Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pectobacterium parmentieri
(black leg disease of potato)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Pectobacterium parmentieri (black leg disease of potato)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 February 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pectobacterium parmentieri
  • Preferred Common Name
  • black leg disease of potato
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Enterobacteriales
  •         Family: Enterobacteriaceae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Pectobacterium parmentieri is a bacterial pathogen of potato present in Europe since the 1960s. The bacterium was earlier classified as Pectobacterium carotovorum. After reclassification of P. caro...

  • Principal Source
  • Draft datasheet under review.

  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

    If you can supply pictures for this datasheet please contact:

    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pectobacterium parmentieri Khayi et al. 2016

Preferred Common Name

  • black leg disease of potato

Other Scientific Names

  • Erwinia carotovora subsp. wasabiae Goto and Matsumoto, 1987
  • Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. wasabiae (Goto and Matsumoto, 1987) Hauben et al. 1999
  • Pectobacterium wasabiae Gardan et al. 2003

International Common Names

  • English: soft rot; stem rot
  • French: jambe noire

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

Pectobacterium parmentieri is a bacterial pathogen of potato present in Europe since the 1960s. The bacterium was earlier classified as Pectobacterium carotovorum. After reclassification of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum SCC3193 to P. wasabiae and later on to P. parmentieri, several studies devoted to identification of pectinolytic bacteria in international collections and identification of the strains isolated from infected potato plants have indicated that this bacteria commonly occurs in several regions of Europe, Canada, USA, New Zealand and South Africa. P. parmentieri can cause symptoms of blackleg and soft rot on potato tubers. These diseases are usually a consequence of latent infection of seed potatoes. In the majority of countries pre-basic and basic seed tuber potatoes intended for the production of seed tuber crops should be free of Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. P. parmentieri is not present on any international or national alert lists.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Enterobacteriales
  •                 Family: Enterobacteriaceae
  •                     Genus: Pectobacterium
  •                         Species: Pectobacterium parmentieri

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Erwinia carotovora subsp. wasabiae was isolated for the first time in the late 1980s from rotting Japanese horseradish (Goto and Matsumoto, 1987). Hauben et al. (1998) later established the genus Pectobacterium and all pectinolytic Erwinia were transferred to this new taxon. In this classification, the genus Pectobacterium included two species: Pectobacterium carotovorum and Pectobacterium chrysanthemum.P. carotovorum was divided into four species including Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. wasabiae. Subsequently, subspecies P.carotovorum subsp. wasabiae was elevated to species level, namely: Pectobacterium wasabiae (Gardan et al., 2003). Neither the occurrence of P. wasabiae on potato, nor its presence outside of Japan was reported before 2009. Pitman et al. (2010) demonstrated that P. wasabiae was capable of causing disease symptoms on potato plants in New Zealand. In 2012 P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum SCC3193, a bacterial strain widely used as a model in molecular studies (Eriksson et al., 1998; Koskinen et al., 2012) was reclassified as P. wasabiae SCC3193 (Nykyri et al., 2012). This reclassification was followed by further renaming of strains deposited in international collections as P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum to P. wasabiae (de Boer et al., 2012; Nabhan et al., 2012a, b; Slawiak et al., 2013; Waleron et al., 2013). Recent comprehensive analysis based on DDH, gANI and ANI values calculated in silico on P. wasabiae genomes resulted in reclassification of all P. wasabiae potato-originating isolates into a newly established species P. parmentieri (Khayi et al., 2016).

Description

Top of page

Strains of P. parmentieri are Gram-negative, rod-shaped necrotrophs which destroy plant tissue components through the activity of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes such as pectinases, cellulases and proteases secreted via Type I or II secretion systems (Chatterjee et al., 1995; Liu et al., 1999; Charkowski et al., 2012) but lack the Type III secretion system (Kim et al., 2009). Pectinases (pectate and pectine lyases, polygalacturonases, methyl- and acyl- ) and cellulases play a major role in the virulence of soft-rotting pathogens as they degrade the primary cell walls of infected plants. Proteases are also mentioned as they disrupt host plant protoplasts via degradation of transmembrane proteins (Marits et al., 1999). Effective spread of the pathogen through the plant's vascular system, often referred to as motility of the strain, is essential for the development of disease symptoms (Toth et al., 2003). The efficient production of iron scavenging molecules, siderophores, provides cofactors involved in almost all life-supporting processes (Ishimaru and Loper, 1992).

