Rudbeckia laciniata (cutleaf coneflower)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Latitude/Altitude Ranges
- Soil Tolerances
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Impact Summary
- Environmental Impact
- Social Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Rudbeckia laciniata L.
Preferred Common Name
- cutleaf coneflower
Other Scientific Names
- Helianthus laciniatus (L.) E.H.L.Krause
- Rudbeckia digitata Mill.
- Rudbeckia laciniata var. digitata (Mill.) Fiori
- Rudbeckia laciniata var. laciniata
International Common Names
- English: golden glow; greenhead coneflower; sochan; tall coneflower; thimbleweed; wild goldenglow
Local Common Names
- China: jin guang ju
- Germany: Schlitzblaettriger Sonnenhut
- Japan: hanagasagiku; oohangonso
- Netherlands: slipbladige rudbeckia
- RUDLA (Rudbeckia laciniata)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
R. laciniata is a perennial plant native to central and eastern North America that has been introduced around the world for ornamental purposes. In some introduced areas it is considered an agricultural and environmental weed as it can form dense monocultures which can outcompete and reduce native biodiversity. R. laciniata reproduces by producing a large number of seeds which can remain viable in the soil for at least three years and it can also regenerate from rhizome fragments. This makes control of this species difficult. R. laciniata is classified as an Alien Invasive Species under the Japanese Invasive species Act and is also noted as invasive in Europe.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Asterales
- Family: Asteraceae
- Genus: Rudbeckia
- Species: Rudbeckia laciniata
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
R. laciniata belongs to the Asteraceae family. The genus Rudbeckia contains about 30 species worldwide. Some congeners, such as Rudbeckia hirta L. var. pulcherrima Farwell, have also naturalized outside their native ranges.
Several horticultural varieties of R. laciniata have been cultivated and are simply called Rudbeckia.
Two varieties are recognised by The Plant List (2013); R. laciniata var. ampla and R. laciniata var. heterophylla. However, five varities are recognised by the USDA-ARS (2015) and Flora of North America (2015); R. laciniata var. ampla, R. laciniata var. bipinnata, R. laciniata var. digitata, R. laciniata var. heterophylla and R. laciniata var. laciniata.
DescriptionTop of page
The following description of R. laciniata is taken from the Flora of North America (2015);
Perennials, 50–300 cm (rhizomes often elongate, slender, plants colonial, roots fibrous). Leaves green, blades broadly ovate to lanceolate, all but distalmost 1–2-pinnatifid or pinnately compound, leaflets/lobes 3–11, bases cuneate to attenuate or cordate, margins entire or dentate, apices acute to acuminate, faces glabrous or hairy (sometimes with translucent patches); basal (often withering before flowering) petiolate, 15–50 × 10–25 cm; cauline petiolate or sessile, mostly lobed to pinnatifid, sometimes not lobed, 8–40 × 3–20 cm. Heads (2–25) in loose, corymbiform arrays. Phyllaries to 2 cm (8–15, ovate to lanceolate, margins mostly ciliate, glabrous or hairy). Receptacles hemispheric or ovoid to globose; paleae 3–7 mm, apices (at least of proximal) truncate or rounded, abaxial tips densely hairy. Ray florets 8–12; laminae elliptic to oblanceolate, 15–50 × 4–14 mm, abaxially hairy. Discs 9–30 × 10–23 mm. Disc florets 150–300+; corollas yellow to yellowish green (lobes yellow), 3.5–5 mm; style branches 1–1.5 mm, apices acute to rounded. Cypselae 3–4.5 mm; pappi coroniform or of 4 scales, to 1.5 mm.
Specific details with regards to the subspecies can also be found from the Flora of North America (2015).
Plant TypeTop of page Herbaceous
DistributionTop of page
R. laciniata is native to central and eastern North America. In Rhode Island, USA, R. laciniata, is listed as threatened however it is quite common in the other states (USDA-ARS, 2015). The five varieties recognised by the USDA-ARS (2015) and Flora of North America (2015) have different distributions in the USA and Canada.
