Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ampelopsis arborea
(peppervine)

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Datasheet

Ampelopsis arborea (peppervine)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ampelopsis arborea
  • Preferred Common Name
  • peppervine
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. arborea is a deciduous or semi-evergreen vine which can either grow near the ground or as a climber. It is reported as invasive for Cuba, but without information about the spread and invasiveness in that cou...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Ampelopsis arborea (peppervine); foliage.
TitleFoliage
CaptionAmpelopsis arborea (peppervine); foliage.
Copyright©James H. Miller & Ted Bodner/Southern Weed Science Society/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Ampelopsis arborea (peppervine); foliage.
FoliageAmpelopsis arborea (peppervine); foliage.©James H. Miller & Ted Bodner/Southern Weed Science Society/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Ampelopsis arborea (peppervine); habit, showing foliage. USA.
TitleHabit
CaptionAmpelopsis arborea (peppervine); habit, showing foliage. USA.
Copyright©Louisiana State University AgCenter/Adam A. Agosta
Ampelopsis arborea (peppervine); habit, showing foliage. USA.
HabitAmpelopsis arborea (peppervine); habit, showing foliage. USA.©Louisiana State University AgCenter/Adam A. Agosta
Ampelopsis arborea (peppervine); foliage and habit. USA.
TitleHabit
CaptionAmpelopsis arborea (peppervine); foliage and habit. USA.
Copyright©Chris Evans/University of Illinois/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Ampelopsis arborea (peppervine); foliage and habit. USA.
HabitAmpelopsis arborea (peppervine); foliage and habit. USA.©Chris Evans/University of Illinois/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Ampelopsis arborea (peppervine); habit, showing tendrils. USA
TitleHabit
CaptionAmpelopsis arborea (peppervine); habit, showing tendrils. USA
Copyright©Louisiana State University AgCenter/G. Suanne Bacque-2005
Ampelopsis arborea (peppervine); habit, showing tendrils. USA
HabitAmpelopsis arborea (peppervine); habit, showing tendrils. USA©Louisiana State University AgCenter/G. Suanne Bacque-2005
Ampelopsis arborea (peppervine); flowers. USA.
TitleFlowers
CaptionAmpelopsis arborea (peppervine); flowers. USA.
Copyright©Louisiana State University AgCenter/Adam A. Agosta-2003
Ampelopsis arborea (peppervine); flowers. USA.
FlowersAmpelopsis arborea (peppervine); flowers. USA.©Louisiana State University AgCenter/Adam A. Agosta-2003
Ampelopsis arborea (peppervine); foliage and ripening fruits. USA. October 2011.
TitleFoliage
CaptionAmpelopsis arborea (peppervine); foliage and ripening fruits. USA. October 2011.
Copyright©Rebekah D. Wallace/University of Georgia/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Ampelopsis arborea (peppervine); foliage and ripening fruits. USA. October 2011.
FoliageAmpelopsis arborea (peppervine); foliage and ripening fruits. USA. October 2011.©Rebekah D. Wallace/University of Georgia/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Ampelopsis arborea (peppervine); foliage and fruits. August 2007. USA.
TitleFoliage and fruits
CaptionAmpelopsis arborea (peppervine); foliage and fruits. August 2007. USA.
Copyright©Franklin Bonner/USFS/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Ampelopsis arborea (peppervine); foliage and fruits. August 2007. USA.
Foliage and fruitsAmpelopsis arborea (peppervine); foliage and fruits. August 2007. USA.©Franklin Bonner/USFS/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Ampelopsis arborea (peppervine); fruiting habit. USA.
TitleFruiting habit
CaptionAmpelopsis arborea (peppervine); fruiting habit. USA.
Copyright©James H. Miller/USDA Forest Service/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Ampelopsis arborea (peppervine); fruiting habit. USA.
Fruiting habitAmpelopsis arborea (peppervine); fruiting habit. USA.©James H. Miller/USDA Forest Service/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ampelopsis arborea (L.) Koehne

Preferred Common Name

  • peppervine

Other Scientific Names

  • Ampelopsis bipinnata Michx.
  • Cissus arborea (L.) Des Moul.
  • Cissus bipinnata (Michx.) Nutt.
  • Cissus orientalis A.Gray
  • Cissus stans Pers.
  • Hedera arborea (L.) Walter
  • Nekemias arborea (L.) J.Wen & Boggan
  • Vitis arborea L.
  • Vitis bipinnata (Michx.) Torr. & A.Gray