The Type strain is P. parmentieri CFBP 8475T isolated from potato plants in France (Khayi et al., 2016)

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

IranPresent2011Baghaee-Ravari et al., 2011
JapanRestricted distribution1985Goto and Matsumoto, 1987
MalaysiaRestricted distribution2011Golkhandan et al. 2013a; Golkhandan et al. 2013bFirst record in Malaysia (Cameron Highlands and Johor State 2011)
TurkeyWidespread2015 Invasive Ozturk et al., 2016

Africa

South AfricaRestricted distributionMoleleki et al., 2013
ZimbabweRestricted distributionNgadze et al., 2012

North America

CanadaWidespreadde Boer et al., 2012
USARestricted distribution1973 Invasive Waleron et al. 2013 ; Yap et al., 2004
-MichiganRestricted distribution2016 Invasive Rosenzweig et al., 2016classified as Pectobacterium wasabiae
-WashingtonRestricted distribution2008 Invasive Dung et al., 2012Aerial stem rot of potato; classified as Pectobacterium wasabiae
-WisconsinWidespread2004 Invasive Yap et al., 2004; Ma et al., 2007; Kim et al., 2009Recorded in 2004, 2007 and 2009; classified as Pectobacterium wasabiae

Europe

FinlandWidespread1980 Invasive Nykyri et al., 2012; Pasanen et al., 2013; Waleron et al., 2013First record in Finland 1980; classified as Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora
FranceWidespread2004Khayi et al., 2015First record in France 2004; classified as Pectobacterium wasabiae
GermanyRestricted distribution1989Nabhan et al. 2012
IrelandRestricted distribution1962Nabhan et al. 2012
NetherlandsWidespread1993de Haan et al., 2008; Waleron et al., 2013Classified as Virulent P. c. subsp. carotovorum. First record in Netherlands 1993; classified as Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora and obtained in strain collection.
NorwayDees et al., 2017
PolandWidespread1996 Invasive Waleron et al., 2002; Sławiak et al., 2013; Waleron et al., 2013First record in Poland in 1996; classified as Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora
Russian FederationPresentHa et al., 2019
-Central RussiaPresentHa et al., 2019
SerbiaRestricted distributionWaleron et al., 2013First record in Serbia in 1997; classified as Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora
SpainRestricted distributionSuárez et al., 2017First record in Spain (Castile & Leon) 2009; classified as P. parmentieri
SwitzerlandWidespread2013 Invasive de Werra et al., 2015
UKRestricted distribution1977Waleron et al., 2013First record in Scotland in 1977; classified as Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora

Oceania

New ZealandWidespread2008 Invasive Pitman et al., 2008First record in New Zealand in 2008; classified as Pectobacterium wasabiae

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

P. parmentieri was formerly classified as Erwinia carotovora, Pectobacterium carotovorum and later as Pectobacterium wasabiae. Neither the occurrence of P. wasabiae on potato, nor its presence outside of Japan was reported before 2009. Pitman et al. (2010) demonstrated that P. wasabiae is capable of causing disease symptoms on potato plants in New Zealand. The presence in Europe of virulent strains of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum able to cause blackleg has been reported by Waleron et al. (2002; recA PCR-RFLP profile 3) and Haan et al. (2008; vPcc).

 In 2012, Nykyri et al. (2012) reported that P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum SCC3193, a model strain widely used in molecular biology of phytopathogens, was in fact P. wasabiae SCC3193. This event was a milestone in the research of P. wasabiae and triggered reclassification events in all international collections. Several reports confirmed the presence of P. wasabiae in Finland, France, Germany, Norway, Poland, Scotland, Spain, Switzerland, USA, Canada, Turkey, Malaysia and South Africa (de Boer et al., 2012; Dung et al., 2012; Ngadze et al., 2012; Nykyri et al., 2012Moleleki et al., 2013; Waleron et al., 2013; Werra et al., 2015; Ozturk et al., 2016; Rosenzweig et al., 2016; Dees et al., 2017; Suárez et al., 2017; Zoledowska et al., 2018). On the basis of additional studies and analysis of recA gene sequences, scientists concluded that P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum strains indicated recA PCR-RFLP profile 3 (Waleron et al., 2002) and vPcc (Haan et al., 2008) belong to P. wasabiae (Slawiak et al., 2013). The presence of P. wasabiae was finally confirmed in Europe since the 1960s (Nabhan et al., 2012b; Waleron et al., 2013).

With the development of NGS techniques, Pritchard et al. (2016) suggested division within P. wasabiae on the basis of gANI values. Most recent comprehensive analysis based on DDH, gANI, and ANI values calculated in silico on P. wasabiae genomes has resulted in reclassification of all P. wasabiae potato-originating isolates into a newly established species P. parmentieri (Khayi et al., 2016).

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

Increased international trade has played a major role in the spread of disease caused by P. parmentieri, while the distribution of seed potato tubers may be the main cause of its spread. There is no information about other plant hosts (particularly ornamentals) for P. parmentieri. There are also risks associated with unidentified pathways of accidental introduction of the organism to new areas.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain

Growth Stages

Top of page Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page

Symptoms only appear on potato plants. Latent infection is common on potato tubers.

