Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Roystonea oleracea
(Caribbean royal palm)

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Datasheet

Roystonea oleracea (Caribbean royal palm)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Roystonea oleracea
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Caribbean royal palm
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • R. oleracea is a species of palm native to the Lesser Antilles, northern South America and Guatemala. It is highly valued as an ornamental and has also been valued as a multipurpose tree in its native range. Th...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Roystonea oleracea (Jacq.) O. F. Cook

Preferred Common Name

  • Caribbean royal palm

Other Scientific Names

  • Areca oleracea Jacq.
  • Euterpe caribaea Spreng.
  • Gorgasia maxima O.F. Cook
  • Kentia oleracea (Jacq.) Seem. ex H.Wendl.
  • Oreodoxa caribaea (Spreng.) Dammer & Urb.
  • Oreodoxa charibaea Becc.
  • Oreodoxa oleracea (Jacq.) Mart.
  • Oreodoxa regia var. jenmanii Waby
  • Roystonea caribaea (Spreng.) P.Wilson
  • Roystonea oleracea var. jenmanii (Waby) Zona
  • Roystonea venezuelana L H. Bailey

International Common Names

  • English: cabbage-palm; Carrib’s palm; imperial palm; royal palm; South American royal palm; Venezuelan royal palm; West Indian’s cabbage palm; West Indies royal palm
  • Spanish: chaguaramo; mapora; palmera imperial
  • French: oréodoxe des Caraïbes; palmier colonne; palmier gru-gru; palmier royal des Caraïbes; palmiste franc; palmiste franc
  • Chinese: cai wang ye zi; gan lan ye zi; yin du ye zi

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Barbados-Königspalme; Kohlpalme; Kohlpalme
  • Italy: palma cavolo; palmist
  • Malaysia: palma kubis
  • Saint Lucia: palmis
  • Sweden: kålpalm

EPPO code

  • ROYOL (Roystonea oleracea)

Summary of Invasiveness

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R. oleracea is a species of palm native to the Lesser Antilles, northern South America and Guatemala. It is highly valued as an ornamental and has also been valued as a multipurpose tree in its native range. The species has been widely introduced for landscaping purposes and the combination of high productivity, high seed germination rates and seed dispersal by animals contributes to its invasiveness. The palm is predominantly invasive in or near wetlands, close to areas where it was once planted for ornamental or landscaping purposes. It has been reported to be invasive, especially in the swamps of Guiana shield countries, in Panama and in the Atlantic forests of southern Brazil (Svenning, 2002; Zucaratto and dos Santos Pires, 2014). The species is also noted as potentially invasive in Hawaii and the Austral Pacific region (Staples et al., 2000; Shine et al., 2003).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Arecales
  •                         Family: Arecaceae
  •                             Genus: Roystonea
  •                                 Species: Roystonea oleracea

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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R. oleracea is a generally well-accepted species with clearly defined boundaries. The species possesses a number of autapomorphies supporting its separation from other species of the Roystonea genus. It was transferred by Cook (1901) from Oredoxa oleracea to Roystonea (Zona, 1996). R. oleracea has 11 confirmed synonyms including two varieties that can be distinguished by the angle of lower leaves (The Plant List, 2013).

Roystonea is a relatively small genus and contains some of the most common palms of the Caribbean and adjacent regions. It was named after Roy Stone, a US army engineer who served in Puerto Rico (Henderson et al., 1995).

The species is commonly known as a royal palm. Other species, in particular R. regia, are commonly known as a royal palm and there is occasionally confusion between species.

Description

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R. oleracea grows up to 40 m tall, with a distinctive, solitary, light gray, erect, cylindrical trunk up to 22 m. Its appearance has been described to be like a marble column (Zona, 1996). Leaves are in the crown at the top of the stem. Flowers are borne in large stalked panicles revealed when the leaf-sheaths beneath them drop off; abundant blue-violet fruit are small, obovoid and without stalks. The fruits turn purplish-black when ripe (Palmpedia, 2014). The roots can often be seen emerging from the stem just above the soil level. Individual trees have 16-22 or 20-22 leaves, 3-5 m long with leaflets of about 1 m in two horizontal ranks; leafstalks about 1.5 m long, broadening to surround and sheath stem Leaf segments are arrayed in two planes on either side of the rachis, however, in the past there was some disagreement in the literature on this characteristic. The species is noteworthy and relatively easy to identify for several reasons, one being that the leaves of the crown typically do not hang much below the horizontal, unlike other species in which the leaves droop and obscure the shaft of the crown. The species is also distinguished within its genus for an unopened peduncular bract which is strongly clavate with an acuminate tip. Groups of rachillae are undulate, forming wavy curves with amplitudes of 4 cm or more (Zona, 1996).