International Common Names

  • English: pepper vine

Local Common Names

  • Cuba: barrita de playa; parrita de playa
  • Germany: Baumartige Scheinrebe; Baumartige Zaunrebe
  • USA: buckvine; cow itch

EPPO code

  • AMCAR (Ampelopsis arborea)

Summary of Invasiveness

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A. arborea is a deciduous or semi-evergreen vine which can either grow near the ground or as a climber. It is reported as invasive for Cuba, but without information about the spread and invasiveness in that country (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012). Although it is not reported as invasive elsewhere, Kimbrough (2008) and Hawkins et al. (2010) argue that the species could overtake other plants due to its growth habit; and that it can smother other species, making it an undesirable plant for cultivation. Hall (1984) reports that it is a weed in citrus groves. Its fruits are attractive to birds and mammals, which act as dispersers of the species (Kimbrough, 2008).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Rhamnales
  •                         Family: Vitaceae
  •                             Genus: Ampelopsis
  •                                 Species: Ampelopsis arborea

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The Vitaceae consist of about 14 genera and 900 species, mainly occurring in tropical regions. The family is known for its economic uses, mainly for grapes, wine and raisins production. Three genera are from temperate regions: Vitis, Parthenocissus and Ampelopsis.

Ampelopsis is a genus of about 25 species; the majority occurring in Asia, with a disjunct distribution of three species in North America and extending into Central America (Lombardi, 2000). Wen et al. (2014) proposed the segregation of 10 species of Ampelopsis to Nekemias, nine occurring in Asia and Nekemias arborea (L.) J.Wen & Boggan (=A. arborea) in North America. This Compendium follows The Plant List (2013), and Ampelopsis arborea (L.) Koehne as the recognized name for the species.

Description

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The following description is from the Wildflower Center, 2016:

A deciduous to semi-evergreen vine that can be ground cover-like, but is often high-climbing and bushy. Grows 35 ft. or more. Foliage is bi- or tri-pinnately compound and dark-green, turning pale-yellow in autumn. Leaves up to 6 inches or more long and equally wide, with a central axis and 1 to 3 pairs of lateral axes supporting leaflets. Leaflets roughly ovate, coarsely toothed, dark green on the upper surface, lighter on the lower. Flat-topped clusters of tiny, green flowers are followed by clusters of pea-sized, bluish-purple berries. Fruit fleshy, up to 5/8 inch in diameter, black and shiny when ripe, inedible.

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated
Vine / climber
Woody

Distribution

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A. arborea is native to North America (north-central, northeastern, south-central and southeastern regions of the United States) and the north of Mexico (See Distribution Table for details; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016). Its status in Cuba is unsettled, being declared as either native or introduced (Lombardi, 2000; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; Wen et al., 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2016). It has been introduced to Barbuda (Broome et al., 2007). The species was reported for Puerto Rico, but Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012) argue that the species does not occur on the island. It was introduced in the United Kingdom as a garden plant in 1700, but there is no evidence of naturalization in that country (Jarvis, 1973). 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

North America

MexicoPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaWidespreadNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015
-ArkansasWidespreadNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015
-CaliforniaPresentNativeWyman, 1944
-FloridaWidespreadNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015
-GeorgiaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015
-IllinoisPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015
-IndianaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015
-KentuckyPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
-LouisianaPresentNativeBrown, 1930; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015
-MarylandPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015
-MississippiWidespreadNativeHawkins et al., 2010; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015
-MissouriWidespreadNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015
-New MexicoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
-North CarolinaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015
-OhioPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
-OklahomaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015
-South CarolinaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015
-TennesseePresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015
-TexasWidespreadNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015
-VirginiaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015The most abundant species of the shrub-sapling layer of hardwood forests
-West VirginiaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015
Puerto RicoUnconfirmed recordIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez, 2005Recorded for PR, but presence could not be confirmed. If present in gardens, it is not common

Europe

UKPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced1700 Not invasive Jarvis, 1973For horticulture.

History of Introduction and Spread

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A. arborea was introduced in the United Kingdom as a horticultural garden plant in 1700 (Jarvis, 1973), but there are no reports of the species spreading in the country. It is known from the mid 1800's from Cuba and although is reported as an invasive, no details are given on its spread (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016).