Potato blackleg mainly occurs from plants derived from latently infected seed potatoes. It is more severe when host resistance is impaired. Pathogenesis of P. parmentieri is also temperature dependent. Potato stem diseases generally develop under wet and partially aerobic conditions. Blackleg develops as a consequence of pathogen multiplication in rotting (or latently infected) mother tubers. Infection of seed tubers or stem invasion by P. parmentieri soon after emergence can result in blanking (rotting and death of the whole plant). Stunting, chlorosis and wilting symptoms, caused by restriction of water flow in the xylem vessels following infection, tend to develop at that stage under dry conditions (Pérombelon, 2002).

Potato soft rot during storage is usually a consequence of latent infection of potato crops. The bacteria are sited intracellularly, in lenticels and in wounds, typically beyond the phylloderm layer. Symptoms of soft rot exhibit as tissue maceration with intact skin of potato. A characteristic odor occurs when additional bacteria are present in infected tissue (Perombelon and Kelman, 1980; Pérombelon, 2000).

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Growing point / rot
Growing point / wilt
Leaves / rot
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Stems / discoloration
Stems / necrosis
Stems / rot
Vegetative organs / soft rot
Vegetative organs / surface lesions or discoloration
Whole plant / damping off
Whole plant / discoloration
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback
Whole plant / wilt

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

The genome of Pectobacterium parmentieri SCC3193 consists of a single, circular chromosome of 5.16 Mbp, with an overall G+C content of 50%, without any plasmids. The chromosomal genome contains 4,705 predicted protein-coding sequences, 76 tRNA genes, 7 rRNA operons, and 2 CRISPR loci. On the basis of the orthologous grouping, 772 (16%) of the SCC3193 CDSs have no detectable homologs in any of the complete Pectobacterium or Dickeya proteomes published to date (Koskinen et al., 2012). There is a high variability in genome sequence among P. parmentieri strains when genomic fingerprinting using repetitive sequences-based PCR are applied (Versalovic et al., 1994). They exhibited in at least 5 REP-PCR genomic profiles (Zoledowska et al., 2018).  In Poland, profile I (also characteristic for P. parmentieri SCC3193 isolated in Finland) is the most abundant (approx. 44% of isolated strains). The recA gene-based phylogenetic analysis divided P. parmentieri strains isolated in different countries into two distinct clades. Evaluation of the phenotypic traits such as: pectinase, cellulase and protease activities, siderophore production in addition to potato tissue maceration, swimming and swarming motility also indicated significant differences among the characterized strains (Zoledowska et al., 2018). Genomic overview of type strain of P. parmentieri 08.42.1A (CFBP 8475T) indicated horizontal acquisition of quorum sensing genes (Khayi et al., 2015).

Physiology and phenology

P. parmentieri strains produce acids from (+)-raffinose, α-d(+)-α-lactose, d(+)-galactose and (+)-melibiose but not from methyl α-d-glycopyranoside, (+)-maltose or malonic acid. They are pectinolytic, form cavities on selective CVP medium and can rapidly macerate potato tissue.

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Tolerated Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Tolerated Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)
Df - Continental climate, wet all year Preferred Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

Natural dispersal

P. parmentieri can be dispersed by water, irrigation and aerosols.

Accidental introduction

P. parmentieri is associated with trade of infected or latently infected seed potatoes.

Seedborne Aspects

Top of page

Incidence

P. parmentieri has been present on potato in Europe since the 1960s. Data presented by Waleron et al. (2013) and Zoledowska et al. (2018) indicate that it is quite common in Polish seed potato plantations (about 15% of the population of pectinolytic bacteria).

P. parmentieri has been reported in the USA, Canada, Africa and New Zealand (Pitman et al., 2010; de Boer et al., 2012; Ngadze et al., 2012; Moleleki et al., 2013) but no epidemiological data are available.

Effect on seed quality

Plants affected by P. parmentieri show wilting, stunting and chlorosis, also black soft rot at the stem base, extending upwards from the mother tuber. When disease occurs just after emergence, blanking is observed in the field. In low-temperature growing regions, infections often develop  with dark colouring, chlorosis and wilting. As the disease progresses, stems wilt and blackleg symptoms appear. Contamination of foliage can result in aerial stem rot. Infected plants rapidly develop internal stem rotting, but externally the stem base appears healthy. P. parmentieri commonly causes rotting of developing progeny tubers in the field and/or soft rot in storage.

Seed potatoes with soft rot symptoms are not accepted for trading. Latent infections are monitored via isolation of bacteria on selective CVP media (Hélias et al., 2012), Real-Time PCR (Humphris et al., 2015, van der Wolf et al., 2017), PCR with the use of plant homogenates and species specific primers (de Boer et al., 2012; Potrykus et al., 2014). Recently, Cigna et al. (2017) reported the application of the gapA gene sequencing assay for identification of different Dickeya and Pectobacterium species including P. parmentieri.

