Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Sansevieria hyacinthoides
(African bowstring hemp)

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Datasheet

Sansevieria hyacinthoides (African bowstring hemp)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Sansevieria hyacinthoides
  • Preferred Common Name
  • African bowstring hemp
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • S. hyacinthoides is a succulent perennial herb included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). S. ...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
African bowstring hemp (Sansevieria hyacinthoides); habit, in Puerto Rico. April 2013.
TitleHabit
CaptionAfrican bowstring hemp (Sansevieria hyacinthoides); habit, in Puerto Rico. April 2013.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
African bowstring hemp (Sansevieria hyacinthoides); habit, in Puerto Rico. April 2013.
HabitAfrican bowstring hemp (Sansevieria hyacinthoides); habit, in Puerto Rico. April 2013.©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
African bowstring hemp (Sansevieria hyacinthoides); habit, in Puerto Rico. April 2013.
TitleHabit
CaptionAfrican bowstring hemp (Sansevieria hyacinthoides); habit, in Puerto Rico. April 2013.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
African bowstring hemp (Sansevieria hyacinthoides); habit, in Puerto Rico. April 2013.
HabitAfrican bowstring hemp (Sansevieria hyacinthoides); habit, in Puerto Rico. April 2013.©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
African bowstring hemp (Sansevieria hyacinthoides); close view of foliage and habit, in Puerto Rico. April 2013.
TitleHabit
CaptionAfrican bowstring hemp (Sansevieria hyacinthoides); close view of foliage and habit, in Puerto Rico. April 2013.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
African bowstring hemp (Sansevieria hyacinthoides); close view of foliage and habit, in Puerto Rico. April 2013.
HabitAfrican bowstring hemp (Sansevieria hyacinthoides); close view of foliage and habit, in Puerto Rico. April 2013.©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
African bowstring hemp (Sansevieria hyacinthoides); flowering specimen. Fairchild Tropical Garden. Miami-Dade Co., USA.
TitleFlowering specimen
CaptionAfrican bowstring hemp (Sansevieria hyacinthoides); flowering specimen. Fairchild Tropical Garden. Miami-Dade Co., USA.
CopyrightMark A. Garland @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database. This image is not copyrighted and may be freely used for any purpose.
African bowstring hemp (Sansevieria hyacinthoides); flowering specimen. Fairchild Tropical Garden. Miami-Dade Co., USA.
Flowering specimenAfrican bowstring hemp (Sansevieria hyacinthoides); flowering specimen. Fairchild Tropical Garden. Miami-Dade Co., USA.Mark A. Garland @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database. This image is not copyrighted and may be freely used for any purpose.
African bowstring hemp (Sansevieria hyacinthoides); flowering specimen. Fairchild Tropical Garden. Miami-Dade Co., USA.
TitleFlowering spike
CaptionAfrican bowstring hemp (Sansevieria hyacinthoides); flowering specimen. Fairchild Tropical Garden. Miami-Dade Co., USA.
CopyrightMark A. Garland @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database. This image is not copyrighted and may be freely used for any purpose.
African bowstring hemp (Sansevieria hyacinthoides); flowering specimen. Fairchild Tropical Garden. Miami-Dade Co., USA.
Flowering spikeAfrican bowstring hemp (Sansevieria hyacinthoides); flowering specimen. Fairchild Tropical Garden. Miami-Dade Co., USA.Mark A. Garland @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database. This image is not copyrighted and may be freely used for any purpose.
African bowstring hemp (Sansevieria hyacinthoides); flowering specimen. Fairchild Tropical Garden. Miami-Dade Co., USA.
TitleClose-up of flower spike
CaptionAfrican bowstring hemp (Sansevieria hyacinthoides); flowering specimen. Fairchild Tropical Garden. Miami-Dade Co., USA.
CopyrightMark A. Garland @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database. This image is not copyrighted and may be freely used for any purpose.
African bowstring hemp (Sansevieria hyacinthoides); flowering specimen. Fairchild Tropical Garden. Miami-Dade Co., USA.
Close-up of flower spikeAfrican bowstring hemp (Sansevieria hyacinthoides); flowering specimen. Fairchild Tropical Garden. Miami-Dade Co., USA.Mark A. Garland @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database. This image is not copyrighted and may be freely used for any purpose.
African bowstring hemp (Sansevieria hyacinthoides); flowering specimen. Fairchild Tropical Garden. Miami-Dade Co., USA.
TitleClose-up of flowers
CaptionAfrican bowstring hemp (Sansevieria hyacinthoides); flowering specimen. Fairchild Tropical Garden. Miami-Dade Co., USA.
CopyrightMark A. Garland @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database. This image is not copyrighted and may be freely used for any purpose.
African bowstring hemp (Sansevieria hyacinthoides); flowering specimen. Fairchild Tropical Garden. Miami-Dade Co., USA.
Close-up of flowersAfrican bowstring hemp (Sansevieria hyacinthoides); flowering specimen. Fairchild Tropical Garden. Miami-Dade Co., USA.Mark A. Garland @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database. This image is not copyrighted and may be freely used for any purpose.