Risk of Introduction

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A. arborea has a low risk of introduction. At present it is only reported as introduced in Barbuda and Cuba; it is thought to be invasive on the latter island but details are lacking (Broome et al., 2007; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012). In its native range it is noted as having the potential of becoming weedy in gardens and cultivated lands (Hall, 1984; Kimbrough, 2008; Hawkins et al., 2010). In its natural habitats it is mostly listed as occasional, uncommon or infrequent (Montz, 1972; Nixon, 1975; Jones, 1983; Horvitz et al., 1995; Singhurst et al., 2003; Wilder and Barry, 2012). It is available from some nurseries in the United States, advertising it as a good species to attract pollinators, and to use as a ground cover, for walls, fences and trellises (Wildflower Center, 2016). It has the potential to spread through cultivation, should it become a popular garden plant. In its native range, birds and mammals are reported as eating the fruits and dispersing the seeds through their droppings (Kimbrough, 2008).

Habitat

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A. arborea is reported as growing in hardwood forests, swamps, marshes, stream banks, spoil banks in wetlands, bluffs, shrub lands and prairies (Gemborys, 1974; Schneider and Sharitz, 1986; Stalter, 1984; Easley and Judd, 1993; Kelly, 2006; Nolfo-Clements, 2006; MacRoberts et al., 2009). Near the coasts it is found in salt marshes, estuaries, mudflats and sand dunes (Coker 1905; Evans, 1979; Easley and Judd, 1990; Hoffman and Dawes, 1997; Stalter et al., 1999). It is listed with the FACW, FAC, FACU and UPL wetland indicators, which classify it as a species that can occur in wetlands and uplands (National Wetland Plant List, 2016).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Wetlands Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural
Coastal dunes Present, no further details Natural
Mud flats Present, no further details Natural
Salt marshes Present, no further details Natural
Brackish
Estuaries Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number for A. arborea is reported as 2n=40 (Lewis, 1958).

Reproductive Biology

A. arborea flowers are inconspicuous and visited by a wide array of insects, including the honey bee, Apis mellifera (Mackensen and Tucker, 1973; Kimbrough, 2008). Internet sites for gardening and nurseries advertise the species as a good plant to attract pollinators. Fruits mature at different rates. Fruits are fleshy and attractive to birds and mammals, which disperse the seed in their droppings. For seed germination the recommended method is soaking the seeds in water at 20°C for 24 hours, and germinating them at 24°C in 75-80% humidity with a 15-hour photoperiod (Hall, 1984). The species can reproduce asexually through hardwood and semi hardwood cuttings and runners (Kimbrough, 2008).

Physiology and Phenology

The species is reported to be fast growing, either as a ground cover or a climbing vine. Flowering occurs from April to September. Fruits are found from June to October. The foliage turns pale yellow in autumn and it is deciduous in winter (Hall, 1984; Wildflower Center, 2016).

Environmental Requirements

Reported requirements for the species are: pH 6.8 to 7.2; soils sandy, sandy loams, medium loams and clay loams; in sun to partial shade (Wildflower Center, 2016). Harper (1943) reports that A. arborea prefers lime rich soils. The species is reported to survive prolonged flooding for 3-4 months (Brown, 1929; Noble and Murphy, 1975). 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
20-39

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -25
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 25

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall8901500mm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline
  • shallow

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aphis illinoisensis Herbivore Leaves/Stems not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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A. arborea is affected by various herbivorous insects, including Aphis illionensis and Capraita saltator (Nielsson et al., 1971; Flowers et al., 1994). The pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, is also reported on the species (Janse and Obradovic, 2010).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Seeds are reported to be dispersed by birds and mammals (Titus, 1991; Kimbrough, 2008).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Digestion and excretionDispersed by bird and mammal droppings Yes Kimbrough, 2008; Titus, 1991
HorticulturePlants and seeds sold at nurseries. Yes Yes
Internet sales Yes Yes
Nursery trade Yes Yes
Ornamental purposesUsed as ground cover, for walls, fences and trellises Yes Yes Kimbrough, 2008; Wildflower Center, 2016

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Machinery and equipmentVegetative pieces are reported to be moved by machinery at citrus groves Yes Hall, 1984

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Negative

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Infrastructure damage
Impact mechanisms
  • Causes allergic responses
  • Competition - smothering
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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A. arborea is used as an ornamental due to its fast growth, its attractive foliage and to attract pollinators and wildlife (Kimbrough, 2008; Wildflower Center, 2016). It is also used for cattle grazing on managed pastures (Kirby and Stuth, 1982).

A. arborea fruits are attractive to birds and mammals (Kimbrough, 2008; Wildflower Center, 2016). The species is reported to be eaten by the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus), the fulvous harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys fulvescens), the rice rat (Oryzomys palustris) and deer (Odocoileus virginianus) (Lay, 1965; Cameron et al., 1979; Bradley Kincaid and Cameron, 1982; Whitaker et al., 2012). It also attracts song birds and wood ducks, Aix sponsa (McGilvery, 1966; Wildflower Center, 2016).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Forage

Environmental

  • Wildlife habitat

Ornamental

  • garden plant
  • Potted plant
  • Seed trade

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Two species of Ampelopsis are native to North America, A. arborea with compound leaves, and fruits maturing to dark blue-black and A. cordata with simple leaves and fruits maturing to purplish-blue (Lombardi, 2000).