If pectinolytic bacteria (P. parmentieri) are detected, pre-basic and basic seed potatoes are rejected.

Pathogen transmission

The rise in international trade of seed potatoes has increased the risk of introduction and spread of P. parmentieri. According to Toth et al. (2011) higher risks of introduction arise from more intensive exchange of seed potatoes and the implementation of environmentally friendly methods of biodegradable waste disposal, such as composting and anaerobic digestion. These methods do not involve sterilization, and pectinolytic bacteria such as P. parmentieri can survive these treatments, thus spreading is intensified.

Seed treatments

No effective seed treatments have been described.

Seed health tests

In the majority of countries, seed potato fields are visually inspected for the presence of blackleg. However, the best method for the detection and identification of P. parmentieri is Real-Time PCR with specific primers ( Humphris et al., 2015; van der Wolf et al., 2017) or Multiplex PCR with three pairs of specific primers (simultaneous identification of Pectobacterium atrosepticum, Dickeya spp. and P. carotovorum together with P. parmentieri (Potrykus et al., 2014)), followed by a PCR reaction with primers specific to P. parmentieri (de Boer et al., 2012) performed on stolon ends of potato seed tubers.

Pathway Causes

Top of page

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Host and vector organisms Yes

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible

Wood Packaging

Top of page
Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

Economic Impact

Top of page

There have been no specific studies on the impact of P. parmentieri on economic losses; however losses in European and other countries connected with the appearance of blackleg and seed potato declassification are obvious.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Increases vulnerability to invasions
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Damages animal/plant products
  • Negatively impacts trade/international relations
Impact mechanisms
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Induces hypersensitivity
  • Interaction with other invasive species
  • Pathogenic
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses List

Top of page

General

  • Laboratory use
  • Research model

Diagnosis

Top of page

Fields should be inspected by qualified inspectors to select infected plants. Detection and identification of P. parmentieri is performed using molecular diagnostic methods such as Real-Time PCR with specific primers (Humphris et al., 2015; van der Wolf et al., 2017) or Multiplex PCR with three pairs of specific primers (simultaneous identification of P. atrosepticum, Dickeya spp. and P. carotovorum together with P. parmentieri (Potrykus et al., 2014)), followed by a PCR reaction with primers specific to P. parmentieri (de Boer et al., 2012). Cigna et al. (2017) reported application of the gapA gene sequencing assay for identification of P. parmentieri. For a review of detection and identification methods for pectinolytic bacteria, see Czajkowski et al. (2015).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

P. parmentieri is a pathogen of potato. It can cause symptoms of blackleg and soft rot that are very similar to those caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense,P. atrosepticum, Dickeya solani and D. dianthicola. The best method for identification of P. parmentieri is Real-Time PCR with specific primers (Kim et al., 2012; Humphris et al., 2015; van der Wolf et al., 2017) or Multiplex PCR with three pairs of specific primers (simultaneous identification of P. atrosepticum, Dickeya spp. and P. carotovorum together with P. parmentieri (Potrykus et al., 2014) followed by a PCR reaction with primers specific to P. parmentieri (de Boer et al., 2012).

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Within the European Community (EC) P. parmentieri is important but is not a quarantine pest. It is controlled in the majority of Member States by their respective potato seed certification schemes. When potato seed production is initiated from pathogen-free microplants/microtubers and field production is limited to a restricted number of generations, the occurrence of P. parmentieri is limited (Toth et al., 2011). Control is based on visual inspection of field crops and tubers. However, latent infections are quite common and cannot be detected using this method. The post-harvest testing of seed potatoes is necessary to monitor seed stocks for the presence of bacteria from genus Pectobacterium and Dickeya (Czajkowski et al., 2011b). Certified pathogen-free seed potatoes should be cultivated. Latently infected seed potatoes should be rejected.

Eradication

There are no commercial methods available for eradication of P. parmentieri.

Recent studies have indicated that P. parmentieri is susceptible to attack from soil saprophytic bacteria and specific bacteriophages (Krzyzanowska et al., 2012; Czajkowski et al., 2011a, b; Smolarska et al., 2018).

Movement control

There are some measures that can reduce the impact and risk of spread of P. parmentieri from latently infected seed potatoes. Cleaning and disinfection of machinery, equipment and grading lines is very important and a range of disinfectants have shown efficacy in suppressing Dickeya solani (Czajkowski et al., 2011b). P. parmentieri has not been reported in waterways. A 3-year survey of Polish waterways did not detect P. parmentieri, however, P. carotovorum was detected.

Biological control

Biological control may be beneficial in reducing the impact of P. parmentieri. Smolarska et al. (2018) described bacteriophages of family Podoviride and order Caudovirales that infect some strains of P. parmentieri but not strains of other species of Pectobacterium and Dickeya. Antagonistic bacteria such as Ochrobactrum A44 and some strains of Pseudomonas sp. can be used to limit the spread of infection by Pectobacetrium and Dickeya (Czajkowski et al., 2011a; Krzyzanowska et al., 2012).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

Top of page

Further information is required on the geographical distribution of P. parmentieri. Research is also needed to investigate the survival of P. parmentieri in soil, water and air, its sensitivity to approved pesticides, and effective methods of eradication.