R. laciniata var. ampla is present in British Columbia, Canada and the states of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, North and South Dakota, Wyoming and Utah (USDA-ARS-2015).
R. laciniata var. bipinnata is restricted to the eastern states of Delaware, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York and Pennsylvania (USDA-ARS-2015).
R. laciniata var. digitata is present in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, New Jersey, North and South Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia (USDA-ARS-2015).
R. laciniata var. heterophylla is only present in Florida (USDA-ARS-2015).
R. laciniata var. laciniata is the most widely distributed and is present in Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Indiana, Illinois, Idaho, Iowa, Georgia, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North and South Dakota, Nebraska, North and South Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia,Washington, Wisconsin and Wyoming in the US and Quebec and Ontario and Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island in Canada (USDA-ARS-2015).
This species has been introduced into China, Japan, New Zealand and parts of Europe for its ornamental purposes.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|-Hokkaido||Widespread||Introduced||Invasive||Kondo et al., 2014|
|-Honshu||Widespread||Introduced||Invasive||Osawa and Akasaka, 2007|
|-Kyushu||Widespread||Introduced||Invasive||National Institute for Environmental Studies, NIES|
|-Ryukyu Archipelago||Present||Introduced||National Institute for Environmental Studies, NIES|
|-Shikoku||Present||Introduced||Invasive||National Institute for Environmental Studies, NIES|
|Canada||Present||Native||Not invasive||Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015|
|-British Columbia||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015||R. laciniata var. ampla|
|-Manitoba||Present||Native||Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015||R. laciniata var. laciniata|
|-New Brunswick||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015||R. laciniata var. laciniata|
|-Nova Scotia||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015||R. laciniata var. laciniata|
|-Ontario||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015||R. laciniata var. laciniata|
|-Prince Edward Island||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015||R. laciniata var. laciniata|
|-Quebec||Present||Native||Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015||R. laciniata var. laciniata|
|-Saskatchewan||Present||Native||Not invasive||Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015|
|USA||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Alabama||Present||Native||Not invasive||Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015|
|-Arizona||Present||Native||Not invasive||Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015|
|-Arkansas||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. laciniata|
|-Colorado||Present||Native||Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. ampla and var laciniata|
|-Connecticut||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. laciniata|
|-Delaware||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. bipinnata and var. laciniata|
|-Florida||Present||Native||Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. heterophylla and var. laciniata|
|-Georgia||Present||Native||Not invasive||Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015|
|-Idaho||Present||Native||Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. ampla and var. laciniata|
|-Illinois||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. laciniata|
|-Indiana||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. laciniata|
|-Iowa||Present||Native||Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. laciniata|
|-Kansas||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. laciniata|
|-Kentucky||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. digitata and var. laciniata|
|-Louisiana||Present||Native||Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. laciniata|
|-Maine||Present||Native||Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. laciniata|
|-Maryland||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. bipinnata, var. digitata and var. laciniata|
|-Massachusetts||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. bipinnata and var. laciniata|
|-Michigan||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. laciniata|
|-Minnesota||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. laciniata|
|-Mississippi||Present||Native||Not invasive||Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015|
|-Missouri||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. laciniata|
|-Montana||Present||Introduced||Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. ampla and var. laciniata|
|-Nebraska||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. laciniata|
|-New Hampshire||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. bipinnata and var. laciniata|
|-New Jersey||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. digitata and var. laciniata|
|-New Mexico||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. ampla and var. laciniata|
|-New York||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. bipinnata and var. laciniata|
|-North Carolina||Present||Native||Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. digitata and var. laciniata|
|-North Dakota||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. ampla and var. laciniata|
