Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi
(witches'-broom phytoplasma disease)

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Datasheet

Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi (witches'-broom phytoplasma disease)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 28 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi
  • Preferred Common Name
  • witches'-broom phytoplasma disease
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Firmicutes
  •     Class: Mollicutes
  •       Order: Acholeplasmatales
  •         Family: Acholeplasmataceae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Symptoms of rubus stunt in natutrally infected Rubus caesius.
TitleStunt symptoms
CaptionSymptoms of rubus stunt in natutrally infected Rubus caesius.
CopyrightC. Marcone
Symptoms of rubus stunt in natutrally infected Rubus caesius.
Stunt symptomsSymptoms of rubus stunt in natutrally infected Rubus caesius.C. Marcone

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi

Preferred Common Name

  • witches'-broom phytoplasma disease

Other Scientific Names

  • Phytoplasma rubi
  • Rubus stunt phytoplasma Seemüller et al., 1998

International Common Names

  • English: Rubus stunt (RUS); RUS

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Rubusverzwergung
  • Italy: scopazzi del rovo

EPPO code

  • PHYP67 (Rubus stunt phytoplasma)
  • PHYPRU

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Firmicutes
  •         Class: Mollicutes
  •             Order: Acholeplasmatales
  •                 Family: Acholeplasmataceae
  •                     Genus: Phytoplasma
  •                         Species: Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

IsraelAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2020)

Europe

BelgiumPresentDe Jonghe and Goedefroit (2019); EPPO (2020)
BulgariaPresentTrifonov (1961); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
DenmarkPresent, WidespreadReitzel (1971); Thomsen (1972); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
FrancePresentJarausch et al. (2001); Arnaud et al. (2007)
GermanyPresent, WidespreadRichter (1963); Heintz (1986); McCoy et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
HungaryPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Jensen et al., 1981
ItalyPresent, WidespreadRagozzino et al. (1977); Lee et al. (1995); Marcone et al. (1997); CABI and EPPO (2001); Marcone (2002); Arnaud et al. (2007); Marcone (2011); EPPO (2020)
NetherlandsPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated);
NorwayPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
PortugalPresentParente et al. (1999); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
RussiaPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-Central RussiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
SlovakiaPresentPaulechova (1978); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
SwitzerlandPresentCazelles (1976); Marcone et al. (1998); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
United KingdomPresent, WidespreadMurant and Roberts (1971); Davies (2000); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)

North America

United StatesAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2020)

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / reduced size
Growing point / dieback
Growing point / discoloration
Growing point / distortion
Inflorescence / abnormal leaves (phyllody)
Inflorescence / discoloration (non-graminaceous plants)
Inflorescence / distortion (non-graminaceous plants)
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / leaves rolled or folded
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / hairy root
Stems / dieback
Stems / distortion
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Stems / witches broom
Whole plant / distortion; rosetting
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / elongation
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback
Whole plant / uprooted or toppled

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Breeding and propagation Yes Yes
Crop production Yes Yes
Nursery trade Yes Yes
People sharing resources Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Germplasm Yes Yes
Host and vector organisms Yes Yes
Plants or parts of plants Yes Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Roots Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Macropsis fusculaFluiter and Meer, 1953. InsectEurope

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts forestry
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Negatively impacts animal/plant collections
  • Damages animal/plant products
Impact mechanisms
  • Parasitism (incl. parasitoid)
  • Pathogenic
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

References

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Ahrens U, Seemuller E, 1992. Detection of DNA of plant pathogenic mycoplasmalike organisms by a polymerase chain reaction that amplifies a sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Phytopathology, 82(8):828-832

Arnaud G, Malembic-Maher S, Salar P, Bonnet P, Maixner M, Marcone C, Boudon-Padieu E, Foissac X, 2007. Multilocus sequence typing confirms the close genetic interrelatedness of three distinct flavescence dorée phytoplasma strain clusters and group 16SrV phytoplasmas infecting grapevine and alder in Europe. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 73(12):4001-4010. http://aem.asm.org