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Sansevieria hyacinthoides (L.) Druce

Preferred Common Name

  • African bowstring hemp

Other Scientific Names

  • Aletris guineensis (L.) Jacq
  • Aletris hyacinthoides var. guineensis L.
  • Aloe guineensis L.
  • Aloe hyacinthoides L.
  • Aloe hyacinthoides var. guineensis L.
  • Cordyline guineensis (Willd.) Britton
  • Sansevieria angustiflora Lindb.
  • Sansevieria grandis var. zuluensis N.E. Br.
  • Sansevieria guineensis (L.) Willd.
  • Sansevieria metallica Gérôme & Labroy
  • Sansevieria thyrsiflora (Petagna)Thunb.

International Common Names

  • English: bowstring hemp; iguanatail; mother-in-law’s tongue; snake plant
  • Spanish: lengua de suegra; lengua de vaca

Local Common Names

  • Dominican Republic: Espada de Santa Elena; Espada de Santa Teresa; Hoja de Santa Elena
  • Haiti: oreilles d’ane; safran; z’oreilles bourrique
  • Lesser Antilles: bowstring; karata; langue a chat; lash; sanddragon de cermitiere; z’oreille a bourrique
  • Mozambique: tchikwenga
  • Puerto Rico: chucho; cocuisa; lengua de chuco; sansiviera
  • Saint Lucia: lanng bèlmè; mother-in-law's-tongue

Summary of Invasiveness

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S. hyacinthoides is a succulent perennial herb included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). S. hyacinthoides is a shade-tolerant species and it is able to grow in a great variety of habitats including disturbed areas, roadsides, secondary forests, coastal forest, and shrublands in dry, arid and semiarid ecosystems. This species has the capacity to reproduce by seeds but also vegetatively. Segments of leaves and rhizomes re-sprout easily and grow forming dense monospecific thickets which out-compete native vegetation communities.  

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Liliales
  •                         Family: Agavaceae
  •                             Genus: Sansevieria
  •                                 Species: Sansevieria hyacinthoides

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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While many botanists have adopted the APG III system of classification for the orders and families of flowering plants, which places Sansevieria in the family Asparagaceae, the CAB Thesaurus continues to use the Cronquist system which places it under Agavaceae. The taxonomic tree in the Identity section reflects this positioning. The Notes below describe how Sansevieria is placed within the APG system. USDA-ARS (2012) places Sansevieria within the subfamily Nolinoideae in the Asparagaceae, but notes that the genus is sometimes also placed in the Agavaceae, Convallariaceae, Dracaenaceae, Liliaceae or Ruscaceae.

The family Asparagaceae includes about 153 genera and 2480 species that are distributed worldwide. This family is subdivided into seven subfamilies: Aphyllanthoideae, Agavoideae, Brodiaeoideae, Scilloideae, Lomandroideae, Asparagoideae, and Nolinoideae. For some authors, the classification of this family is highly unsatisfactory. There are no specific traits that characterize this family, and some of the subfamilies are difficult to recognize while others are very distinctive (Stevens, 2012). Sansevieria is a genus of xerophytic perennial herbs including about 60 species found in tropical and southern Africa, Madagascar, and Arabia. In addition, there are many hybrids and horticultural variants. The classification of plants within this genus is often very difficult (Acevedo Rodríguez and Strong, 2005). 

Description

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Succulent, perennial, and stemless herb with fleshy creeping rhizomes. Leaves are erect, rigid, loosely clustered, fleshy, fibrous, flat, lanceolate or narrowly elliptic, 30-100 × 3-9 cm, the apex acute or obtuse, the tissue leathery and dull green but mottled transversely with numerous more or less obscure pale green bands, the margins with a fine reddish line. Inflorescence in a spike-like raceme of multiple flower clusters, 30-70 cm long, subtended by linear, sheathing bracts. Flowers are showy, 2-6 per cluster, greenish white to cream colored, fragrant, up to 3 cm long, perianth tubular (1.5 cm long) and opening to 6 linear, recurved lobes, stamens and style exerted beyond perianth. Fruits are an orange to reddish berry, up to 1 cm diameter, containing 1-3 hard, globose seeds 7-8 mm diameter (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005).