References

Top of page

Adeolu, M., Seema, A., Naushad, S., Gupta, R. S., 2016. Genome-based phylogeny and taxonomy of the “Enterobacteriales”: proposal for Enterobacterales ord. nov. divided into the families Enterobacteriaceae, Erwiniaceae fam. nov., Pectobacteriaceae fam. nov., Yersiniaceae fam. nov., Hafniaceae fam. nov., Morgane. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol, 66, 5575–5599.

Baghaee-Ravari, S., Rahimian, H., Shams-Bakhsh, M., Lopez-Solanilla, E., Antúnez-Lamas, M., Rodríguez-Palenzuela, P., 2011. Characterization of Pectobacterium species from Iran using biochemical and molecular methods. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 129(3), 413-425. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100265 doi: 10.1007/s10658-010-9704-z

Boer, S. H. de, Li, X., Ward, L. J., 2012. Pectobacterium spp. associated with bacterial stem rot syndrome of potato in Canada. Phytopathology, 102(10), 937-947. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/phyto doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-04-12-0083-R

Charkowski, A., Blanco, C., Condemine, G., Expert, D., Franza, T., Hayes, C., Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, N., Solanilla, E. L., Low, D., Moleleki, L., Pirhonen, M., Pitman, A., Perna, N., Reverchon, S., Palenzuela, P. R., San Francisco, M., Toth, I., Tsuyumu, S., Der Waals, J., Wolf, J. van der, Gijsegem, F. van, Yang, C. H., Yedidia, I., 2012. The role of secretion systems and small molecules in soft-rot Enterobacteriaceae pathogenicity. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 50, 425-449. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev-phyto-081211-173013 doi: 10.1146/annurev-phyto-081211-173013

Chatterjee, A., Cui, Y., Liu, Y., Dumenyo, C. K., Chatterjee, A. K., 1995. Inactivation of rsmA leads to overproduction of extracellular pectinases, cellulases, and proteases in Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora in the absence of the starvation/cell density-sensing signal, N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-smallcap˜L-homoserine lactone. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 61(5), 1959-1967.

Cigna, J., Dewaegeneire, P., Beury, A., Gobert, V., Faure, D., 2017. A gapA PCR-sequencing assay for identifying the Dickeya and Pectobacterium potato pathogens. Plant Disease, 101(7), 1278-1282. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-12-16-1810-RE

Czajkowski, R., Krzyzanowska, D., Karczewska, J., Atkinson, S., Przysowa, J., Lojkowska, E., Williams, P., Jafra, S., 2011a. Inactivation of AHLs by Ochrobactrum sp. A44 depends on the activity of a novel class of AHL acylase. Environ. Microbiol Rep, 3, 59-68.

Czajkowski, R., Pérombelon, M. C. M., Jafra, S., Lojkowska, E., Potrykus, M., Wolf, J. M. van der, Sledz, W., 2015. Detection, identification and differentiation of Pectobacterium and Dickeya species causing potato blackleg and tuber soft rot: a review. Annals of Applied Biology, 166(1), 18-38. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1744-7348 doi: 10.1111/aab.12166

Czajkowski, R., Pérombelon, M. C. M., Veen, J. A. van, Wolf, J. M. van der, 2011. Control of blackleg and tuber soft rot of potato caused by Pectobacterium and Dickeya species: a review. Plant Pathology, 60(6), 999-1013. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2011.02470.x/abstract doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2011.02470.x

Dees, M. W., Lebecka, R., Perminow, J. I. S., Czajkowski, R., Grupa, A., Motyka, A., Zoledowska, S., Sliwka, J., Lojkowska, E., Brurberg, M. B., 2017. Characterization of Dickeya and Pectobacterium strains obtained from diseased potato plants in different climatic conditions of Norway and Poland. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 148(4), 839-851. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10658 doi: 10.1007/s10658-016-1140-2

Dung, J. K. S., Johnson, D. A., Schroeder, B. K., 2012. First report of Pectobacterium wasabiae causing aerial stem rot of potato in Washington State. Plant Disease, 96(12), 1819. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-05-12-0444-PDN

Eriksson, A. R. B., Andersson, R. A., Pirhonen, M., Palva, E. T., 1998. Two-component regulators involved in the global control of virulence in Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 11(8), 743-752. doi: 10.1094/MPMI.1998.11.8.743

Gardan, L., Gouy, C., Christen, R., Samson, R., 2003. Elevation of three subspecies of Pectobacterium carotovorum to species level: Pectobacterium atrosepticum sp. nov., Pectobacterium betavasculorum sp. nov. and Pectobacterium wasabiae sp. nov. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 53(2), 381-391. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.02423-0