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree
Woody

Distribution

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R. oleracea is native to the Lesser Antilles, northern South America (Colombia and Venezuela) and Guatemala. The species has been widely introduced and is often found cultivated for ornamental purposes. It is present in Asia (Hong Kong and Singapore), the Western Indian Ocean islands (Mauritius and Réunion) and a number of Pacific Ocean islands (e.g. Hawaii, French Polynesia, New Caledonia and the Solomon Islands), where it has been reported naturalized. It has also become naturalized in many parts of South America, including French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname and parts of Brazil. It has not been recorded as present in Africa.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Hong KongPresentIntroduced Not invasive PIER, 2014Cultivated
IndiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive IPK, 2014
IndonesiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-JavaPresentIntroduced Not invasive IPK, 2014
SingaporePresentIntroduced Not invasive PIER, 2014Cultivated

Africa

MauritiusPresentIntroduced Not invasive PIER, 2014Cultivated
RéunionPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014Naturalized

North America

USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Not invasive Wong, 2006Considered as potentially invasive

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Naturalized in Antigua
BarbadosPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2014
Costa RicaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2014
DominicaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2014
El SalvadorPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2014
GuadeloupePresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2014
GuatemalaPresentNative Not invasive Eisermann, 2003Open palm savanna
HondurasPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2014
JamaicaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2014
MartiniquePresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2014
PanamaPresentIntroduced Invasive Svenning, 2002
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Not invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2014

South America

BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AcrePresentIntroduced Not invasive Maranho et al., 2012Present in an urban environment
-GoiasPresentIntroduced Not invasive Vianna et al., 2014
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroduced Not invasive Da Silva et al., 2008
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroduced Invasive Nascimento et al., 2013
-Sao PauloPresentIntroduced Not invasive Lordello and Oliveira, 1963
ColombiaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2014Arauca, Casanare, Meta
French GuianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Naturalized
GuyanaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2014; Zucaratto and dos Santos Pires, 2014Naturalized
SurinamePresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Naturalized
VenezuelaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2014Barinas, Bolivar, Carabobo, Cojedes, Falcon, Federal District, Monagas, Yaracuy

Oceania

FijiPresentIntroduced Not invasive PIER, 2014Present on Viti Levu Island, cultivated
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive PIER, 2014Present on Hiva Oa Island, cultivated
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroduced Not invasive PIER, 2014Present on Pohnpei Island, cultivated
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014Île Grande Terre
PalauPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroduced Not invasive PIER, 2014Reported potential invader

History of Introduction and Spread

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R. oleracea is often described as the most majestic of the royal palms and has thus been widely cultivated for ornamental purposes since the 1500s. The species was introduced into Brazil by the Portuguese and planted in coffee plantations because it was considered a status symbol (Zucaratto and dos Santos Pires, 2014). The first recorded introduction to Brazil was in 1809 when it was given as a gift to King Don João VI and was planted in the botanical gardens in Rio de Janeiro (Nascimento et al., 2013).

It has often been planted in rows along avenues and to mark entrances to homes, plantations and public buildings. For such purposes, first introductions in Mauritius and Reunion were reported in 1837 and 1825, respectively from Colombia, Lesser Antilles, Trinidad and Venezuela (Meyer et al., 2008).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Brazil 1809 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes Nascimento et al. (2013)
Mauritius 1837 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes Meyer et al. (2008)
Réunion 1825 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes Meyer et al. (2008)

Risk of Introduction

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R. oleracea received a low risk score of -3 in a risk assessment for the Pacific region (PIER, 2014), reflecting a number of low risk characteristics. For example, the species does not have broad climate suitability, nor does it tolerate a wide range of soil types. However, R. oleracea has been widely introduced and is listed as potentially invasive in a number of locations including Brazil (Nascimento et al., 2013), Hawaii (Staples et al., 2000) and the Austral Pacific region (Shine et al., 2003).

Habitat

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R. oleracea is often found in areas that are subject to flooding for at least part of the year, particularly in coastal areas. It grows in low lying coastal areas, such as gullies and swamps and has been found in both freshwater and brackish water swamps. It is also found in gallery forests in savannas that are liable to flooding, for example, in Colombia and Venezuela (Henderson et al., 1995). It has been reported that long term survival of R. oleracea is best at locations away from extreme water levels but with adequate moisture (Bonadie, 1998). The species has also been found at elevations up to 1600 m.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Principal habitat Natural
Natural forests Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Wetlands Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Principal habitat Natural
Wetlands Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Principal habitat Natural
Coastal areas Principal habitat Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

It is not known if the species lack genetic barriers to hybridization (Zona, 1996).

