Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Rubus alceifolius
(giant bramble)



Rubus alceifolius (giant bramble)


  • Last modified
  • 19 March 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Rubus alceifolius
  • Preferred Common Name
  • giant bramble
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • R. alceifolius is a robust, aggressive perennial scrambling shrub, spreading by long arching spiny stems, rooting at their tips, as well as by bird-dispersed seeds. It can develop dense impenetrable thickets. I...

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Rubus alceifolius Poir. (1804)

Preferred Common Name

  • giant bramble

Other Scientific Names

  • Rubus bullatifolius Merr
  • Rubus fimbriifer Focke 1910
  • Rubus gilvus Focke 1910
  • Rubus hainanensis Focke 1910
  • Rubus moluccanus var. alceifolius (Poir.) Kuntze 1891
  • Rubus multibracteatus var. demangei H. Lev. 1913
  • Rubus roridus Lindl. 1833

International Common Names

  • English: giant bramble
  • French: ronce a feuilles d’alcee

Local Common Names

  • Australia: asian bramble; wild raspberry
  • China: cu ye xuan gou zi
  • Indonesia: framboisier de Java
  • Réunion: grosse framboise marroane; raisin marron; vigne marron

Summary of Invasiveness

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R. alceifolius is a robust, aggressive perennial scrambling shrub, spreading by long arching spiny stems, rooting at their tips, as well as by bird-dispersed seeds. It can develop dense impenetrable thickets. It is native to tropical SE Asia but has been introduced to a number of other territories, most notably the Indian Ocean island of La Réunion, where it is one of the eight most threatening plant invaders to become established on the island and occurs not only on sites disturbed by man but also in primary forest with minimal disturbance (Macdonald et al., 1991). It can behave as a liana, climbing into the canopy of forest trees and increasing the risk of wind damage. 

It occurs also on the islands of Mayotte, Mauritius and Madagascar (Vos, 2004; Kueffer and Lavergne, 2004a,b) and in Queensland, Australia where it is invading pastures, roadsides, creekbanks, sugarcane plantations and the edges of rainforest (Queensland Government, 2012). Holm et al. (1979) record it as a ‘principal’ weed in Australia, and risk assessment by the Australian method gave a score of 11 (PIER, 2012).

Binggeli et al. (1998) classified it as highly invasive in the tropics. In a joint project between USDA and the Weed Science Society of America it was identified among the highest-ranked potential future invasive weeds in USA (Parker et al., 2007; WSSA, 2012).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Rosales
  •                         Family: Rosaceae
  •                             Genus: Rubus
  •                                 Species: Rubus alceifolius

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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A number of alternative names have been applied to R. alceifolius, but none of those are now in common usage. An alternative spelling, R. alceaefolius, has been used quite widely but is incorrect. The specific name, alceifolius derives from the similarity of the leaf-shape to that of the garden hollyhock (Alcea rosea) in the Malvaceae. 

The name Rubus roridus was previously applied to the plant occurring in Madagascar. It was later suggested that Madagascan populations result from hybridization of introduced R. alceifolius with native populations of ‘R. roridus, a closely related species of Rubus subgenus Malachobatus’, and that apomixis was a consequence of this hybridization (Amsellem et al., 2001). However, it is unclear whether this is still the accepted situation as R. roridus Lindl. continues to be treated as a synonym for R. alceifolius by Missouri Botanic Garden (2012) and other authorities. 

A number of varieties have been recognized, including var. divertilobatus.