A. arborea is often mistaken with poison ivy, Toxicodendron radicans, both with compound leaves. In A. arborea new leaves are purple red, 2-3 pinnately compound with mature fruits that are red to blue-black. The poison ivy leaves are trifoliate with the mature fruits grey to white (Kimbrough, 2008).

Prevention and Control

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Physical/mechanical control

Hand pulling during the spring before flower buds appear, is the preferred management option for the control of A. arborea in gardens (Kimbrough, 2008). Mowing is not recommended as it can spread the vine fragments (Hall, 1984).

Chemical control

Glyphosate is recommended for the control of A. arborea (Schmalzer et al., 2002). Kimbrough (2008) suggests cutting the older vines near the ground and treating the cuts with a broadleaf herbicide. Treatment of emerging vines with a contact or systemic herbicide is also recommended (Hall, 1984).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Information about the invasiveness of the species and its effects over the invaded habitats and the biodiversity is needed.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2005. Vines and climbing plants of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 51:483 pp.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Bradley Kincaid W; Cameron GN, 1982. Dietary variation in three sympatric rodents on the Texas coastal prairie. Journal of Mammalogy, 63(4):668-672.

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Brown CA, 1929. Development of the vegetation inside the levee following the high water of 1927. Torreya, 29(2):32-41.

Brown CA, 1930. Plants observed on an excursion to Grand Isle, Louisiana. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 57(7):509-513.

Cameron GN; Fleharty ED; Watts HA, 1979. Geographic variation in the energy content of cotton rats. Journal of Mammalogy, 60(4):817-820.

Coker WC, 1905. Observations on the flora of the Isle of Palms, Charleston, S.C. Torreya, 5(8):135-145.

Easley Mc; Judd WS, 1990. Vascular flora of the southern upland property of Paynes Prairie State Preserve, Alachua County, Florida. Castanea, 55(3):142-186.

Easley MC; Judd WS, 1993. Vascular flora of Little Talbot Island, Duval County, Florida. Castanea, 58(3):162-177.

Evans DK, 1979. Floristics of the middle Mississippi River sand and mud flats. Castanea, 44(1):8-24.

Flowers RW; Furth DG; Thomas MC, 1994. Notes on the distribution and biology of some Florida leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Coleopterists Bulletin, 48(1):79-89.

Gemborys SR, 1974. The structure of hardwood forest ecosystems of Prince Edward County, Virginia. Ecology, 55(3):614-621.

Hall DW, 1984. Pepper vine - working its way into Florida groves. Citrus Industry, 65(10):25-26.

Harper RM, 1943. Hemlock in the Tennessee Valley of Alabama. Castanea, 8:115-23.

Hawkins TS; Skojac Jr DA; Schiff NM; Leininger TD, 2010. Floristic composition and potential competitors in the Lindera melissifolia (Lauraceae) colonies in Mississippi with the reference to hydrologic regime. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 4(1):381-390.

Hoffman BA; Dawes CJ, 1997. Vegetational and abiotic analysis of the salterns of mangals and salt marshes of the west coast of Florida. Journal of Coastal Research, 13(1):147-154.

Horvitz CC; McMann S; Freedman A, 1995. Exotics and hurricane damage in three hardwood hammocks in Dade County Parks, Florida. Journal of Coastal Research, 21(Special Issue):145-158. [Impacts of Hurricane Andrew on the Coastal Zones of Florida and Louisiana: 22-26 August 1992.]

Jarvis PJ, 1973. North American plants and horticultural innovation in England, 1500-1700. Geographical Review, 63(4):477-499.

Jones RL, 1983. Woody flora of Shiloh National Military Park, Hardin County, Tennessee. Castanea, 48(4):289-299.

Kelly L, 2006. The vascular flora of Huggins Island, Onslow County, North Carolina. Castanea, 71(4):295-311.

Kimbrough MGM, 2008. Peppervine (Ampelopsis arborea), Horticulture Update. http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/newsletters/hortupdate/2008/jan08/Peppervine.html

Kirby DR; Stuth JW, 1982. Botanical composition of cattle diets grazing brush managed pastures in east-central Texas. Journal of Range Management, 35(4):434-436.

Lay DW, 1965. Fruit utilization by deer in southern forests. Journal of Wildlife Management, 29:370-375.

