Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Rudbeckia laciniata
(cutleaf coneflower)

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Datasheet

Rudbeckia laciniata (cutleaf coneflower)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 08 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Rudbeckia laciniata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • cutleaf coneflower
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • R. laciniata is a perennial plant native to central and eastern North America that has been introduced around the world for ornamental purposes. In some introduced areas it is considered an agricultural and env...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Rudbeckia laciniata (thimbleweed); flowering habit.
TitleHabit
CaptionRudbeckia laciniata (thimbleweed); flowering habit.
Copyright©Σ64/Oohangousou/via Wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Rudbeckia laciniata (thimbleweed); flowering habit.
HabitRudbeckia laciniata (thimbleweed); flowering habit.©Σ64/Oohangousou/via Wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Rudbeckia laciniata (thimbleweed); single flower. Cranberry Creek, Thielman Road, Goulais River, Ontario, Canada.
TitleFlower
CaptionRudbeckia laciniata (thimbleweed); single flower. Cranberry Creek, Thielman Road, Goulais River, Ontario, Canada.
Copyright©Rob Routledge/Sault College/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Rudbeckia laciniata (thimbleweed); single flower. Cranberry Creek, Thielman Road, Goulais River, Ontario, Canada.
FlowerRudbeckia laciniata (thimbleweed); single flower. Cranberry Creek, Thielman Road, Goulais River, Ontario, Canada.©Rob Routledge/Sault College/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Rudbeckia laciniata (thimbleweed); underside of flower. Cranberry Creek, Thielman Road, Goulais River, Ontario, Canada.
TitleFlower
CaptionRudbeckia laciniata (thimbleweed); underside of flower. Cranberry Creek, Thielman Road, Goulais River, Ontario, Canada.
Copyright©Rob Routledge/Sault College/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Rudbeckia laciniata (thimbleweed); underside of flower. Cranberry Creek, Thielman Road, Goulais River, Ontario, Canada.
FlowerRudbeckia laciniata (thimbleweed); underside of flower. Cranberry Creek, Thielman Road, Goulais River, Ontario, Canada.©Rob Routledge/Sault College/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Rudbeckia laciniata (thimbleweed); flowering habit. Plants can reach 3m in height. Cranberry Creek, Thielman Road, Goulais River, Ontario, Canada.
TitleHabit
CaptionRudbeckia laciniata (thimbleweed); flowering habit. Plants can reach 3m in height. Cranberry Creek, Thielman Road, Goulais River, Ontario, Canada.
Copyright©Rob Routledge/Sault College/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Rudbeckia laciniata (thimbleweed); flowering habit. Plants can reach 3m in height. Cranberry Creek, Thielman Road, Goulais River, Ontario, Canada.
HabitRudbeckia laciniata (thimbleweed); flowering habit. Plants can reach 3m in height. Cranberry Creek, Thielman Road, Goulais River, Ontario, Canada.©Rob Routledge/Sault College/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Rudbeckia laciniata (thimbleweed); mid-lower stem foliage. Cranberry Creek, Thielman Road, Goulais River, Ontario, Canada.
TitleFoliage
CaptionRudbeckia laciniata (thimbleweed); mid-lower stem foliage. Cranberry Creek, Thielman Road, Goulais River, Ontario, Canada.
Copyright©Rob Routledge/Sault College/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Rudbeckia laciniata (thimbleweed); mid-lower stem foliage. Cranberry Creek, Thielman Road, Goulais River, Ontario, Canada.
FoliageRudbeckia laciniata (thimbleweed); mid-lower stem foliage. Cranberry Creek, Thielman Road, Goulais River, Ontario, Canada.©Rob Routledge/Sault College/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Rudbeckia laciniata (thimbleweed); flowering habit. Poland.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionRudbeckia laciniata (thimbleweed); flowering habit. Poland.
Copyright©Barbara Tokarska-Guzik/University of Silesia/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Rudbeckia laciniata (thimbleweed); flowering habit. Poland.
Flowering habitRudbeckia laciniata (thimbleweed); flowering habit. Poland.©Barbara Tokarska-Guzik/University of Silesia/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Rudbeckia laciniata (thimbleweed); flowering habit, by a roadside. Poland.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionRudbeckia laciniata (thimbleweed); flowering habit, by a roadside. Poland.
Copyright©Barbara Tokarska-Guzik/University of Silesia/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Rudbeckia laciniata (thimbleweed); flowering habit, by a roadside. Poland.
Flowering habitRudbeckia laciniata (thimbleweed); flowering habit, by a roadside. Poland.©Barbara Tokarska-Guzik/University of Silesia/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Rudbeckia laciniata L.