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R. alceifolius is a coarse, vigorous perennial scrambling shrub with a woody rootstock, which reproduces by seed and layering. Stems robust, thick primary canes to 5 m long, covered with a felt of dense brown hairs and scattered recurved prickles up to 5 mm long, erect at first then arching and scrambling over other plants; short secondary canes producing flowers develop in the leaf axils of primary canes in the second growth season. Leaves green, alternate, simple, to 12.5 cm across and 20 cm long, bullate above, velvety brown below due to a dense covering of reddish hairs; deeply notched at the base, with 5 to 7 shallow but finely serrated lobes. Petioles 3-4.5 cm long. There are leafy stipules up to 15 mm long at the base of the petioles. Flowers white, 1.5 to 2 cm in diameter, in clusters at ends of short secondary canes, subtended by brown finely divided bracts; calyx covered at the base with brown velvety hairs. Fruit a succulent aggregate ‘berry’ of about 150 1-seeded segments or drupelets, red when ripe. Seed black, small, subglobular. Root a short woody rootstock giving rise to a sparsely branched main root with a number of fibrous laterals in the upper soil layers.

Several distinct ecotypes are recognized in SE Asia: a form with large leaves in Java, a form with small leaves in northern Vietnam, and a form with hairy leaves in Thailand and Laos.

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated
Vine / climber

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes


MadagascarPresent, WidespreadIntroducedAmsellem et al. (2001)
MauritiusPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2012)
MayottePresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2012)
RéunionPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasivePIER (2012)


CambodiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
ChinaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
-FujianPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
-GuangdongPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
-GuangxiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
-GuizhouPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
-HainanPresentNativeCABI (Undated)Original citation: eFloras (2012)
-HunanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
-JiangsuPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
-JiangxiPresentNativeCABI (Undated)Original citation: eFloras (2012)
-YunnanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
-ZhejiangPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
Hong KongPresentNativeGBIF (2012)
IndonesiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
JapanPresentNativeCABI (Undated)Original citation: eFloras (2012)
LaosPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
MyanmarPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
TaiwanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
ThailandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
VietnamPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)


AustraliaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasivePIER (2012)
-QueenslandPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasivePIER (2012)

History of Introduction and Spread

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The approximate date of introduction of R. alceifolius into La Réunion was 1842 (McDonald et al., 1991), though it has only been recognised as seriously invasive in the past few decades. The introductions to La Réunion and Mayotte are understood to have come from Madagascar, where it is believed to have been present for ‘several centuries’ (Amsellem et al., 2001). It is also said to have been in Mauritius since 1752 (Kueffer and Lavergne, 2004b). In Australia, the earliest herbarium specimen recorded by GBIF (2012) dates from 1969, but it may have been introduced much earlier than this.


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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Madagascar Before 1800 No No Amsellem et al. (2001)
Mauritius Before 1752 Yes No Kueffer and Lavergne (2004b)
Réunion Madagascar 1842 Yes No Invasive


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Sunny slopes, mixed forests in valleys, boggy thickets, roadsides, rock crevices; 500-2000 m (eFloras, 2012). In La Réunion, habitats include lowland rain forest, mountain and submontane rain forest and Acacia heterophylla rain forest, from sea level up to 1700 m (Baret et al., 2004), but development in forest generally depends on clearings in which it can germinate and establish (Baret et al., 2008). Also agricultural areas, riparian zones, ruderal/disturbed areas, scrub/shrublands, forest hedges, roadsides and fallows (ISSG, 2012).

Habitat List

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Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Principal habitat Natural
Natural grasslands Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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Sugarcane and pastures are infested in Queensland, Australia (Queensland Government, 2012).

Growth Stages

Top of page Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

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R. alceifolius is a tetraploid in both native and introduced areas, with chromosome number 2n=28 (Amsellem et al., 2001). 

Reproductive Biology

In its native areas, R. alceifolius is genetically highly variable, associated with normal sexual reproduction, whereas in the introduced territories (other than Madagascar, where there is moderate variability) it shows little variation. Amsellem et al. (2002) have shown that in these other Indian Ocean islands, although pollination is required (50% of pollen grains are functional), seeds are produced by pseudogamous apospory. Hence although abundant viable seeds are produced, the populations in each island infestation are monoclonal. Each of these populations can be matched with one of the population types occurring in Madagascar, hence reinforcing the suggestion that these island populations originated from Madagascar. The population in Australia is similarly monoclonal and identical to that occurring in Mauritius (Amsellem et al., 2000).