Golkhandan, E., Kamaruzaman, S., Sariah, M., Abidin, M. A. Z., Nazerian, E., Yassoralipour, A., 2013. First report of soft rot disease caused by Pectobacterium wasabiae on sweet potato, tomato, and eggplant in Malaysia. Plant Disease, 97(5), 685. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-08-12-0759-PDN

Golkhandan, E., Sijam, K., Meon, S., Ahmad, Z. A. M., Nasehi, A., Nazerian, E., 2013. First report of Pectobacterium wasabiae causing soft rot of cabbage in Malaysia. Plant Disease, 97(8), 1110. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-01-13-0112-PDN

Goto, M., Matsumoto, K., 1987. Erwinia carotovora subsp. wasabiae subsp. nov. isolated from diseased rhizomes and fibrous roots of Japanese horseradish (Eutrema wasabi Maxim.). International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 37(2), 130-135.

Ha, V. T. N., Voronina, M. V., Kabanova, A. P., Shneider, M. M., Korzhenkov, A. A., Toschakov, S. V., Miroshnikov, K. K., Miroshnikov, K. A., Ignatov, A. N., 2019. First report of Pectobacterium parmentieri causing stem rot disease of potato in Russia. Plant Disease, 103(1), 144. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/pdis-11-17-1829-pdn

Haan, E. G. de, Dekker-Nooren, T. C. E. M., Bovenkamp, G. W. van den, Speksnijder, A. G. C. L., Zouwen, P. S. van der, Wolf, J. M. van der, 2008. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum can cause potato blackleg in temperate climates. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 122(4), 561-569. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100265 doi: 10.1007/s10658-008-9325-y

Hauben, L., Moore, E. R. B., Vauterin, L.., Steenackers, M., Mergaert, J. , Verdonck, L., Swings, J., 1998. Phylogenetic position of phytopathogens within the Enterobacteriaceae. Syst. Appl. Microbiol, 21, 384–397.

Hélias, V., Hamon, P., Huchet, E., Wolf, J. V. D., Andrivon, D., 2012. Two new effective semiselective crystal violet pectate media for isolation of Pectobacterium and Dickeya. Plant Pathology, 61(2), 339-345. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2011.02508.x/full doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2011.02508.x

Humphris, S. N., Cahill, G., Elphinstone, J. G., Kelly, R., Parkinson, N. M., Pritchard, L., Toth, I. K., Saddler, G. S., 2015. In: Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.), Humana Press, New York, NY, p 1–16

Ishimaru, C. A., Loper, J. E., 1992. High-affinity iron uptake systems present in Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora include the hydroxamate siderophore aerobactin. Journal of Bacteriology, 174(9), 2993-3003.

Khayi, S., Cigna, J., Chong TeikMin, Quêtu-Laurent, A., Chan KokGan, Hélias, V., Faure, D., 2016. Transfer of the potato plant isolates of Pectobacterium wasabiae to Pectobacterium parmentieri sp. nov. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 66(12), 5379-5383. http://ijs.sgmjournals.org

Khayi, S., Des Essarts, Y. R., Quêtu-Laurent, A., Moumni, M., Hélias, V., Faure, D., 2015. Genomic overview of the phytopathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae strain RNS 08.42.1A suggests horizontal acquisition of quorum-sensing genes. Genetica, 143(2), 241-252. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10709 doi: 10.1007/s10709-014-9793-2

Kim MyeongHo, Cho MinSeok, Kim ByoungKyu, Choi HyeonJin, Hahn JangHo, Kim ChangKug, Kang ManJung, Kim SeongHwan, Park DongSuk, 2012. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of Pectobacterium wasabiae using YD repeat protein gene-based primers. Plant Disease, 96(2), 253-257. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-06-11-0511

Kim, H. S., Ma, B., Perna, N. T., Charkowski, A. O., 2009. Phylogeny and virulence of naturally occurring type III secretion system-deficient Pectobacterium strains. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 75(13), 4539-4549. http://aem.asm.org doi: 10.1128/AEM.01336-08

Koskinen, J. P., Laine, P., Niemi, O., Nykyri, J., Harjunpää, H., Auvinen, P., Paulin, L., Pirhonen, M., Palva, T., Holm, L., 2012. Genome sequence of Pectobacterium sp. strain SCC3193. Journal of Bacteriology, 194(21), 6004. http://jb.asm.org/content/194/21/6004.full doi: 10.1128/JB.00681-12

Krzyzanowska, D. M., Potrykus, M., Golanowska, M., Polonis, K., Gwizdek-Wisniewska, A., Lojkowska, E., Jafra, S., 2012. Rhizosphere bacteria as potential biocontrol agents against soft rot caused by various Pectobacterium and Dickeya spp. strains. Journal of Plant Pathology, 94(2), 367-378. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/2564

Liu Yang, Jiang GuoQiao, Cui YaYa, Mukherjee, A., Ma WeiLei, Chatterjee, A. K., 1999. kdgREcc negatively regulates genes for pectinases, cellulase, protease, HarpinEcc, and a global RNA regulator in Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. Journal of Bacteriology, 181(8), 2411-2421.