|-Ohio||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. laciniata|
|-Oklahoma||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. laciniata|
|-Pennsylvania||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. bipinnata and var. laciniata|
|-South Carolina||Present||Native||Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. digitata and var. laciniata|
|-South Dakota||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. ampla and var. laciniata|
|-Tennessee||Present||Native||Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. digitata and var. laciniata|
|-Texas||Present||Native||Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. laciniata|
|-Utah||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. ampla|
|-Vermont||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. laciniata|
|-Virginia||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. digitata and var. laciniata|
|-West Virginia||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. laciniata|
|-Wisconsin||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. laciniata|
|-Wyoming||Present||Native||Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015||R. laciniata var. ampla and var. laciniata|
|Bolivia||Present||Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015|
|Bosnia-Hercegovina||Present||Introduced||Vojnikovic, 2015||First identified in 2014|
|Czech Republic||Present||Introduced||USDA-ARS, 2015|
|Russian Federation||Present||Introduced||USDA-ARS, 2015|
|Slovenia||Present||Introduced||1868||USDA-ARS, 2015; Vojnikovic, 2015|
|New Zealand||Present||Introduced||USDA-ARS, 2015|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
R. laciniata was introduced to Europe as an ornamental plant at the beginning of the seventeenth century where it has escaped cultivation (EPPO, 2009). It was recorded in Slovenia in 1868. In 2014, surveys identified this species at a number of locations in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Vojnikovic, 2015). It has however been suggested that due to slight morphological differences (a narrowing of the receptacle in European plants compared with a hemispheric or ovoid to globose receptacle in plants from North America), the plants in Europe likely represent a cultivar or hybrid of R. laciniata (Manual of the Alien Plants of Belgium, 2015). As a result, the exact origin of plants in Europe is unknown.
In Japan, this species was introduced in the mid-Meiji era, around 1900, also as an ornamental plant. The first record of a naturalized plant in Japan was recorded in 1955 (Ministry of Environment, Japan, 2015) and today it is distributed across most of Japan (NIES, 2014). This species is often found along roadsides (Aoki et al., 2012; Akasaka et al., 2015; Kawano, 2015). Akasaka et al. (2015) suggest that this species was spread by hikers walking along the trails and Aoki et al. (2012) suggested that vehicles may also be involved.
IntroductionsTop of page
|Introduced to||Introduced from||Year||Reason||Introduced by||Established in wild through||References||Notes|
|Natural reproduction||Continuous restocking|
|Europe||North America||Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)||Yes||EPPO Reporting Service (2009)|
|Japan||North America||1955||Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)||Yes||Ministry of the Environment Japan (2015)|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
The risk of R. laciniata being introduced into new areas is fairly high as it is sold from nurseries and online as an ornamental species. In addition to this, R. laciniata produces a large number of seeds which can remain viable in the soil seed bank for at least three years (Francirkova, 2001). This species can also regenerate from small rhizome fragments enabling it to spread locally. Both the seeds and rhizome can be accidentally transported into new areas as a contaminant in the soil.
HabitatTop of page
R. laciniata is found mainly in bright, humid areas, such as wetlands, riparian areas, forest edges, at rail and roadsides and in disturbed areas in relatively cool regions in both on native and introduced ranges (USDA-NRCS 2015; Akasaka et al., 2015). It typically colonizes areas at altitude lower than 700 m (EPPO, 2006). It generally prefers a microthermal climate, such as mountain plateaus.
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Present, no further details|
|Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Present, no further details|
|Disturbed areas||Present, no further details|
|Rail / roadsides||Present, no further details|
|Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Present, no further details|
|Natural grasslands||Present, no further details|
|Riverbanks||Present, no further details|
|Wetlands||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
The chromosome number of R. laciniata has been reported as 2n = 38, 48, 54, 76, n= 19, 24, 27 (IPCN Chromosome Reports, 2014).
Flowers of R. laciniata are hermaphrodite and are insect pollinated. It flowers from July to October, with seeds ripening from August to October (Plants For a Future, 2015). One plant can produce more than 1,000 seeds per plant and 94,000 viable seeds can be produce in an area of 1 m2 (Francirkova, 2001). Under field conditions, rates of seed germination reached 35 % (Francirkova, 2001). Seeds can remain viable in the soil for at least three years (Osawa and Akasaka, 2009). R. laciniata can also regenerate from rhizome fragments (Osawa and Akasaka, 2009). The study by Francirkova (2001) also found that only fragments ≥1 cm can regenerate.