Preferred Common Name

  • cutleaf coneflower

Other Scientific Names

  • Helianthus laciniatus (L.) E.H.L.Krause
  • Rudbeckia digitata Mill.
  • Rudbeckia laciniata var. digitata (Mill.) Fiori
  • Rudbeckia laciniata var. laciniata

International Common Names

  • English: golden glow; greenhead coneflower; sochan; tall coneflower; thimbleweed; wild goldenglow

Local Common Names

  • China: jin guang ju
  • Germany: Schlitzblaettriger Sonnenhut
  • Japan: hanagasagiku; oohangonso
  • Netherlands: slipbladige rudbeckia

EPPO code

  • RUDLA (Rudbeckia laciniata)

Summary of Invasiveness

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R. laciniata is a perennial plant native to central and eastern North America that has been introduced around the world for ornamental purposes. In some introduced areas it is considered an agricultural and environmental weed as it can form dense monocultures which can outcompete and reduce native biodiversity. R. laciniata reproduces by producing a large number of seeds which can remain viable in the soil for at least three years and it can also regenerate from rhizome fragments. This makes control of this species difficult. R. laciniata is classified as an Alien Invasive Species under the Japanese Invasive species Act and is also noted as invasive in Europe.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Rudbeckia
  •                                 Species: Rudbeckia laciniata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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R. laciniata belongs to the Asteraceae family. The genus Rudbeckia contains about 30 species worldwide. Some congeners, such as Rudbeckia hirta L. var. pulcherrima Farwell, have also naturalized outside their native ranges.

Several horticultural varieties of R. laciniata have been cultivated and are simply called Rudbeckia.

Two varieties are recognised by The Plant List (2013)R. laciniata var. ampla and R. laciniata var. heterophylla. However, five varities are recognised by the USDA-ARS (2015) and Flora of North America (2015)R. laciniata var. ampla, R. laciniata var. bipinnata, R. laciniata var. digitata, R. laciniata var. heterophylla and R. laciniata var. laciniata.

Description

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The following description of R. laciniata is taken from the Flora of North America (2015);

Perennials, 50–300 cm (rhizomes often elongate, slender, plants colonial, roots fibrous). Leaves green, blades broadly ovate to lanceolate, all but distalmost 1–2-pinnatifid or pinnately compound, leaflets/lobes 3–11, bases cuneate to attenuate or cordate, margins entire or dentate, apices acute to acuminate, faces glabrous or hairy (sometimes with translucent patches); basal (often withering before flowering) petiolate, 15–50 × 10–25 cm; cauline petiolate or sessile, mostly lobed to pinnatifid, sometimes not lobed, 8–40 × 3–20 cm. Heads (2–25) in loose, corymbiform arrays. Phyllaries to 2 cm (8–15, ovate to lanceolate, margins mostly ciliate, glabrous or hairy). Receptacles hemispheric or ovoid to globose; paleae 3–7 mm, apices (at least of proximal) truncate or rounded, abaxial tips densely hairy. Ray florets 8–12; laminae elliptic to oblanceolate, 15–50 × 4–14 mm, abaxially hairy. Discs 9–30 × 10–23 mm. Disc florets 150–300+; corollas yellow to yellowish green (lobes yellow), 3.5–5 mm; style branches 1–1.5 mm, apices acute to rounded. Cypselae 3–4.5 mm; pappi coroniform or of 4 scales, to 1.5 mm.

Specific details with regards to the subspecies can also be found from the Flora of North America (2015).

Plant Type

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Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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R. laciniata is native to central and eastern North America. In Rhode Island, USA, R. laciniata, is listed as threatened however it is quite common in the other states (USDA-ARS, 2015). The five varieties recognised by the USDA-ARS (2015) and Flora of North America (2015) have different distributions in the USA and Canada

R. laciniata var. ampla is present in British Columbia, Canada and the states of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, North and South Dakota, Wyoming and Utah (USDA-ARS-2015). 

R. laciniata var. bipinnata is restricted to the eastern states of Delaware, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York and Pennsylvania (USDA-ARS-2015).

R. laciniata var. digitata is present in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, New Jersey, North and South Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia (USDA-ARS-2015).

