivated. La Libertad, San Salvador
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAdams, 1972
MartiniquePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedMori et al., 2007Saba
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 1994Cultivated
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005Also on Vieques Island
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007; Graveson, 2012Potential threat to dry woodland on Pitons
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005Cultivated. St Croix and St Thomas

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedHurrell et al., 2009Cultivated
ChilePresentIntroduced Invasive Atkinson and Sawyer, 2011Cultivated. Juan Fernández Islands
ColombiaPresentIntroducedIdárraga-Piedrahita et al., 2011
EcuadorPresentIntroduced Invasive Jørgensen and León-Yánez, 1999Cultivated. Galapagos, Los Ríos, and Guayas
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Jørgensen and León-Yánez, 1999
PeruPresentIntroducedVásquez et al., 2002Cultivated

Europe

SpainPresentPresent based on regional distribution.

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced Invasive Forster, 1986; Australian Weeds Committtee, 2012Weed
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced Invasive Csurhes and Edwards, 1998
Cook IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive McCormack, 2007Mangaia, Atiu, Palmerston, Rarotonga Islands
FijiPresentIntroduced Invasive Smith, 1979
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Lorence and Wagner, 2008Marquesas Islands
GuamPresentIntroducedFosberg et al., 1987Cultivated
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedFosberg et al., 1987Cultivated
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroducedSpace et al., 2000
NauruPresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012Cultivated
NiuePresentIntroduced Invasive Space et al., 2004
Norfolk IslandPresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedFosberg et al., 1987Cultivated. Pagan, Saipan, Tinian, and Rota Islands
PalauPresentIntroduced Invasive Space et al., 2003Cultivated
SamoaPresentIntroduced Invasive Space and Flynn, 2002Cultivated

History of Introduction and Spread

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Sansevieria species were probably introduced to Florida during a period of Spanish colonization between 1765 and 1820 (Henley, 1982). In 1891, C.R. Dodge wrote a report on fibre investigations for the US Department of Agriculture and there he reported the species Sansevieria zeylanica (now S. trifasciata) growing in several localities in southern Florida (Dodge, 1891). Between 1910 and 1940, several attempts to cultivate S. trifasciata in order to produce fibre were performed in Mexico, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Bahamas and the British West Indies (Joyner et al., 1951) where it probably spread vegetatively from areas where it has been cultivated. In 1918, N.L. Britton reported this species as common in gardens in Bermuda and he also mentioned that it was grown at the Agricultural Station in 1913 (Britton, 1918).

In Florida during the 1920s, S. trifasciata was commercialized as a pot plant and later exported to Europe, Central and South America and the Caribbean (Henley, 1982). For Puerto Rico, S. trifasciata was first collected in 1914 on Vieques Island (Smithsonian Herbarium), and by 1924 N.L. Britton reported this species as “spontaneous after cultivation” and he also mentioned that this species was commercially grown at Sabana Llana between 1929 and 1930 (Britton, 1930). In Australia, S. trifasciata was classified as a potential weed by 1998, however it is widely used as an ornamental here (Csurhes and Edwards, 1998).

By 2000, S. trifasciata was classified as “invasive” in Florida and the trade and commercialization of plants was restricted due to their actual or potential invasiveness (Garofalo et al., 2000). This species is also classified as invasive in Cuba (González-Torres et al., 2012), Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012), Hawaii (Flynn and Lorence, 2002), the Galapagos Islands (Jørgensen and León-Yánez, 1999), Juan Fernández Island (Atkinson and Sawyer, 2011), the Cook Islands (Space and Flynn, 2002), Fiji (Smith, 1979), French Polynesia (Lorence and Wagner, 2008), Niue (Space et al., 2004), Palau (Space et al., 2003) and Western Samoa (Space and Flynn, 2002).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of S. trifasciata is high. It is an aggressive invader that rapidly colonizes areas where it grows. Many cultivars of S. trifasciata are commercialized as ornamentals, potted indoor plants, and air-filter plants. This species is very common in nurseries around the world, and hence has a high probability of colonizing new habitats.