Ma, B., Hibbing, M. E., Kim, H. S., Reedy, R. M., Yedidia, I., Breuer, J., Breuer, J., Glasner, J. D., Perna, N. T., Kelman, A., Charkowski, A. O., 2007. Host range and molecular phylogenies of the soft rot enterobacterial genera Pectobacterium and Dickeya. Phytopathology, 97(9), 1150-1163. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-97-9-1150

Marits, R., Kõiv, V., Laasik, E., Mäe, A., 1999. Isolation of an extracellular protease gene of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora strain SCC3193 by transposon mutagenesis and the role of protease in phytopathogenicity. Microbiology (Reading), 145(8), 1959-1966. doi: 10.1099/13500872-145-8-1959

Moleleki, L. N., Onkendi, E. M., Mongae, A., Kubheka, G. C., 2013. Characterisation of Pectobacterium wasabiae causing blackleg and soft rot diseases in South Africa. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 135(2), 279-288. http://www.springerlink.com/content/100265/ doi: 10.1007/s10658-012-0084-4

Nabhan, S., Boer, S. H. de, Maiss, E., Wydra, K., 2012. Taxonomic relatedness between Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. odoriferum and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense subsp. nov. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 113(4), 904-913. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2012.05383.x/abstract doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2012.05383.x

Nabhan, S., Wydra, K., Linde, M., Debener, T., 2012. The use of two complementary DNA assays, AFLP and MLSA, for epidemic and phylogenetic studies of pectolytic enterobacterial strains with focus on the heterogeneous species Pectobacterium carotovorum. Plant Pathology, 61(3), 498-508. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2011.02546.x/full doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2011.02546.x

Ngadze, E., Brady, C. L., Coutinho, T. A., Waals, J. E. van der, 2012. Pectinolytic bacteria associated with potato soft rot and blackleg in South Africa and Zimbabwe. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 134(3), 533-549. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100265 doi: 10.1007/s10658-012-0036-z

Nykyri, J., Niemi, O., Koskinen, P., Nokso-Koivisto, J., Pasanen, M., Broberg, M., Plyusnin, I., Törönen, P., Holm, L., Pirhonen, M., Palva, E. T., 2012. Revised phylogeny and novel horizontally acquired virulence determinants of the model soft rot phytopathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae SCC3193. PLoS Pathogens, 8(11), e1003013. http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.ppat.1003013 doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003013

Ozturk, M., Aksoy, H. M., Ozturk, S., Potrykus, M., Lojkowska, E., 2016. First report of potato blackleg and soft rot caused by Pectobacterium wasabiae in Turkey. New Disease Reports, 34, 17. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=034017 doi: 10.5197/j.2044-0588.2016.034.017

Pasanen, M., Laurila, J., Brader, G., Palva, E. T., Ahola, V., Wolf, J. van der, Hannukkala, A., Pirhonen, M., 2013. Characterisation of Pectobacterium wasabiae and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum isolates from diseased potato plants in Finland. Annals of Applied Biology, 163(3), 403-419. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1744-7348

Pérombelon, M. C. M., 2002. Potato diseases caused by soft rot erwinias: an overview of pathogenesis. Plant Pathology, 51(1), 1-12. doi: 10.1046/j.0032-0862.2001.Short title.doc.x

Perombelon, M. C. M., Kelman, A., 1980. Ecology of the soft rot Erwinias. Ann. Rev. Phytopathol, 18, 361–387.

Pitman, A. R., Harrow, S. A., Visnovsky, S. B., 2010. Genetic characterisation of Pectobacterium wasabiae causing soft rot disease of potato in New Zealand. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 126(3), 423-435. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100265 doi: 10.1007/s10658-009-9551-y

Pitman, A. R., Wright, P. J., Galbraith, M. D., Harrow, S. A., 2008. Biochemical and genetic diversity of pectolytic enterobacteria causing soft rot disease of potatoes in New Zealand. Australasian Plant Pathology, 37(6), 559-568. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/39.htm doi: 10.1071/AP08056

Potrykus, M., Sledz, W., Golanowska, M., Slawiak, M., Binek, A., Motyka, A., Zoledowska, S., Czajkowski, R., Lojkowska, E., 2014. Simultaneous detection of major blackleg and soft rot bacterial pathogens in potato by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Annals of Applied Biology, 165(3), 474-487. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1744-7348 doi: 10.1111/aab.12156