R. laciniata var. heterophylla is only present in Florida (USDA-ARS-2015).

R. laciniata var. laciniata is the most widely distributed and is present in Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Indiana, Illinois, Idaho, Iowa, Georgia, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North and South Dakota, Nebraska, North and South Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia,Washington, Wisconsin and Wyoming in the US and Quebec and Ontario and Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island in Canada (USDA-ARS-2015).

This species has been introduced into China, Japan, New Zealand and parts of Europe for its ornamental purposes.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

JapanWidespreadIntroduced1955 Invasive Taki, 2008
-HokkaidoWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Kondo et al., 2014
-HonshuWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Osawa and Akasaka, 2007
-KyushuWidespreadIntroduced Invasive National Institute for Environmental Studies, NIES
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentIntroducedNational Institute for Environmental Studies, NIES
-ShikokuPresentIntroduced Invasive National Institute for Environmental Studies, NIES

North America

CanadaPresentNative Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015
-British ColumbiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015R. laciniata var. ampla
-ManitobaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015R. laciniata var. laciniata
-New BrunswickPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015R. laciniata var. laciniata
-Nova ScotiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015R. laciniata var. laciniata
-OntarioPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015R. laciniata var. laciniata
-Prince Edward IslandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015R. laciniata var. laciniata
-QuebecPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015R. laciniata var. laciniata
-SaskatchewanPresentNative Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentNative Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015
-ArizonaPresentNative Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015
-ArkansasPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. laciniata
-ColoradoPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. ampla and var laciniata
-ConnecticutPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. laciniata
-DelawarePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. bipinnata and var. laciniata
-FloridaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. heterophylla and var. laciniata
-GeorgiaPresentNative Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015
-IdahoPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. ampla and var. laciniata
-IllinoisPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. laciniata
-IndianaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. laciniata
-IowaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. laciniata
-KansasPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. laciniata
-KentuckyPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. digitata and var. laciniata
-LouisianaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. laciniata
-MainePresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. laciniata
-MarylandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. bipinnata, var. digitata and var. laciniata
-MassachusettsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. bipinnata and var. laciniata
-MichiganPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. laciniata
-MinnesotaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. laciniata
-MississippiPresentNative Not invasive Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015
-MissouriPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. laciniata
-MontanaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. ampla and var. laciniata
-NebraskaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. laciniata
-New HampshirePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. bipinnata and var. laciniata
-New JerseyPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. digitata and var. laciniata
-New MexicoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. ampla and var. laciniata
-New YorkPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. bipinnata and var. laciniata
-North CarolinaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. digitata and var. laciniata
-North DakotaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. ampla and var. laciniata
-OhioPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. laciniata
-OklahomaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. laciniata
-PennsylvaniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. bipinnata and var. laciniata
-South CarolinaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. digitata and var. laciniata
-South DakotaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. ampla and var. laciniata
-TennesseePresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. digitata and var. laciniata
-TexasPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. laciniata
-UtahPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. ampla
-VermontPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. laciniata
-VirginiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. digitata and var. laciniata
-West VirginiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. laciniata
-WisconsinPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. laciniata
-WyomingPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015R. laciniata var. ampla and var. laciniata

South America

BoliviaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015

Europe

AustriaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
BelarusPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
BelgiumPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentIntroducedVojnikovic, 2015First identified in 2014
CroatiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
Czech RepublicPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
FinlandPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
FrancePresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
GermanyPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
HungaryPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
ItalyPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
MoldovaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
NetherlandsPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
NorwayPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
PolandPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
RomaniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
Russian FederationPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
SlovakiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
SloveniaPresentIntroduced1868USDA-ARS, 2015; Vojnikovic, 2015
SwedenPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
SwitzerlandPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
UKPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
UkrainePresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015

Oceania

New ZealandPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015

History of Introduction and Spread

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R. laciniata was introduced to Europe as an ornamental plant at the beginning of the seventeenth century where it has escaped cultivation (EPPO, 2009). It was recorded in Slovenia in 1868. In 2014, surveys identified this species at a number of locations in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Vojnikovic, 2015). It has however been suggested that due to slight morphological differences (a narrowing of the receptacle in European plants compared with a hemispheric or ovoid to globose receptacle in plants from North America), the plants in Europe likely represent a cultivar or hybrid of R. laciniata (Manual of the Alien Plants of Belgium, 2015). As a result, the exact origin of plants in Europe is unknown.