Habitat

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Species within the genus Sansevieria have a number of adaptations for surviving dry and arid regions such as thick, succulent leaves for storing water and thick leaf cuticles for reducing moisture loss. In addition, like other succulent plants, Sansevieria species use crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) as part of photosynthesis, which reduces water loss by undergoing nocturnal transpiration and allow improved drought and heat tolerance (Koller and Rost, 1988). S. trifasciata has a high level of salt-tolerance and low nutrient requirements (Garofalo et al., 2000; Brown, 2011). This species can be found growing in tropical, subtropical and warmer temperate regions in a wide variety of light conditions ranging from full-sun open areas to shaded areas beneath canopy forests. It is a common weed of roadsides, abandoned gardens, waste areas, disturbed sites, coastal forests, secondary wet forests, mesic forests, and dry forests (ISSG, 2012; PIER, 2012).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Chromosome number for S. trifasciata varies from 2n=40 (Nazeer and Khoshoo, 1984). 

Reproductive Biology

S. trifasciata produces hermaphroditic white or greenish white flowers. Flowers emit a strong pleasant scent and open for only one night. Flowers generally open in the late afternoon and close in the early hours of the following morning. Flowers are probably pollinated by moths (Arnold, 2004). 

Phenology

S. trifasciata flowers periodically throughout the year in the tropics (Gilman, 1999), but is most common in summer in the subtropics (Arnold, 2004).

Longevity

Sansevieria species are extremely long lived plants that can survive more than 50 years (Stover, 1983).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Preferred < 430mm annual precipitation

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall5001000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline
  • shallow

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Scyphophorus acupunctatus Herbivore

Notes on Natural Enemies

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In July 2010, larvae of the agave weevil Scyphophorus acupunctatus were found feeding inside S. trifasciata in Lee County, Florida (Brown, 2011). This species is a significant pest of agave, yucca, and various other plants in the Asparagaceae family. Infected plant symptoms include sparse stand, fallen leaves, and slightly chlorotic leaves (Brown, 2011).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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S. trifasciata can be dispersed by seeds, leaf cuttings and rhizomes. Seeds are mainly dispersed by birds and other animals that eat the brightly coloured fruits. Leaf segments and rhizomes can be dispersed in garden waste (ISSG, 2012). The species has the potential to spread vegetatively from areas where it is cultivated. Several cultivars of S. trifasciata are also sold in the nursery and landscape trade.

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionFibre crop Yes Yes ISSG, 2012
Garden waste disposalLeaf segments and rhizomes Yes Arnold, 2004; ISSG, 2012
Internet salesPlants and seeds are still sold over the internet Yes Yes ISSG, 2012
Landscape improvementCommonly planted in gardens and yards Yes Yes Arnold, 2004
Medicinal useUsed in traditional medicine Yes Sunilson et al., 2009

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
MailPlants and seeds are sold over the internet Yes Yes ISSG, 2012

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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S. trifasciata is classified as a “noxious weed” and is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). It has the potential to negatively impact and disrupt native vegetation communities in dry and wet habitat in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions (ISSG, 2012). S. trifasciata is able to grow rapidly forming extensive underground rhizome networks and impenetrable aboveground thickets that can out-compete and displace native vegetation (ISSG, 2012).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Loss of medicinal resources
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Competition - strangling
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Hybridization
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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S. trifasciata is an economically important species used as an ornamental and fibre crop. More than 20 cultivars are commercialized in nurseries and the landscape trade mainly due to the multicoloured and mottled leaves and the interesting wide variation in leaf shapes (Nazeer and Khoshoo 1984). S. trifasciata is commonly used as an indoor pot plant and it is very popular in the nursery trade because it has been found that this species is one of the most efficient plants for cleaning the air by removing toxins such as formaldehyde that are present in homes and offices (Wolverton et al., 1989). S. trifasciata is also used as a source of fibre, and in traditional medicine in Africa and Southeast Asia (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962Sunilson et al., 2009).