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Succulent
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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S. hyacinthoides is native to southern Africa. This species was introduced to America as an ornamental and fiber crop (USDA-ARS, 2012). Currently this species can be found in Florida, Mexico, Central America, and islands in the West Indies including Anguilla, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Lesser Antilles, and the Virgin Islands (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012). Considering that the species is widely cultivated, it is highly probable that geographic distribution includes more locations, mainly in water-stressed environments.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

TaiwanPresentIntroducedeFloras, 2012
VietnamPresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012

Africa

KenyaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012
MalawiPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012
MozambiquePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
NamibiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
South AfricaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
TanzaniaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012
ZambiaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012
ZimbabwePresentNativeRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012

North America

BermudaPresentIntroduced1918Britton, 1918Cultivated
MexicoPresentIntroducedVillaseñor and Espinosa-Garcia, 2004
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroduced1800 Invasive Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011Category II invasive plant

Central America and Caribbean

AnguillaPresentIntroduced Invasive Connor, 2008
Antigua and BarbudaWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
ArubaPresentIntroduced1914Boldingh, 1914Cultivated
BahamasPresentIntroduced1903Correll and Correll, 1982
BarbadosWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Broome et al., 2007
BelizePresentIntroducedBalick et al., 2000
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Possibly in Tortola Islands
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroduced1942 Invasive Proctor, 1984
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012
CubaPresentIntroduced1910 Invasive González-Torres et al., 2012
CuraçaoPresentIntroduced1914Boldingh, 1914Cultivated. Also in Bonaire
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced1921
GuadeloupeWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
HaitiPresentIntroduced1926
HondurasPresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012
JamaicaPresentIntroduced1920Adams, 1972
MartiniqueWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
PanamaPresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced1901 Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005Also on Vieques Island
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007; Graveson, 2012Potential threat to dry woodland on Pitons
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Bequia
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012
Turks and Caicos IslandsPresentIntroducedHardman, 2009Potentially invasive
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced1896 Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005St Croix, St John, and St Thomas

History of Introduction and Spread

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S. hyacinthoides was introduced into Florida around 1800 as an ornamental plant and fibre crop (Gordon and Thomas, 1997). It escaped from cultivated areas by 1951 and it has become invasive in many natural forests in south Florida (Langeland et al., 2008). By 1999, S. hyacinthoides was included in the Invasive Plant List of Florida as an invasive category II, which means that this species has the potential to disrupt native plant communities (Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011).

On islands in the West Indies, S. hyacinthoides was probably imported as an ornamental plant from Florida during the nineteenth century and it was first collected in 1896 on the island of St. Croix (US Virgin Islands, Smithsonian Herbarium). After that, this species appears in herbarium collections made in 1901 in Puerto Rico, 1903 in the Bahamas (Nassau), 1910 in Cuba, 1921 in the Dominican Republic, 1926 in Haiti, and 1942 in the Cayman Islands (ISSG, 2012; Smithsonian Herbarium). For the islands of Aruba, Curaçao and Bonaire, Isaac Boldingh, reported this species as “cultivated” in 1914 (Boldingh, 1914). By 1918, N.L. Britton described the species as “spontaneous” and also common in gardens” in Bermuda (Britton, 1918). In addition, by 1920, Ignaz Urban reported S. hyacinthoides as a “culta et subspontanea” for the islands of Cuba, Bahamas, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, St. Croix, St. Vincent and Trinidad (Urban, 1920). S. hyacinthoides has been classified as an invasive species and forms dense ground covers inhibiting native herbaceous flora in Barbados (Broome et al., 2007), Anguilla (Connor, 2008), Cayman Islands (ISSG, 2012), Cuba (González-Torres et al., 2012), Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands (Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of S. hyacinthoides is high. It is an aggressive invader and has specific traits related to reproduction and growth that likely facilitate its spread into new habitats. S. hyacinthoides can be dispersed by seeds, by leaf cuttings, and by rhizomes that rapidly colonize areas where it grows. In addition, the species is commonly used as an ornamental and is sold in nurseries in many countries. It is also available to the public through internet sites (i.e., garden and landscape companies online). Thus, the probability to colonize new areas remains high, principally in dry, arid and semiarid environments.