Reproductive Biology

Flowers of R. oleracea are unisexual and are borne in triads of one pistillate flower flanked by two staminate flowers. The species is insect pollinated. All Roystonea species are protandrous, however, little is known about the reproductive system (Zona, 1996).

The species is propagated by seed. Seed germination takes from two to three months and seedlings are reported to grow rapidly (Staples et al., 2005). In a swamp environment, successful seedling germination and establishment occurs at the start of the wet season when there is adequate water but under conditions where the forest floor is not suddenly inundated and the flooded period is short (Bonadie, 1998). These conditions do not occur every year and could explain why Bonadie (1998) found stands of even-aged palms in his study of the Nariva Swamp, Trinidad.

Physiology and Phenology

In the native palm swamp forests in Trinidad, a seasonal peak in fruiting was recorded between August and November, the middle of the wet season. Mean monthly rainfall was strongly correlated with fruiting and seed germination coincided with fruiting (Bonadie, 1998). Seedlings were able to establish during the early wet season under conditions of low water and low salinity levels. In vegetation typical of the Atlantic forest biome in Brazil, Zucaratta and dos Santos Pires (2014) reported that fruiting occurs from December to March and germination occurs 70 days after fruit fall. In another study site in Brazil, Nascimento et al. (2013) observed that flowering mainly occurs from February to April, fruiting from June to August and seed germination 60 days after fruit fall.

Germination is adjacent-ligular. The first two leaves are scale-like and followed by an undivided, minutely serrate eophyll. The shape of the eophyll is typically linear-lanceolate (Zona, 1996).

The species has been reported to be a very fast grower once it starts trunking (Palm and Cycad Societies of Australia, 2014). A growth rate of 24 cm per year has been recorded and it produces between eight and ten leaves per year (Zona, 1996).

Population Size and Structure

R. oleracea forms dense stands in swamps (Zucaratta and dos Santos Pires, 2014). Zucaratta and dos Santos reported a density of 736 stems per hectare an island off the southeast coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where the species is exotic. In its native habitat in Trinidad, Bonadie (1996) reported a density of 212 stems per hectare and that R. oleracea contributed 54% of the species in the study site.

Associations

The red-bellied macaw (Ara manilata) and the orange-winged parrot (Amazona amazonica) have been reported to use R. oleracea for fruit and roosting and nesting sites in the Nariva Swamp, Trinidad (Bonadie and Bacon, 2000). European honey bees (Apis mellifera) have also been reported to visit the species (Zona, 1996) and it is likely that a wide range of animal species use this species as a habitat in its native range.

Environmental Requirements

R. oleracea is suited to tropical climates (Fern, 2014). According to the Koeppen classification, it is found in tropical rainforest, tropical monsoon and tropical savannah climates. It is best suited to areas with high rainfall, although it can tolerate dry seasons of up to five months. Although predominantly found in tropical climates, with mean annual temperatures of 18-26°C, it can tolerate warm temperate climates. Mean annual rainfall ranges from 1200 mm to 2500 mm. The species is tolerant of wet, periodically flooded soils, with mildly saline water. It is often found in moist positions such as swamps and next to rivers. The palm is suited to warm temperatures and cannot tolerate temperatures below 1°C. It is found in neutral to alkaline soils and prefers sunny positions (PIER, 2014). Given its native range, it is well adapted to hurricanes, it is able to easily shed its leaves and withstand strong winds (Henderson et al., 1995).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
23 23

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 18 26
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 26 31
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 16 18

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration05number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall12002500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • impeded
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline

Notes on Natural Enemies

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There is relatively little information on natural enemies of R. oleracea. Blair and Darling (1968) inoculated R. oleracea trees aged between four and seven years with the nematode Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus through wounds in their stems and roots. As a result, plants developed red ring disease and died.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

No evidence of wind or water dispersal has been recorded for R. oleracea, however as a species of flooded areas it is possible that fruits are dispersed by water.

Vector Transmission

After initial introduction by humans, frugivorous vertebrates have been reported responsible for dispersal of  R. oleracea. Bats and birds are among the main dispersers of the seed over relatively long distances (Staples et al., 2000). In Brazil, Nascimento et al. (2013) reported individual palms distributed further than 150 m from groups of mother plants and also suggested that birds and bats are probably responsible for the dispersal. Zona and Henderson (1989) reported observations of the bat Artibeus lituratus subsp. palmarum and the birds Steatornis caripensis and Thraupis palmarum feeding on the species.