Amsellem et al., (2001) have suggested that the Madagascan populations may have resulted from hybridization of introduced R. alceifolius and native populations of R. roridus, a closely related species of Rubus subgenus Malachobatus, and that apomixis was a consequence of this hybridization. It is uncertain whether this is still the accepted situation as R. roridus Lindl. continues to be treated as conspecific with R. alceifolius by Missouri Botanic Garden (2012) and other authorities. 

Physiology and Phenology

Baret et al. (2008) showed that seeds required scarification before germinating and germination occurred only in well-lit situations, represented by gaps in the forest canopy of at least 5 m². After seed germination in an opening in the forest canopy, a detailed study by Baret et al. (2003) shows that the plant forms a small vertical leafy axis with reduced development. The development of this first axis ceases with death of the apex, followed shortly by the formation of a new vertical axis from a lateral meristem located at the basal part of the axis (basitonic ramification). This new axis has larger dimensions than the preceding one, but also aborts after some time. These are replaced by a succession of increasingly strong shoots from the crown, growing vertically and behaving as a liana where supported by tree branches, climbing high into the forest canopy. Where not supported, the shoots arch over and eventually touch the ground, ‘layering’ - rooting from just behind the tip - and effectively establishing a new plant.

On Réunion, bud, flower, fruit and seed production, the duration of the flowering period and the importance of the seed bank were found to be negatively correlated with elevation. At a lowland site, fruit production in mature stands averaged between 30 and 80 fruits/m² during 1999 and 2000. No fruit set occurred above 1100 m. Temperature variation is very sharp along the elevation gradient and may control the fruit and seed production (Baret et al., 2004). 


Baret et al. (2005) refer to a large seed bank in the soil (>10,000 seeds per m²) and longevity of several years. 


In Queensland, the dense exotic grassland (Panicum maximum and Melinus minutiflora) of a cleared power line corridor supported a small-mammal community composed mainly of Melomys burtoni and Rattus sordidus, with rain forest small mammals Melomys cervinipes and Uromys caudimaculatus being restricted to woody-weed thickets (Lantana camara and Rubus alceifolius) along the rain forest-power line corridor edge (Goosem and Marsh, 1997). 

Environmental Requirements

R. alceifolius can occur up to 2000 m in China (eFloras, 2012) and from sea level up to 1700 m in La Réunion (Baret et al., 2003), but in La Réunion, the growth is much slower with increasing elevation. At a lowland site, fruit production in mature stands averaged between 30 and 80 fruits/m². No fruit set occurred above 1100 m (Baret et al., 2004). It thrives on high rainfall, at over 6000 mm rain in La Réunion. 

Although established plants of R. alceifolius can persist under shade, canopy openings are essential for seedling establishment (Baret et al., 2008).


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Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
30 20


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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall6000mm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • shallow

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Cibdela janthina Herbivore Leaves not specific
Hamaspora acutissima Pathogen Leaves not specific
Phaedon fulvescens Herbivore Leaves not specific

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

When not dispersed by birds, seeds are thought to be dispersed mainly via running water (Baret et al., 2005). 

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

In La Réunion, R. alceifolius is dispersed by native as well as introduced birds such as Acridotheres tristis and Pycnonotus jocusus (Linnebjerg et al., 2010). The latter species may play a key role in continued reinvasion of cleared areas in La Réunion (Mandon-Dalger et al., 2004).

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
WaterSeeds Yes Baret et al., 2005

Impact Summary

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Cultural/amenity Negative
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

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R. alceifolius has not been recorded as an economic problem in its native range, but where introduced to Indian Ocean islands, and to Australia, it is regarded as a serious invasive species affecting pastures and plantation crops such as sugarcane, as well as natural vegetation. Forest trees can also be damaged as a result of wind damage resulting from R. alceifolius behaving as a liana and weighing down high branches.