Uses List

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General

  • Ornamental

Materials

  • Fibre

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Potted plant
  • Propagation material
  • Seed trade

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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S. trifasciata can be confused with Sansevieria hyacinthoides, but they can be distinguished based on leaf traits. While in S. hyacinthoides the margin of leaves have a red-brown line, in S. trifasciata the margins of leaves are green or white, lacking the reddish line (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005).

Prevention and Control

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Physical/Mechanical Control

Sansevieria species are difficult to control because they form extensive rhizome networks and thickets. Plants should be removed by digging or hand-pulling and removed from the site. All leaf segments and rhizomes have to be removed because they have the potential to resprout.

Chemical control

Plants of S. trifasciata should be cut down to ground level. In Queensland, Australia, the following herbicides are registered for control of environmental weeds and as such are permitted for S. fasciata with permit PER11463 (Queensland Government Factsheet PP116, January 2013), but they have not been tested on the species itself:

  • Imazapyr: 2-[4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid. 200 mL per 100 L water.
  • Metsulfuron-methyl: Methyl 2 (4-methoxy—6-methyl-l,3,5-triazifl-2-yl) aminolcarbonyl-amino sulfonil benzoate. 10 g per 100 L water plus a wetting agent.
  • Glyphosate: N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine. 1 L per 100 L water.

 

References

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Acebes JR; Arco Mdel; García-Gallo A; León MC; Pérez PL; Rodríguez O; Wildpret Torre Wde la; Martín VE; Marrero MC; Rodríguez ML, 2001. Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta. (Pteridophyta y Spermatophyta.) In: Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) [ed. by Izquierdo, I. \Martín, J. L. \Zurita, N. \Arechavaleta, M.]., Spain: Consejería de Medio Ambiente y Ordenación Territorial, Gobierno de Canarias, 96-143.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2005. Monocots and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 52:1-416. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/PRFlora/monocots/

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Adams CD, 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica. Mona, Jamaica: University of the West Indies.

Arnold MA, 2004. Sansevieria trifasciata. In: Landscape Plants For Texas And Environs, Ed. 3., USA: Stipes Publishing.

Atkinson R; Sawyer J, 2011. Naturalized species in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile.

Australian Weeds Committtee, 2013. Weeds of Australia. Canberra, Australia: Australian Weeds Committtee. http://www.weeds.org.au/

Balick MJ; Nee M; Atha DE, 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 85:1-246.

Boldingh I, 1914. The flora of the Dutch West Indian Islands: The Flora of Aruba, Curaçao and Bonaire. Leyden, Netherlands: EJ. Brill, 244 pp. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/20608

Britton NL, 1918. Flora of Bermuda. New York, USA: Charles Scribner's Sons. 585 pp.

Britton NL, 1930. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. New York, USA: New York Academy of Sciences.

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Brown SH, 2011. Scyphophorus acupunctatus in Sansevieria., USA: University of Florida, IFAS Extension. http://lee.ifas.ufl.edu/hort/GardenHome.shtml

Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Csurhes S; Edwards R, 1998. Potential environmental weeds in Australia: candidate species for preventative control. Coorparoo, Australia: Queensland Department of Natural Resources.

Davidse G; Sousa Sánchez M; Chater AO, 1994. Alismataceae a Cyperaceae. Flora Mesoamericana, 6:i-xvi,1-543.

Dodge CR, 1891. A report on sisal hemp culture in the United States., USA: US Department of Agriculture, 59 pp. [Fiber Investigations Report. No.3.]

Flynn T; Lorence DH, 2002. Additions to the flora of the Hawaiian Islands. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, 69:14-16. [Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2000. Part 2: Notes.] http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/pdf/op69.pdf

Forster PI, 1986. Sansevieria. Flora of Australia, 46:78-79.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe (DAISIE)http://www.europe-aliens.org/speciesFactsheet.do?speciesld=50539#
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)http://www.hear.org/Pier/index.html

Contributors

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27/11/12 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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