Bertaccini A, Vibio M, Gennari F, Guerrini S, Benni A, Lee IM, 1995. Detection of mycoplasma like organisms (phytoplasmas) in Rubus by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Acta Horticulturae, No. 385:126-131; 10 ref

Boudon-Padieu E, Cousin M-T, Daire X, Roux J, 1996. Molecular and serological characterization of phytoplasma isolates inducing tomato stolbur symptoms in tomato. IOM letters, 4:167-168

CABI/EPPO, 2001. Rubus stunt phytoplasma. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Map No. 831. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Cazelles O, 1976. A proliferation disease of blackberry. Revue Suisse de Viticulture Arboriculture Horticulture, 8(3):131

Converse RH, Clarke RG, Oman PW Sr, Milbrath GM, 1982. Witches' broom disease of black raspberry in Oregon. Plant Disease, 66(10):949-951

Daire X, Clair D, Larrue J, Boudon-Padieu E, Alma A, Arzone A, Carraro L, Osler R, Refatti E, Granata G, Credi R, Tanne E, Pearson R, Caudwell A, 1993. Occurrence of diverse MLOs in tissues of grapevine affected by grapevine yellows in different countries. Vitis, 32(4):247-248

Davies DL, 2000. The occurence of two phytoplasmas associated with stunted Rubus species in the UK. Plant Pathology, 49:86-88

De Jonghe, K., Goedefroit, T., 2019. First report of the phytoplasma ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi’ in Belgium. New Disease Reports, 39, 19. https://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=039019

Ellis MA, Converse RH, Williams RN, Williamson B, 1991. Compendium of raspberry and blackberry diseases and insects. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA; American Phytopathological Society, vi + 100pp

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fernández EGB, Calari A, Hanzer V, Katinger H, Bertaccini A, Laimer M, 2007. Phytoplasma infected plants in Austrian forests: role as a reservoir? Bulletin of Insectology [First international phytoplasmologist working group meeting, Bologna, Italy, 12-15 November 2007.], 60(2):391-392. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/

Fluiter HJ de, FA van der Meer, 1958. The biology and control of Macropsis fuscula Zett., the vector of Rubus stunt virus. Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress of Entomology, (3):341-346

Fluiter HJ de, Meer FA van der, 1953. Rubus stunt, a leafhopper-borne virus disease. Tijdschrift over Planteziekten, 59:195-197

Heintz W, 1986. Cuscuta odorata an effective vector for mycoplasma-like organisms (MLO). Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes, 38(9):138-141

Hirumi H, Maramorosch K, 1973. Ultrastructure of the aster yellows agent mycoplasma-like bodies in sieve tube elements of Nicotiana rustica. In: Maramorosch K, ed. Mycoplasma and mycoplasma-like agents of human, animal and plant diseases. Annals of New York Academy of Science, 225:201-222

Jarausch W, Jarausch-Wehrheim B, Danet JL, Broquaire JM, Dosba F, Saillard C, Garnier M, 2001. Detection and identification of European stone fruit yellows and other phytoplasmas in wild plants in the surroundings of apricot chlorotic leaf roll-affected orchards in southern France. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 107(2):209-217; 30 ref

Jenser G, Hegab AM, Dezsery M, 1981. Philpnus spumarius Linne as a vector of the causative pathogen of rubus stunt disease. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricp, 16(1/2):233-237

Jung HeeYoung, Sawayanagi T, Kakizawa S, Nishigawa H, Wei Wei, Oshima K, Miyata S, Ugaki M, Hibi T, Namba S, 2003. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma ziziphi', a novel phytoplasma taxon associated with jujube witches'-broom disease. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 53(4):1037-1041

Klein M, Zelcer A, Fleisher Z, Loebenstein G, 1976. Mycoplasmalike organisms associated with witches' broom disease of Rubus sanguineus. Hassadeh, 56:1103-1104 (in Hebrew)

Lee IM, Bertaccini A, Vibio M, Gundersen DE, Davis RE, Mittempergher L, Conti M, Gennari F, 1995. Detection and characterization of phytoplasmas associated with diseases in Ulmus and Rubus in northern and central Italy. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 34(3):174-183; 25 ref