Intentional Introduction

Humans are largely responsible for the broad international introduction and dispersal of R. oleracea. It is highly regarded as an ornamental and has been widely cultivated for decorative purposes.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Digestion and excretionBirds and bats Yes Staples et al., 2000; Zucaratto and dos Santos Pires, 2014
Escape from confinement or garden escapeExtensively escaped from cultivation Yes Meyer et al., 2008; Svenning, 2002; Zucaratto and dos Santos Pires, 2014
Flooding and other natural disasters Yes
Landscape improvementThe species has been widely cultivated worldwide since the 1500s Yes Yes Zucaratto and dos Santos Pires, 2014
Nursery trade Yes Yes
Ornamental purposesThe species has been widely cultivated worldwide since the 1500s Yes Zucaratto and dos Santos Pires, 2014

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Water Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Economic Impact

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R. oleracea, often described as the most attractive species of its genus, is valuable as an ornamental and landscaping species across the tropics. It has been described as an excellent choice for lining avenues or planting near tall buildings and plays an important role in the landscaping industry (PIER, 2014), thus having an associated economic value. Although its aesthetic value is probably most important worldwide, the species is also valued in some locations for multiple purposes. In some parts of the Caribbean, fruits are used as a source of oil, leaf bases for thatch, trunks for timber and the terminal bud is edible.

Environmental Impact

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R. oleracea is an important species in its native range. For example, it is a key species in the Nariva Swamp, Trinidad, which has been designated by the Ramsar Bureau as a wetland site of international importance (Bonadie and Bacon, 2000). The species is particularly valuable with respect to the protection and maintenance of parrot and macaw populations through the provision of both habitat and food to these birds. Similarly, an endangered species of parrot, Amazona oratix were found to be most abundant in an open palm savannah dominated by R. oleracea on the Atlantic coast of Guatemala (Eisermann, 2003).

The species is however also associated with negative environmental impacts where it has been reported to be invasive or potentially invasive. A study in Brazil reported significantly reduced abundance, richness and diversity of seedling species beneath R. oleracea crowns. This suggests that this palm reduces diversity in areas where it becomes dominant. The dropping of large leaves and reproductive parts, which alter light intensity and humidity, have been proposed as possible reasons for these impacts (Zucaratto and dos Santos Pires, 2014). R. oleracea has been reported to be invasive, especially in the swamps of Guiana sheild countries, in Panama and in the Atlantic forests of southern Brazil (Svenning, 2002; Zucaratto and dos Santos Pires, 2014). The species is also noted as potentially invasive in Hawaii and the Austral Pacific region (Staples et al., 2000; Shine et al., 2003).

Social Impact

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R. oleracea, amongst other Roystonea species, have featured prominently in the Caribbean’s iconography and have been used for centuries for food, construction materials and as ornamentals (Zona, 1996). The genus has been said to typify the Caribbean landscape (Henderson et al., 1995).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Ornamental uses for this species are dominant however the species is also used for timber and food. R. oleracea is extensively used for decorative and landscaping purposes, such as lining roads and marking entrances to estates and buildings. In parts of the Caribbean and West Indies the stems provide timber for construction and the leaf bases are used for thatch (Henderson et al., 1995). The indigenous Arawak people of the Caribbean have been reported to use the wood to make lances and musical instruments (Dominica Botanic Gardens, 2014). Several parts of the plant are edible. The apical growth bud, or the palm heart, is cooked and eaten like a cabbage, an edible starch is obtained from the pith of the stem and the fruit is a source of oil (Fern, 2014). It has also been reported that the sap of young inflorescences can be fermented to produce alcohol and that immature inflorescences have been pickled and eaten as a vegetable (Zona, 1996).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Landscape improvement
  • Ornamental

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Sociocultural value

Human food and beverage

  • Beverage base
  • Flour/starch
  • Honey/honey flora
  • Oil/fat
  • Vegetable

Materials

  • Oils

Wood Products

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Roundwood

  • Building poles
  • Roundwood structures

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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R. oleracea is occasionally confused with R. regia, known as the Cuban royal palm, but also called the royal palm. However, they can be relatively easily distinguished from one another; R. regia has more fruit bunches concurrently and the younger trees tend to have a more obvious swelling or thickening of the trunk at or near the middle.

Prevention and Control

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Control

Although there have been some calls to control R. oleracea in areas where it is invasive or deemed potentially invasive (Zucaratto and dos Pires Santos, 2014), there are no reported attempts at controlling the species.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2005. Monocots and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, volume 52:415 pp.