Lewis WH, 1958. Chromosome numbers for Ampelopsis arborea (Vitaceae) and Linaria texana (Scrophulariaceae). The Southwestern Naturalist, 3(1/4):214.

Lombardi JA, 2000. Vitaceae: Generos Ampelocissus, Ampelopsis e Cissus. Flora Neotropica, 80:1-250.

Mackensen O; Tucker SC, 1973. Preference for some other pollens shown by lines of honeybees selected for high and low alfalfa pollen collection. Journal of Apicultural Research, 12(3):187-190.

MacRoberts BR; MacRoberts MH; Reid CS; Faulkner PL, 2009. Vascular flora of Morse Clay Prairies in northwerstern Louisiana. Journal of Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 3(1):355-366.

McGilvery FB, 1966. Fall food habits of wood ducks from Lake Marion, South Carolina. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 30(1):193-195.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Mohlenbrock RH, 1959. Plant communities in Jackson County, Illinois. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 86(2):109-19.

Montz GN, 1972. A seasonal study of the vegetation on leeves. Castanea, 37(2):140-146.

National Wetland Plant List, 2016. National Wetland Plant List. http://rsgisias.crrel.usace.army.mil/NWPL/#

Nielsson RJ; Bhatkar AP; Denmark HA, 1971. A preliminary list of ants associated with aphids in Florida. Florida Entomologist, 54:245-248.

Nixon ES, 1975. Successional stages in a hardwood bottomland forest near Dallas, Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist, 20(3):323-335.

Noble RE; Murphy PK, 1975. Short-term effects of prolonged backwater flooding on understory vegetation. Castanea, 40(3):228-238.

Nolfo-Clements LE, 2006. Vegetative survey of wetland habitats at Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve in southeastern Louisiana. Southeastern Naturalist, 5(3):499-514.

Oviedo Prieto R; Herrera Oliver P; Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

Schmalzer PA; Turek SR; Foster TE; Dunlevy CA; Adrian FW, 2002. Reestablishing Florida scrub in a former agricultural site: survival and growth of planted species and changes in community composition. Castanea, 67(2):146-160.

Schneider RL; Sharitz RR, 1986. Seed bank dynamics in a southeastern riverine swamp. American Journal of Botany, 73(7):1022-1030.

Singhurst JR; Cathy JC; Prochaska D; Haucke H; Kroh GC; Holmes WC, 2003. The vascular flora of Gus Engeling Wildlife Management Area, Anderson County, Texas. Southeastern Naturalist, 2(3):347-368.

Stalter R, 1984. The flora of Bull Island, Charleston County, South Carolina. Bartonia, 50:27-30.

Stalter R; Leyva M; Kincaid DT, 1999. The Flora of Indian shell rings from coastal South Carolina to northern Florida. SIDA, Contributions to Botany, 18(3):861-875.

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org

Titus JH, 1991. Seed bank of a hardwood floodplain swamp in Florida. Castanea, 56(2):117-127.

Toth LA, 2005. Plant community structure and temporal variability in a channelized subtropical floodplain. Southeastern Naturalist, 4(3):393-408.

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). National Plant Germplasm System. Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Wen J; Boggan J; Nie ZeLong, 2014. Synopsis of Nekemias Raf., a segregate genus from Ampelopsis Michx. (Vitaceae) disjunct between eastern/southeastern Asia and eastern North America, with ten new combinations. PhytoKeys, No.42:11-19. http://phytokeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=4070

Whitaker Jr JO; Ruckdeschel C; Bakken L, 2012. Food of the armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus L. from Cumberland Island, GA. Southeastern Naturalist, 11(3):487-506.

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Wildflower Center, 2016. Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center. https://www.wildflower.org

Wyman D, 1944. Available rapid growing vines for the United States. Arnoldia, 4(9/11):45-64.

Zomlefer WB; Giannasi DE; Judd WS; Kruse; LM; Bettinger KA, 2004. A floristic survey of Fort Matanzas National Monument, St. Johns county, Florida. SIDA, Contributions to Botany, 21(2):1081-1106.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Atlas of Florida Vascular Plantshttp://florida.plantatlas.usf.edu
National Wetland Plant Listhttp://rsgisias.crrel.usace.army.mil/NWPL/#
Plants for a future, edible, medicinal and useful plants for a healthier worldhttp://www.pfaf.org/database
Plants of the Eastern Caribbeanhttp://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html
Wildflower Centerhttps://www.wildflower.org/about.php

Contributors

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28/05/2016 Original text by:

Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán, University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez

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