Pritchard, L., Glover, R. H., Humphris, S., Elphinstone, J. G., Toth, I. K., 2016. Genomics and taxonomy in diagnostics for food security: soft-rotting enterobacterial plant pathogens. Analytical Methods, 8(1), 12-24. http://www.rsc.org/methods doi: 10.1039/C5AY02550H

Rosenzweig, N., Steere, L., Kirk, W. W., Mambetova, S., Long, C., Schafer, R., Dangi, S., Byrne, J., 2016. First report of Dickeya dianthicola and Pectobacterium wasabiae causing aerial stem rot of potato in Michigan, USA. New Disease Reports, 33, 10. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/pdfs/033/NDR_033010.pdf

Slawiak, M., Doorn, R. van, Szemes, M., Speksnijder, A. G. C. L., Waleron, M., Wolf, J. M. van der, Lojkowska, E., Schoen, C. D., 2013. Multiplex detection and identification of bacterial pathogens causing potato blackleg and soft rot in Europe, using padlock probes. Annals of Applied Biology, 163(3), 378-393. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1744-7348

Smolarska, A., Rabalski, L., Narajczyk, M., Czajkowski, R., 2018. Isolation and phenotypic and morphological characterization of the first Podoviridae lytic bacteriophages fA38 and fA41 infecting Pectobacterium parmentieri (former Pectobacterium wasabiae). European Journal of Plant Pathology, 150(2), 413-425. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10658 doi: 10.1007/s10658-017-1289-3

Suárez, M. B., Feria, F. J., Martín-Robles, M. J., Rey, F. J. del, Palomo, J. L., 2017. Pectobacterium parmentieri causing soft rot on potato tubers in southern Europe. Plant Disease, 101(6), 1029. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Toth, I. K., Bell, K. S., Holeva, M. C., Birch, P. R. J., 2003. Soft rot erwiniae: from genes to genomes. Molecular Plant Pathology, 4(1), 17-30. doi: 10.1046/j.1364-3703.2003.00149.x

Toth, I. K., Wolf, J. M. van der, Saddler, G., Lojkowska, E., Hélias, V., Pirhonen, M., Tsror, L., Elphinstone, J. G., 2011. Dickeya species: an emerging problem for potato production in Europe. Plant Pathology, 60(3), 385-399. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2011.02427.x/full doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2011.02427.x

Versalovic, J., Schneider, M., Bruijn, F. J. de, Lupski, J. R., 1994. Genomic fingerprinting of bacteria using repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction. Meth. Mol. Cell. Biol, 5, 25-40.

Waleron, M., Waleron, K., Lojkowska, E., 2013. Occurrence of Pectobacterium wasabiae in potato field samples. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 137(1), 149-158. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10658 doi: 10.1007/s10658-013-0227-2

Waleron, M., Waleron, K., Podhajska, A. J., Lojkowska, E., 2002. Genotyping of bacteria belonging to the former Erwinia genus by PCR-RFLP analysis of a recA gene fragment. Microbiology (Reading), 148(2), 583-595.

Werra, P. de, Bussereau, F., Keiser, A., Ziegler, D., 2015. First report of potato blackleg caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense in Switzerland. Plant Disease, 99(4), 551-552. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-07-14-0742-PDN

Wolf, J. M. van der, Haan, E. G. de, Kastelein, P., Krijger, M., Haas, B. H. de, Velvis, H., Mendes, O., Kooman-Gersmann, M., Zouwen, P. S. van der, 2017. Virulence of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense on potato compared with that of other Pectobacterium and Dickeya species under climatic conditions prevailing in the Netherlands. Plant Pathology, 66(4), 571-583. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1111/ppa.12600/abstract doi: 10.1111/ppa.12600

Yap, M. N., Barak, J. D., Charkowski, A. O., 2004. Genomic diversity of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora and its correlation with virulence. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 70(5), 3013-3023. doi: 10.1128/AEM.70.5.3013-3023.2004

Zoledowska, S., Motyka, A., Zukowska, D., Sledz, W., Lojkowska, E., 2018. Population structure and biodiversity of Pectobacterium parmentieri isolated from potato fields in temperate climate. Plant Disease, 102(1), 154-164. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-05-17-0761-RE

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
Plant Research International
Science and Advice for Scottish Agriculture (SASA)
The James Hutton Institute
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Working Party on Agricultural Quality Standardshttp://www.unece.org/trade/agr/welcome.htm

Organizations

Top of page

Netherlands: EUPHRESCO ERA- NET, Dr. Jan van der Wolf, PO Box 16 6700AA WAGENINGEN

Principal Source

Top of page

Draft datasheet under review.

Contributors

Top of page

27/07/17 Original text by:

Ewa Lojkowska, Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology, Univesity of Gdansk & Medical University of Gdansk, 80-307 Gdansk, Abrahama 58, Poland

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map