Lee IM, Martini M, Marcone C, Zhu SF, 2004. Classification of phytoplasma strains in the elm yellows group (16SrV) and proposal of ’Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi’ for the phytoplasma associated with elm yellows. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 54:337-347

Lee IngMing, Gundersen-Rindal DE, Davis RE, Bartoszyk IM, 1998. Revised classification scheme of phytoplasmas based on RFLP analyses of 16S rRNA and ribosomal protein gene sequences. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 48(4):1153-1169; 145 ref

Lehman W, 1973. Euscelis plebejus (Fallén) und Macrosteles cristatus Ribaut als FbertrSger von Pflanzenkrankheiten von vermuteter Mykoplasma--tiologie. Archiv für phytopathologie und Pflanzenschutz, 9:363-370

Malembic-Maher S, Salar P, Filippin L, Carle P, Angelini E, Foissac X, 2011. Genetic diversity of European phytoplasmas of the 16SrV taxonomic group and proposal of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi'. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 61(9):2129-2134. http://ijs.sgmjournals.org

Marani F, Pisi A, Bertaccini A, 1977. The association of mycoplasma-like bodies with Rubus stunt disease. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 16(2/3):150-153

Marcone C, 2002. Phytoplasmoses of forest plants, shrubs and woody ornamental in Europe. (Fitoplasmosi di piante forestali, arbustive ed ornamentali legnose in Europa.) Petria, 12(3):381-386

Marcone C, 2011. Current status of phytoplasma diseases of medicinal and nutraceutical plants in Southern Italy. Bulletin of Insectology [Second International Phytoplasmologist Working Group Meeting. Neustadt an der Weinstrasse, Germany, September 12-15, 2011.], 64(Supplement):S233-S234. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/

Marcone C, Hergenhahn F, Ragozzino A, Seemnller E, 1999. Dodder transmission of pear decline, European stone fruit yellows, Rubus stunt, Picris echioides yellows and cotton phyllody phytoplasmas to periwinkle. Journal of Phytopathology, 147(3):187-192; 25 ref

Marcone C, Lee IM, Davis RE, Ragozzino A, Seemnller E, 2000. Classification of aster yellows-group phytoplasmas based on combined analyses of rRNA and tuf gene sequences. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 50(5):1703-1713; 41 ref

Marcone C, Ragozzino A, 1996. Comparative ultrastructural studies on genetically different phytoplasmas using scanning electron microscopy. Petria, 6(2):125-136; 30 ref

Marcone C, Ragozzino A, Firrao G, Locci R, 1994. Detection of a Rubus stunt isolate and characterization by RFLP analysis. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale, 4(2):47-58

Marcone C, Ragozzino A, Seemüller A, 1998. Detection and genetic characterization of phytoplasmas in forest trees, landscape trees, and shrubs by direct and nested PCR assays. In: Manceau C, Spak J, eds. COST 823 - New technologies to improve phytodiagnosis. Advances in the detection of plant pathogens by polymerase chain reaction. Luxembourg, Germany: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 67-80

Marcone C, Ragozzino A, Seemüller E, 1997. Identification and characterization of the phytoplasma associated with elm yellows in southern Italy and its relatedness to other phytoplasmas of the elm yellows group. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 27:45-54

McCoy RE, Caudwell A, Chang CJ, Chen TA, Chiykowski LN, Cousin MT, Dale JL, de Leeuw GTN, Golino DA, Hackett KJ, Kirkpatrick BC, Marwitz R, Petzold H, Sinha RC, Sugiura M, Whitcomb RF, Yang IL, Zhu BM, Seemnller E, 1989. Plant diseases associated with mycoplasma-like organisms. In: Whitcomb RF, Tully, eds. The Mycoplasmas, Vol. V. San Diego, USA: Academic Press, 545-640

Meer van der, 1987. Rubus stunt. In: Converse RH, ed. Virus Diseases of Small Fruits. Washington, DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook No. 631, 197-203