Habitat

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S. hyacinthoides is a xerophytic species adapted to a wide range of light conditions ranging from fully-sun open areas to shaded areas beneath canopy forests (Gangstad et al., 1951). Species within the genus Sansevieria have a number of adaptations for surviving dry and arid regions such as thick, succulent leaves for storing water and thick leaf cuticles for reducing moisture loss. In addition, like other succulent plants, Sansevieria species use crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) as part of photosynthesis, which reduces water loss by undergoing nocturnal transpiration and allow improved drought and heat tolerance (Koller and Rost, 1988). S. hyacinthoides has been also recorded growing in humid tropical and subtropical climates. Currently, it can be found growing in a great variety of habitats including waste ground, disturbed areas, roadsides, secondary wet forests, mesic forests, coastal forests, and shrubby dry forests in arid and semiarid ecosystems where it can form impenetrable aboveground thickets (Langeland et al., 2008; ISSG, 2012; PIER, 2012).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial-managed
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Chromosome number for this species is 2n = 50 (Menzel and Pate, 1960). 

Reproductive Biology

S. hyacinthoides produces hermaphroditic cream flowers with a pink or purple tinge. Flowers have six perianth segments fused into a tube. The perianth segments curl backward at anthesis, and in the process increase the distance between the pollen and the stigma. Flowers emit a strong scent and open for only one night. Flowers generally open in the late afternoon around 15:00 hours and close in the early hours of the following morning around 07:00 hours, suggesting that pollination is by nocturnal insects, probably moths (Takawira and Nordal, 2002).        

Phenology

In Zimbabwe, S. hyacinthoides flowers between November and March (Takawira and Nordal, 2002). For the West Indies, plants have been collected in the flowering phase from December to April for the Smithsonian Herbarium Collections.        

Longevity

Sansevieria speciesare extremely long lived plants that can survive more than 50 years (Stover, 1983).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Preferred < 430mm annual precipitation

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 1.5
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 35-40

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall5001000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline
  • shallow

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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S. hyacinthoides can be dispersed by seeds, leaf cuttings and rhizomes. Seeds are dispersed mainly by birds while leaf segments and rhizomes can be dispersed in garden waste (ISSG, 2012). Several Sansevieria species are also sold in the nursery and landscape trade.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionUsed as a fibre crop Yes Yes Langeland et al., 2008
Escape from confinement or garden escapeCommonly escapes from gardens and yards Yes Langeland et al., 2008
Garden waste disposalLeaf segments and rhizomes Yes Langeland et al., 2008
Internet salesPlants and seeds are still sold by internet Yes Yes ISSG, 2012
Landscape improvementCommonly planted in gardens and yards Yes Yes Langeland et al., 2008
Medicinal useUsed in traditional medicine Yes Langeland et al., 2008
Nursery trade Yes Yes ISSG, 2012
Ornamental purposesCommonly planted in gardens and yards Yes Yes Langeland et al., 2008

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
MailPlants and seeds are still sold over the internet Yes Yes ISSG, 2012

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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S. hyacinthoides is classified as a weed and it is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). S. hyacinthoides has the potential to negatively impact and disrupt native vegetation communities in dry and arid ecosystems as well as in more moist habitats (ISSG, 2012). This species is able to grow rapidly, forming extensive underground rhizome networks and impenetrable aboveground thickets that can out-compete and displace native vegetation (Langeland et al., 2008; ISSG, 2012).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Loss of medicinal resources
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Competition - strangling
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Hybridization
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Members of Sansevieria are of great economic importance as ornamental plants mainly due to the multicolored and mottled leaves and the interesting wide variation in leaf shapes (Nazeer and Khoshoo 1984). Sansevieria species are also used as a source of fibre and in traditional African medicine. In Africa (i.e., Tanzania, South Africa, and Zimbabwe) leaves and rhizomes of S. hyacinthoides are squeezed and the juice is used in the treatment of ear infections, ear aches, toothache, haemorrhoids, ulcers and intestinal worms, stomach disorders and diarrhea (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962; Wyk and Gericke, 2000).

Uses List

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Materials

  • Fibre

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Potted plant
  • Propagation material
  • Seed trade

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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S. hyacinthoides is very similar to Sansevieria trifasciata but having a red-brown line to the margins of the leaves. Margins of leaves in S. trifasciata are green or white, lacking the reddish line (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005).

Prevention and Control

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Physical/Mechanical Control

S. hyacinthoides is difficult to control because it forms extensive rhizome networks and thickets. Plants should be removed by digging or hand-pulling and removed from the site. All leaf segments and rhizomes have to be removed because they have the potential to re-sprout. 