Environmental Impact

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R. alceifolius can become totally dominant and replace native vegetation and it was concluded by McDonald et al. (1991) that the survival of many indigenous plant species in Réunion probably hinges on the active control of alien species including R. alceifolius.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Increases vulnerability to invasions
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts forestry
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control


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R. alceifolius has been used in traditional medicine in La Réunion, e.g. for treatment of fever and inflammation (Lavergne, 1978). The roots and leaves are also used medicinally in China (eFloras, 2012). Alkaloids extracted from the roots of R. alceifolius may act to protect the liver through decreasing CYP2E1 enzymatic activity through decreasing its mRNA (Lin JiuMao et al., 2011; Hong ZhenFeng et al., 2009). Cui ChengBin et al. (2002) and Zhao QingChun et al. (2005) have reported high activity of extracts on the breast cancer tsFT210 cell line. 

The fruit can be eaten in the form of jam, and honey can also be produced, but these possibilities are not exploited on any substantial scale.

Uses List

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Human food and beverage

  • Fruits
  • Honey/honey flora

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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R. alceifolius somewhat resembles other wild raspberry species, including R. moluccanus with which it may be confused in e.g. Australia. However, the latter has smaller leaves with only 3 lobes, up to 15 cm long stipules only up to 12 mm long and drupelets less numerous, about 50 per fruit (Queensland Government, 2012). In China, it is distinguished from other closely related species by its bullate (raised) leaf surface between veins (eFloras, 2012).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

SPS Measures

In the Seychelles, R. alceifolius has been identified as one of two priority species for border control (Vielle and Mauremootoo, 2003). 


Cultural control and sanitary measures

Among the techniques being tested for controlling weed species including R. alceifolius on La Réunion is the encouragement of indigenous species (such as Dombeya sp., Weinmannia tinctoria and Monimia sp.) as understorey components, through silvicultural tending and release felling (Figier and Soulères, 1991).

Physical/mechanical control

In Australia, heavy cultivation such as bulldozing or ploughing is recommended, followed by harrowing to collect roots to dry out. Baret et al. (2008) recommend that control measures in a forest environment should be focused on the larger clearings where the weed has the greatest potential for establishment and spread. Regular slashing will hinder growth, and will give varying degrees of control if the plants are slashed before they are able to seed (Queensland Government, 2012). Hivert (2003) suggests manual uprooting and burning of uprooted plants to avoid any risk of vegetative reproduction, cutting with machete, incinerating waste and finally applying herbicide to cut stumps. 

Biological control

Biological control is being considered, especially for the infestation in La Réunion (Bourgeois et al., 2008). Preliminary work had established that the populations in the introduced areas were relatively uniform, compared with the native populations, except in Madagascar (Amsellem et al., 2000). In 2007, Cibdela janthina (Tenthredinidae, Argidae) native to Sumatra, was introduced and released on La Réunion Island. It established and is considered acclimatised and well established and spreading naturally up to 900m. Impact on Rubus thickets is promising but still under evaluation, as well as natural regeneration of the flora according to Rubus regression (Dr. Thomas Le Bourgeois pers.comm. to ISSG, 2012).

A parasitoid Proterops borneoensis (Braconidae: Ichneutinae) occurs on C. janthina in Indonesia (Achterberg and Chenon, 2009). Other species being considered as potential biological control agents include Phaedon fulvescens (Coleoptera, Chrysomelinae) (Bourgeois et al., 2004) and the rust fungus Hamaspora acutissima (Cannon, 2007). 

Chemical control

A mixture of picloram plus triclopyr is registered for use in Australia and can be used as an overall spray during the early flowering period, making sure that the leaves and stems are thoroughly wetted. Penetration of thick clumps may be difficult and re-spraying may be required (Queensland Government, 2012). Imazapyr has also been effective at the early flowering stage (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). Trichlopyr, fosamine-ammonium, and glyphosate have all been suggested for treating the cut stumps of plants after they have been cut back (Hivert, 2003). 


It has been suggested that herbicide use may need to be followed by burning 6 months later, while control by heavy cultivation may need to be followed by the establishment of a fast-growing annual crop to suppress regrowth before finally re-establishing pasture species (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). Conversely it is suggested that the plant be cut back mechanically and then the cut stumps treated with herbicide (Hivert, 2003).