MSurer M, Seemüller E, 1994. Nature and genetic relatedness of the mycoplasma-like organism causing rubus stunt in Europe. Plant Pathology, 44:244-249

Murant AF, Roberts IM, 1971. Mycoplasma-like bodies associated with Rubus stunt disease. Annals of Applied Biology, 67:389-393

Parente AM, Abreu I, Salema R, 1999. Immunodetection of phytoplasmas in wild blackberry in northern Portugal. Zeitschrift fu^umlaut~r Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 106(6):618-623; 12 ref

Paulechova K, 1978. Distribution of virus and mycoplasma-like diseases of some trees of the family Rosaceae in Eastern Slovakia. Acta Botanica Slovaca Academiae Scientiarum Slovacp, A4, 345-352

Pollini CP, Giunchedi L, Bissani R, 1997. Immunoenzymatic detection of PCR products for the identification of phytoplasmas in plants. Journal of Phytopathology, 145(8/9):371-374; 14 ref

Quaroni S, Saracchi M, Tornaghi R, Faoro F, 1990. A comparative scanning and transmission electron microscope study for the detection of mycoplasma-like organisms. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale, 26(2-3):79-84

Ragozzino A, Angelaccio C, Stefanis D, 1977. Some mycoplasma diseases found in Campania. Annali della Facolta di Scienze Agrarie dell'Universita di Napoli in Portici, IV, 11:1-10

Reeder R, Kelly PL, Arocha Y, 2010. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' identified in blackberry (Rubus fruticosus agg.) in the United Kingdom. Plant Pathology, 59(2):394. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Reitzel J, 1971. The leafhopper Macropsis fuscula (Zett.) in raspberry plantings. Tidsskrift for Planteavl, 75:577-580

Richter J, 1963. Die Verzwergungskrankheit der Rubus-Arten (Rubus-Stauche). Nachrichtenblatt für den Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienst, Berlin, 17:170-173

Seemnller E, Marcone C, Lauer U, Ragozzino A, G÷schl M, 1998. Current status of molecular classification of the phytoplasmas. Journal of Plant Pathology, 80:3-26

Sfalanga A, Martini M, Surico G, Bertaccini A, 2002. Involvement of phytoplasmas in a decline of Ulmus chenmoui in Central Italy. Forest Pathology, 32(4/5):265-275; 30 ref

The IRPCM Phytoplasma/Spiroplasma Working Team - Phytoplasma taxonomy group, 2004. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma', a taxon for the wall-less non-helical prokaryotes that colonize plant phloem and insects. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 54:1243-1255

Thomsen A, 1972. Rubus stunt. Tidsskrift for Planteavl, 76:289-296

Trifonov D, 1961. Malinov snop. Ovoshtarstvo, 8:25-26

Weintraub PG, Beanland L, 2006. Insect vectors of phytoplasmas. Annual Review of Entomology, 51:91-111. http://www.annualreviews.org

Distribution References

Arnaud G, Malembic-Maher S, Salar P, Bonnet P, Maixner M, Marcone C, Boudon-Padieu E, Foissac X, 2007. Multilocus sequence typing confirms the close genetic interrelatedness of three distinct flavescence dorée phytoplasma strain clusters and group 16SrV phytoplasmas infecting grapevine and alder in Europe. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 73 (12), 4001-4010. http://aem.asm.org DOI:10.1128/AEM.02323-06

CABI, EPPO, 2001. Rubus stunt phytoplasma. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 831.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cazelles O, 1976. A proliferation disease of blackberry. (Une maladie a proliferation de la ronce.). Revue Suisse de Viticulture Arboriculture Horticulture. 8 (3), 131.

Davies DL, 2000. The occurence of two phytoplasmas associated with stunted Rubus species in the UK. In: Plant Pathology, 49 86-88.

De Jonghe K, Goedefroit T, 2019. First report of the phytoplasma ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi’ in Belgium. New Disease Reports. 19. https://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=039019

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

Heintz W, 1986. Cuscuta odorata - an effective vector for mycoplasma-like organisms (MLO). (Cuscuta odorata - ein effektiver Überträger für mykoplasmaähnliche Organismen (MLO).). Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes. 38 (9), 138-141.