Physiology and Phenology
Flowering occurs in early to late summer and has distinct yellow ray florets. Before flowering in northern Japan, R. laciniata requires two years of growth. The seeds of R. laciniata remain viable for at least three years in the ground in Japan (Osawa and Akasaka, 2009).
The distribution in Japan suggests that this species requires a relatively cool moist climate, such as mountain highlands or northern regions. It is rarely found in hot dry regions.
R. laciniata has a wide tolerance to soil conditions. For example, it can grow in sandy, loamy and clay soils and soils with acidic, neutral or alkaline soils (Plants For a Future, 2015).
ClimateTop of page
|C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate||Preferred||Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C|
|Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year|
|Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers|
|Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter||Preferred||Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)|
|D - Continental/Microthermal climate||Preferred||Continental/Microthermal climate (Average temp. of coldest month < 0°C, mean warmest month > 10°C)|
|Df - Continental climate, wet all year||Preferred||Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)|
|Ds - Continental climate with dry summer||Preferred||Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)|
|Dw - Continental climate with dry winter||Preferred||Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)|
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Soil TolerancesTop of page
Natural enemiesTop of page
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
The fungus Corynespora cassiicola has been identified for the first time from leaves of R. laciniata in Brazil where it causes leafspot symptoms (Da Silva et al., 2006).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
R. laciniata produces a large number of seeds which can remain viable for at least three years in the ground (Osawa and Akasaka, 2009). In addition to this it can reproduce and spread locally from rhizome.
The movement of soil can act as a vector for spreading seeds of R. laciniata. Roads are considered to be major pathways involved in the dispersal of the seeds of this species (Akasaka et al., 2015).
R. laciniata was intentionally introduced into Europe and Japan for ornamental purposes.
Pathway CausesTop of page
|Ornamental purposes||Yes||Yes||National Institute for Environmental Studies, NIES|
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Impact SummaryTop of page
Environmental ImpactTop of page
R. laciniata can form dense monospecific stands in invaded areas, such as a forest edge or floor and grassland and as a result can alter habitats (Taki, 2007). These stands can outcompete native plant species therefore decreasing biodiversity. In Mures County, Romania, R. laciniata is widespread where it is reported to "suffocate other species" (Samarghitan and Oroian, 2012).There have been reports that this species can alter the habitat dynamics of tree colonization in alluvial areas (EPPO, 2009).
Social ImpactTop of page
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Has a broad native range
- Abundant in its native range
- Pioneering in disturbed areas
- Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
- Has high reproductive potential
- Reproduces asexually
- Damaged ecosystem services
- Monoculture formation
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Threat to/ loss of native species
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Competition - shading
- Competition - smothering
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
- Difficult/costly to control
UsesTop of page
R. laciniata and its many varieties are regularly sold for ornamental purposes due to its pretty flowers which attract a number of pollinators.
The potential of biomass of R. laciniata as biofuel is currently under consideration (Mudryk et al., 2013).
The young stems of R. laciniata are edible but caution is needed due to potential toxicity (Plants For a Future, 2015). In addition to this, the roots can be used to treat indigestion and the flowers to treat burns (Plants For a Future, 2015).
Uses ListTop of page
Human food and beverage
- Poisonous to mammals
- Cut flower
Prevention and ControlTop of page
In Japan, there are about 50 management activities for R. laciniata under the Invasive Species Act (Ministry of Environment, Japan; Osawa and Akasaka, 2012). In addition, Osawa and Akasaka published a management manual for this species in Japanese which can be found on the internet (Osawa and Akasaka, 2007, 2008, 2009). This manual proposes a management strategy involving inhibition and eradication: 1) prevent the plants from flowering by removal of above ground material, once per year is effective, and 2) eradicate this species by continuous rhizome removal.
Osawa and Akasaka (2007) showed that aboveground removal once a year significantly suppressed the flowering rate of R. laciniata, but also caused an increase in belowground size. Therefore, cutting is effective only at suppressing seed dispersal and not for eradication (Osawa and Akasaka 2007).