In Japan, this species was introduced in the mid-Meiji era, around 1900, also as an ornamental plant. The first record of a naturalized plant in Japan was recorded in 1955 (Ministry of Environment, Japan, 2015) and today it is distributed across most of Japan (NIES, 2014). This species is often found along roadsides (Aoki et al., 2012; Akasaka et al., 2015; Kawano, 2015). Akasaka et al. (2015) suggest that this species was spread by hikers walking along the trails and Aoki et al. (2012) suggested that vehicles may also be involved.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Europe North America   Ornamental purposes (pathway cause) Yes EPPO Reporting Service (2009)
Japan North America  1955 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause) Yes Ministry of the Environment Japan (2015)

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of R. laciniata being introduced into new areas is fairly high as it is sold from nurseries and online as an ornamental species. In addition to this, R. laciniata produces a large number of seeds which can remain viable in the soil seed bank for at least three years (Francirkova, 2001). This species can also regenerate from small rhizome fragments enabling it to spread locally. Both the seeds and rhizome can be accidentally transported into new areas as a contaminant in the soil.

Habitat

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R. laciniata is found mainly in bright, humid areas, such as wetlands, riparian areas, forest edges, at rail and roadsides and in disturbed areas in relatively cool regions in both on native and introduced ranges (USDA-NRCS 2015; Akasaka et al., 2015). It typically colonizes areas at altitude lower than 700 m (EPPO, 2006). It generally prefers a microthermal climate, such as mountain plateaus.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details
Disturbed areas Present, no further details
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details
Natural grasslands Present, no further details
Riverbanks Present, no further details
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number of R. laciniata has been reported as 2n = 38, 48, 54, 76, n= 19, 24, 27 (IPCN Chromosome Reports, 2014).

Reproductive Biology

Flowers of R. laciniata are hermaphrodite and are insect pollinated. It flowers from July to October, with seeds ripening from August to October (Plants For a Future, 2015). One plant can produce more than 1,000 seeds per plant and 94,000 viable seeds can be produce in an area of 1 m2 (Francirkova, 2001). Under field conditions, rates of seed germination reached 35 % (Francirkova, 2001). Seeds can remain viable in the soil for at least three years (Osawa and Akasaka, 2009). R. laciniata can also regenerate from rhizome fragments (Osawa and Akasaka, 2009). The study by Francirkova (2001) also found that only fragments  ≥1 cm can regenerate.

Physiology and Phenology

Flowering occurs in early to late summer and has distinct yellow ray florets. Before flowering in northern Japan, R. laciniata requires two years of growth. The seeds of R. laciniata remain viable for at least three years in the ground in Japan (Osawa and Akasaka, 2009).

Environmental Requirements

The distribution in Japan suggests that this species requires a relatively cool moist climate, such as mountain highlands or northern regions. It is rarely found in hot dry regions. 

R. laciniata has a wide tolerance to soil conditions. For example, it can grow in sandy, loamy and clay soils and soils with acidic, neutral or alkaline soils (Plants For a Future, 2015). 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
D - Continental/Microthermal climate Preferred Continental/Microthermal climate (Average temp. of coldest month < 0°C, mean warmest month > 10°C)
Df - Continental climate, wet all year Preferred Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Preferred Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Preferred Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
66 45

Soil Tolerances

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Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Corynespora cassiicola Pathogen Leaves not specific Silva et al., 2006

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The fungus Corynespora cassiicola has been identified for the first time from leaves of R. laciniata in Brazil where it causes leafspot symptoms (Da Silva et al., 2006).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

R. laciniata produces a large number of seeds which can remain viable for at least three years in the ground (Osawa and Akasaka, 2009). In addition to this it can reproduce and spread locally from rhizome.

Vector Transmission

The movement of soil can act as a vector for spreading seeds of R. laciniata. Roads are considered to be major pathways involved in the dispersal of the seeds of this species (Akasaka et al., 2015).

Intentional Introduction

R. laciniata was intentionally introduced into Europe and Japan for ornamental purposes.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes National Institute for Environmental Studies, NIES

Pathway Vectors

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Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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R. laciniata can form dense monospecific stands in invaded areas, such as a forest edge or floor and grassland and as a result can alter habitats (Taki, 2007). These stands can outcompete native plant species therefore decreasing biodiversity. In Mures County, Romania, R. laciniata is widespread where it is reported to "suffocate other species" (Samarghitan and Oroian, 2012).There have been reports that this species can alter the habitat dynamics of tree colonization in alluvial areas (EPPO, 2009). 