Jarausch W, Jarausch-Wehrheim B, Danet J L, Broquaire J M, Dosba F, Saillard C, Garnier M, 2001. Detection and identification of European stone fruit yellows and other phytoplasmas in wild plants in the surroundings of apricot chlorotic leaf roll-affected orchards in southern France. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 107 (2), 209-217. DOI:10.1023/A:1011234921833

Lee I M, Bertaccini A, Vibio M, Gundersen D E, Davis R E, Mittempergher L, Conti M, Gennari F, 1995. Detection and characterization of phytoplasmas associated with diseases in Ulmus and Rubus in northern and central Italy. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 34 (3), 174-183.

Marcone C, 2002. Phytoplasmoses of forest plants, shrubs and woody ornamental in Europe. (Fitoplasmosi di piante forestali, arbustive ed ornamentali legnose in Europa). In: Petria, 12 (3) 381-386.

Marcone C, 2011. Current status of phytoplasma diseases of medicinal and nutraceutical plants in Southern Italy. Bulletin of Insectology. 64 (Supplement), S233-S234. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/

Marcone C, Ragozzino A, Seemüller A, 1998. Detection and genetic characterization of phytoplasmas in forest trees, landscape trees, and shrubs by direct and nested PCR assays. In: COST 823 - New technologies to improve phytodiagnosis. Advances in the detection of plant pathogens by polymerase chain reaction, [ed. by Manceau C, Spak J]. Luxembourg, Germany: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. 67-80.

Marcone C, Ragozzino A, Seemüller E, 1997. Identification and characterization of the phytoplasma associated with elm yellows in southern Italy and its relatedness to other phytoplasmas of the elm yellows group. European Journal of Forest Pathology. 27 (1), 45-54.

McCoy RE, Caudwell A, Chang CJ, Chen TA, Chiykowski LN, Cousin MT, Dale JL, de Leeuw GTN, Golino DA, Hackett KJ, Kirkpatrick BC, Marwitz R, Petzold H, Sinha RC, Sugiura M, Whitcomb RF, Yang IL, Zhu BM, Seemnller E, 1989. Plant diseases associated with mycoplasma-like organisms. [The Mycoplasmas, Vol. V], 5 San Diego, USA: Academic Press. 545-640.

Murant AF, Roberts IM, 1971. Mycoplasma-like bodies associated with Rubus stunt disease. In: Annals of Applied Biology, 67 389-393.

Parente A M, Abreu I, Salema R, 1999. Immunodetection of phytoplasmas in wild blackberry in northern Portugal. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz. 106 (6), 618-623.

Paulechova K, 1978. Distribution of virus and mycoplasma-like diseases of some trees of the family Rosaceae in Eastern Slovakia. (Rozsirenie virusovych a mykoplazmatickych ochoreni pri niektorych drevinach cel'ade Rosaceae v Oblasti vychodneho Slovenska.). Acta Botanica Slovaca Academiae Scientiarum Slovacae, A4. 345-352.

Ragozzino A, Angelaccio C, Stefanis D, 1977. Some mycoplasma diseases found in Campania. (Su alcune malattie da micoplasmi rinvenute in Campania.). Annali della Facolta di Scienze Agrarie dell'Universita di Napoli in Portici, IV. 1-10.

Reitzel J, 1971. The leafhopper Macropsis fuscula (Zett.) in raspberry plantings. (Cikaden Macropsis fuscula (Zett.) i hindbaerkulturer.). Tidsskrift for Planteavl. 577-580.

Richter J, 1963. (Die Verzwergungskrankheit der Rubus-Arten (Rubus-Stauche)). In: Nachrichtenblatt für den Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienst, Berlin, 17 170-173.

Thomsen A, 1972. Rubus stunt. (Dvaergsyge hos hindbaer.). Tidsskrift for Planteavl. 76 (3), 289-296.

Trifonov D, 1961. Malinov snop. In: Ovoshtarstvo, 8 25-26.

Distribution Maps

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