Osawa and Akasaka (2009) also showed that continuous rhizome removal for more than three years can reduce the size of stands and ultimately lead to eradication. However, an individual can grow from just 2.4 g rhizome fragments (Osawa and Akasaka, 2009).
ReferencesTop of page
Akasaka M; Osawa T; Ikegami M, 2015. The role of roads and urban area in occurrence of an ornamental invasive weed: a case of Rudbeckia laciniata L. Urban Ecosystems, 18(3):1021-1030
Aoki K; Kikukawa H; Kamaya T; Yoshida T, 2012. Distribution of invasive alien species, the cutleaf cornflower (Rudbeckia laciniata) and proposing future management plan in Nishiokoppe village of Hokkaido. Journal of Takuno Gakuen University Natural Science, 36(2):335-338.
Encyclopedia of Life, 2015. Encyclopedia of Life. www.eol.org
EPPO Reporting Service, 2009. Rudbeckia laciniata (Asteraceae). www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/plants/mini_datasheets/Rudbeckia_laciniata.doc
Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2015. Flora of North America North of Mexico. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
Francírková T, 2001. Contribution to the invasive ecology of Rudbeckia laciniata. In: Plant invasions: species ecology and ecosystem management [ed. by Brundu, G.\Brock, J.\Camarda, I.\Child, L.\Wade, M.]. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers, 89-98.
Global Invasive Species Information Network (GISIN), 2015. Aggregating and disseminating invasive species data in a standardized way. Colorado, USA: Colorado State University. http://www.gisin.org/DH.php?WC=/WS/GISIN/GISINDirectory/home_new.html&WebSiteID=4
IPCN Chromosome Reports, 2015. Index to Plant Chromosome Numbers (IPCN), Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/IPCN
Kawano S, 2015. Eradication activities on Rudbeckia laciniata L. (Compositae) in Kujyu, Oita. Bungoensis, 1:60-64.
Kondo T; Ishigaki H; Tei A, 2014. Seed germination characteristics and seed bank formation in Rudbeckia laciniata. Journal of the Japanese Society of Revegetation Technology, 40:315-323.
Manual of the Alien Plants of Belgium, 2015. Welcome to Manual of the Alien Plants of Belgium. Belgium. http://alienplantsbelgium.be/
Ministry of the Environment Japan, 2015. The invasive alien species act. http://www.env.go.jp/en/nature/as.html
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/
Mudryk K; Fraczek J; Slipek Z; Francik S; Wrobel M, 2013. Chosen physico-mechanical properties of cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) shoots. In: 12th International Scientific Conference: Engineering for rural development, Jelgava, Latvia, 23-24 May 2013. Jelgava, Latvia: Latvia University of Agriculture, 658-662. http://tf.llu.lv/conference/proceedings2013/
National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 2015. Invasive species of Japan. Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan: National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan. http://www.nies.go.jp/biodiversity/invasive/index_en.html
Osawa T; Akasaka M, 2007. Influence of aboveground removal on an invasive perennial herb Rudbeckia laciniata L. (Compositae) in June: difference in belowground size. Japanese Journal of Conservation Ecology, 12(2):151-155.
Osawa T; Akasaka M, 2008. Regeneration property of an invasive perennial herb Rudbeckia laciniata L. (Compositae) and their influence on native plant community. Annual reports on Institute for Environmental Sciences, 27:35-43.
Plants for a Future, 2015. Plants for a future database. London, UK. http://www.pfaf.org
Shimizu N; Morita H; Hirota S, 2011. Plant invader 600. Tokyo, Japan: Zennoukyou, 381, 516.
Silva JL da; Soares DJ; Barreto RW, 2006. Eye-spot of Rudbeckia laciniata caused by Corynespora cassiicola in Brazil. Plant Pathology, 55(4):580. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2006.01429.x
Taki Y, 2008. A photographic guide to the invasive alien species in Japan. Tokyo, Japan: Heibonsya, 374-376.
USDA-ARS, 2015. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx
USDA-NRCS, 2015. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/
ContributorsTop of page
30/05/2015 Original text by:
Takeshi Osawa, National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Japan
Distribution MapsTop of page
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