Blair GP; Darling HM, 1968. Red ring disease of the coconut palm, inoculation studies and histopathology. Nematologica, 14(3):395-403.

Bonadie WA, 1998. The ecology of Roystonea oleracea Palm Swamp Forest in the Nariva Swamp (Trinidad). Wetlands, 18(2):249-255.

Bonadie WA; Bacon PR, 2000. Year-round utilisation of fragmented palm swamp forest by red-bellied macaws (Ara manilata) and orange-winged parrots (Amazona amazonica) in the Nariva Swamp (Trinidad). Biological Conservation, 95(1):1-5.

Da Silva AT; Tavares TS; Paida PDO; Nogueira DA, 2008. The park Dr. Augosto Silva, Lavras-MG according to viewpoint of its users. Ciencia e Agrotecnologia, 32(6):1701-1707.

Dominica Botanic Gardens, 2014. Selected trees and shrubs. Roseau, West Indies: Commonwealth of Dominica. http://www.da-academy.org/trees_shrubs.html

Eisermann K, 2003. Status and conservation of yellow-headed parrot Amazona oratrix 'guatemalensis' on the Atlantic coast of Guatemala. Bird conservation International, 13:361-366.

Fern K, 2014. The useful tropical plants database. http://tropical.theferns.info

Henderson A; Galeano G; Bernal R, 1995. Field guide to the palms of the Americas. ix + 352 pp. Princeton, New Jersey, USA: Princeton University Press.

IPK, 2014. Mansfield's world database on agricultural and horticultural crops. Gatersleben, Germany: IPK.

Lordello LGE; Oliveira AJDE, 1963. [English title not available]. (Nematôdeos associados a uma doença da palmeira imperial.) Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 23(1):19-24.

Maranho AS; Paula SRP; Lima E; Paiva AV; Alves AP; Nascimento DO, 2012. Survey of urban forest in the streets of the city Senador Guiomard, Acre state, Brazil. REVSBAU-Piracicaba, 7(3):41-52.

Meyer JY; Lavergne C; Hodel DR, 2008. Time bombs in gardens: invasive ornamental palms in tropical islands, with emphasis on French Polynesia (Pacific Ocean) and the Mascarenes (Indian Ocean). Palms, 52(2):71-83. http://www.palms.org

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Nascimento MT; Araújo RMde; Dan ML; Netto EBF; Braga JMA, 2013. The imperial palm (Roystonea oleracea (Jacq.) O.F. Cook) as an invasive species of a wetland in Brazilian Atlantic forest. Wetlands Ecology and Management, 21(5):367-371. http://rd.springer.com/journal/11273

Palm and Cycad Societies of Australia, 2014. Palm and Cycad Societies of Australia. Milton, Queensland, Australia. http://www.pacsoa.org.au/wiki/Main_Page

Palmpedia, 2014. Palmpedia. http://www.palmpedia.net/wiki/Main_Page

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Porcher M, 2014. Multilingual multiscript plant name database. Melbourne, Australia: University of Melbourne.

Shine C; Reaser JK; Gutierrez AT, 2003. Invasive alien species in the Austral-Pacific Region: national reports and directory of resources [ed. by Shine, C.\Reaser, J. K.\Gutierrez, A. T.]. Cape Town, South Africa: Global Invasive Species Programme, 185 pp. http://www.gisp.org

Staples GW; Herbst D; Imada CT, 2000. Survey of invasive or potentially invasive cultivated plants in Hawaii. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, 65:35 pp.

Svenning JC, 2002. Non-native ornamental palms invade a secondary tropical forest in Panama. Palms, 46(2):81-86.

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org

The Plant List, 2014. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Vianna EN; Andrade AJde; Dias FBS; Diotaiuti L, 2014. The exotic palm Roystonea oleracea (Jacq.) O.F. Cook as a rural biotype for Rhodnius neglectus Lent, 1954, in Caçu, State of Goiás. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, 47(5):642-645. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0037-8682&lng=en&nrm=iso

Wong M, 2006. Palms for Hawai'i Landscapes. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources,USA, L-19. 16pp.

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Zona S; Henderson; A, 1989. A review of animal-mediated seed dispersal of palms. Selbyana, 11:6-21.

Zucaratto R; dos Santos Pires A, 2014. The exotic palm Roystonea oleracea (Jacq.) O. F. Cook (Arecaceae) on an island within the Atlantic Forest Biome: naturalization and influence on seedling recruitment. Acta Botanica Brasilica, 28(3):417-421. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-33062014000300015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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26/11/2014 Original text by:

Madeleine Florin, Consultant, The Netherlands

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