Vos (2004) reports an unsuccessful attempt to eradicate R. alceifolius in La Réunion. The uprooting of R. alceifolius followed by the immediate planting of woody species failed, among other reasons, because farmers immediately let their cattle graze on the newly planted seedlings.


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Achterberg Cvan; Chenon RDde, 2009. The first report of the biology of Proterops borneoensis Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Ichneutinae), with the description of a new species from China. Journal of Natural History, 43(9/12):619-633.

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Amsellem L; Noyer JL; Hossaert-McKey M, 2001. Evidence for a switch in the reproductive biology of Rubus alceifolius (Rosaceae) towards apomixis, between its native range and its area of introduction. American Journal of Botany, 88(12):2243-2251.

Amsellem L; Pailler T; Noyer JL; Hossaert-McKey M, 2002. Characterisation of pseudogamous apospory in the reproductive biology of the invasive weed Rubus alceifolius (Rosaceae) in its area of introduction. Acta Botanica Gallica, 149(2):217-224.

Baret S; Bourgeois Tle; Strasberg D, 2005. How does Rubus alceifolius, an exotic invasive species, progressively colonize the whole of a humid tropical forest? (Comment Rubus alceifolius, une espèce exotique envahissante, pourrait-elle progressivement coloniser la totalité d'une forêt tropicale humide?.) Canadian Journal of Botany, 83(2):219-226.

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Bourgeois Tle; Goillot A; Carrara A, 2004. New data on the biology of Phaedon fulvescens (Coleoptera, Chrysomelinae), a potential biological control agent of Rubus alceifolius (Rosaceae). In: New developments in the biology of Chrysomelidae [ed. by Jolivet, P.\Santiago-Blay, J. A.\Schmitt, M.]. Amsterdam, Netherlands: SPB Academic Publishing, 757-766.

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Parsons WT; Cuthbertson EG, 1992. Noxious Weeds of Australia. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press, 692 pp.

PIER, 2012. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry .

Queensland Government, 2012. Weeds of Australia. Biosecurity Queensland Edition. Australia: The University of Queensland.

USDA-ARS, 2012. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.

Vielle M, 2003. Management priorities for Seychelles - a basis for discussions. In: Proceedings of the Regional Workshop on invasive alien species and terrestrial ecosystem rehabilitation in Western Indian Ocean Island States, Seychelles, 13-17 October 2003: sharing experience, identifying priorities and defining joint action [ed. by Mauremootoo, J. R.]. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN-The World Conservation Union, 99-104.

Vos P, 2004. Case studies on the status of invasive woody plant species in the Western Indian Ocean. 2. The Comoros Archipelago (Union of the Comoros and Mayotte). Forest Health & Biodiversity Working Papers FBS/4-2E. Rome, Italy: FAO.

WSSA, 2012. Invasive Plant Factsheets. Rubus alceifolius. Invasive Plant Factsheets. Rubus alceifolius., USA: Weed Science Society of America.

Zhao QingChun; Cui ChengBin; Cai Bing; Qiu Feng; Guo Tao; Yao XinSheng, 2005. Cell cycle inhibitory activity of 137 traditional Chinese herbal medicines against tsFT210 cell line. Pharmaceutical Biology, 43(2):135-139.

Distribution References

Amsellem L, Noyer J L, Hossaert-McKey M, 2001. Evidence for a switch in the reproductive biology of Rubus alceifolius (Rosaceae) towards apomixis, between its native range and its area of introduction. American Journal of Botany. 88 (12), 2243-2251. DOI:10.2307/3558386

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

GBIF, 2012. Global Biodiversity Information Facility.

PIER, 2012. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry.

USDA-ARS, 2012. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.

Links to Websites

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GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway source for updated system data added to species habitat list.


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23/03/12 Original text by:

Chris Parker, Consultant, Bristol, UK

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