Chemical Control

Plants of S. hyacinthoides should be cut down to ground level and can be treated with:

  • 5% 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid butoxyethyl ester
  • 5% Glyphosate: N-phosphonomethyl-glycine

Plants may take 6-12 months to die, and follow-up applications of herbicides are necessary. Dense populations may require initial physical removal (Kline and Duquesnel, 1996; Langeland and Stocker, 2009). Kline and Duquesnel (1996) describe the effectiveness of glyphosate as "moderate".

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2005. Monocots and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, volume 52:415 pp.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Adams CD, 1972. Flowering Plants of Jamaica. University of the West Indies, 267.

Balick MJ; Nee M; Atha DE, 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 85:1-246.

Boldingh I, 1914. The flora of the Dutch West Indian Islands: The Flora of Aruba, Curaçao and Bonaire. Leyden, Netherlands: EJ. Brill, 244 pp. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/20608

Britton NL, 1918. Flora of Bermuda. New York, USA: Charles Scribner's Sons. 585 pp.

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Connor RA, 2008. Anguilla Invasive Species Strategy (draft). http://www.gov.ai/documents/Anguilla%20Invasive%20Species%20Strategy%202008%20(2).pdf

Correll DS; Correll HB, 1982. Flora of the Bahama Archipelago. Vaduz, Germany: J. Cramer, 1692 pp.

eFloras, 2012. Flora of Taiwan checklist. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=101

Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011. Florida EPPC's 2011 Invasive Plant Species List. http://www.fleppc.org/list/11list.html

GANGSTAD EO; JOYNER JF; SEALE CC, 1951. Agronomic characteristics of sansevieria species. Tropical Agriculture, 28:204-14.

Gibbs Russell GE; Welman WG; Reitief E; Immelman KL; Germishuizen G; Pienaar BJ; Wyk Mvan; Nicholas A, 1987. List of species of southern African plants. Memoirs of the Botanical Survey of South Africa, 2(1 & 2):1-152 & 1-270.

González-Torres LR; Rankin R; Palmarola A (eds), 2012. Invasive plants in Cuba. (Plantas Invasoras en Cuba.) Bissea: Boletin sobre Conservacion de Plantad del Jardin Botanico Nacional, 6:1-140.

Gordon DR; Thomas KP, 1997. Florida's Invasion by Nonindigenous Plants: History, Screening, and Regulation. In: Strangers in Paradise, Impact and Management of Nonindigenous Species in Florida [ed. by Simberloff, D. \Schmitz, D. C. \Brown, T. C.]. Washington DC, USA: Island Press, 21-37.

Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). http://www.saintlucianplants.com

Hardman C, 2009. Invasive plants in the Turks and Caicos Islands. London, UK: Imperial College of London.

ISSG, 2012. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland. http://www.issg.org/database

Kline WN; Duquesnel JG, 1996. Management of Invasive Exotics with Herbicides in Florida. Down to Earth, 51(2):22-28.

Koller AL; Rost TL, 1988. Leaf anatomy in Sansevieria (Agavaceae). American Journal of Botany, 75(5):615-633.

Langeland KA; Cherry HM; McCormick CM; Craddock Burks KA, 2008. Identification and Biology of Non-native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas. Gainesville, Florida, USA: University of Florida IFAS Extension.

Langeland KA; Stocker RK, 2009. Control of Non-Native Plants in Natural Areas of Florida. Gainesville, USA: University of Florida. [Publication SP 242.] http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/WG209

MENZEL MY; PATE JB, 1960. Chromosomes and crossing behavior of some species of Sansevieria. American Journal of Botany, 47:230-38.

Nazeer MA; Khoshoo TN, 1984. Cytology of some species of Sansevieria Thunb. Cytologia, 49(2):325-332.

Nyenya RT; Stedje B, 2011. Ethnobotanical studies in the genus Sansevieria Thunb. (Asparagaceae) in Zimbabwe. Ethnobotany Research and Applications, 9:421-433. http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/handle/10125/23541

PIER, 2012. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Proctor GR, 1984. Flora of the Cayman Islands. London, UK: Royal Botanical Gardens, 834 pp.

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plantshttp://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/
Everglades Cooperative Invasive Species Management Areahttp://www.evergladescisma.org
Florida Exotic Pest Plant Councilhttp://www.fleppc.org
Florida’s Nature: Exotic and Invasive plants in Floridahttp://www.floridasnature.com/exotics2.htm
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)http://www.hear.org/Pier/index.html

Contributors

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20/11/12 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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