Social Impact

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There are some records that R. laciniata is toxic and can be lethal to horses, sheep and pigs if ingested (Kingsbury, 1964; EPPO, 2009).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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Economic Value

R. laciniata and its many varieties are regularly sold for ornamental purposes due to its pretty flowers which attract a number of pollinators.

The potential of biomass of R. laciniata as biofuel is currently under consideration (Mudryk et al., 2013).

Social Benefit

The young stems of R. laciniata are edible but caution is needed due to potential toxicity (Plants For a Future, 2015). In addition to this, the roots can be used to treat indigestion and the flowers to treat burns (Plants For a Future, 2015).

Uses List

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Fuels

  • Biofuels

General

  • Ornamental

Human food and beverage

  • salad

Materials

  • Poisonous to mammals

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Cut flower

Prevention and Control

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In Japan, there are about 50 management activities for R. laciniata under the Invasive Species Act (Ministry of Environment, Japan; Osawa and Akasaka, 2012). In addition, Osawa and Akasaka published a management manual for this species in Japanese which can be found on the internet (Osawa and Akasaka, 2007, 2008, 2009). This manual proposes a management strategy involving inhibition and eradication: 1) prevent the plants from flowering by removal of above ground material, once per year is effective, and 2) eradicate this species by continuous rhizome removal.

Physical/Mechanical Control

Osawa and Akasaka (2007) showed that aboveground removal once a year significantly suppressed the flowering rate of R. laciniata, but also caused an increase in belowground size. Therefore, cutting is effective only at suppressing seed dispersal and not for eradication (Osawa and Akasaka 2007).

Osawa and Akasaka (2009) also showed that continuous rhizome removal for more than three years can reduce the size of stands and ultimately lead to eradication. However, an individual can grow from just 2.4 g rhizome fragments (Osawa and Akasaka, 2009).

References

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Akasaka M; Osawa T; Ikegami M, 2015. The role of roads and urban area in occurrence of an ornamental invasive weed: a case of Rudbeckia laciniata L. Urban Ecosystems, 18(3):1021-1030

Aoki K; Kikukawa H; Kamaya T; Yoshida T, 2012. Distribution of invasive alien species, the cutleaf cornflower (Rudbeckia laciniata) and proposing future management plan in Nishiokoppe village of Hokkaido. Journal of Takuno Gakuen University Natural Science, 36(2):335-338.

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Kondo T; Ishigaki H; Tei A, 2014. Seed germination characteristics and seed bank formation in Rudbeckia laciniata. Journal of the Japanese Society of Revegetation Technology, 40:315-323.

Manual of the Alien Plants of Belgium, 2015. Welcome to Manual of the Alien Plants of Belgium. Belgium. http://alienplantsbelgium.be/

Ministry of the Environment Japan, 2015. The invasive alien species act. http://www.env.go.jp/en/nature/as.html

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Mudryk K; Fraczek J; Slipek Z; Francik S; Wrobel M, 2013. Chosen physico-mechanical properties of cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) shoots. In: 12th International Scientific Conference: Engineering for rural development, Jelgava, Latvia, 23-24 May 2013. Jelgava, Latvia: Latvia University of Agriculture, 658-662. http://tf.llu.lv/conference/proceedings2013/

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Osawa T; Akasaka M, 2007. Influence of aboveground removal on an invasive perennial herb Rudbeckia laciniata L. (Compositae) in June: difference in belowground size. Japanese Journal of Conservation Ecology, 12(2):151-155.

Osawa T; Akasaka M, 2008. Regeneration property of an invasive perennial herb Rudbeckia laciniata L. (Compositae) and their influence on native plant community. Annual reports on Institute for Environmental Sciences, 27:35-43.

Osawa T; Akasaka M, 2009. Management of the invasive perennial herb Rudbeckia laciniata L. (Compositae) using rhizome removal. Japanese Journal of Conservation Ecology, 14(1):37-43.

Osawa T; Akasaka M, 2012. Efficiency of alien invasive plant-removal activities by volunteers and government-employed workers. Japanese Journal of Conservation Ecology, 17(2):271-277.

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Silva JL da; Soares DJ; Barreto RW, 2006. Eye-spot of Rudbeckia laciniata caused by Corynespora cassiicola in Brazil. Plant Pathology, 55(4):580. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2006.01429.x

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Contributors

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30/05/2015 Original text by:

Takeshi Osawa, National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Japan

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