Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Rosellinia necatrix
(dematophora root rot)

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Datasheet

Rosellinia necatrix (dematophora root rot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Rosellinia necatrix
  • Preferred Common Name
  • dematophora root rot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
A, perithecia x 3.5; B, conidial state x 0.5; C, synnemata x 100; D, conidiogenous branch; E, conidia; F, ascus; G, ascospores x 400; H, germinating ascospore x 250; I, ascus tip showing apical apparatus x 630. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 352. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
TitleR. necatrix
CaptionA, perithecia x 3.5; B, conidial state x 0.5; C, synnemata x 100; D, conidiogenous branch; E, conidia; F, ascus; G, ascospores x 400; H, germinating ascospore x 250; I, ascus tip showing apical apparatus x 630. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 352. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
CopyrightCAB International
A, perithecia x 3.5; B, conidial state x 0.5; C, synnemata x 100; D, conidiogenous branch; E, conidia; F, ascus; G, ascospores x 400; H, germinating ascospore x 250; I, ascus tip showing apical apparatus x 630. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 352. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
R. necatrixA, perithecia x 3.5; B, conidial state x 0.5; C, synnemata x 100; D, conidiogenous branch; E, conidia; F, ascus; G, ascospores x 400; H, germinating ascospore x 250; I, ascus tip showing apical apparatus x 630. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 352. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.CAB International

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Rosellinia necatrix Prill.

Preferred Common Name

  • dematophora root rot

Other Scientific Names

  • Dematophora necatrix R. Hartig

International Common Names

  • English: white root rot of trees
  • Spanish: llaga blanca; podredumbre de las raíces de los frutales
  • French: pourridié blanc; pourridié laineux

Local Common Names

  • Germany: wurzelkrankheit
  • Italy: marciume radicale

EPPO code

  • ROSLNE (Rosellinia necatrix)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Sordariomycetidae
  •                         Order: Xylariales
  •                             Family: Xylariaceae
  •                                 Genus: Rosellinia
  •                                     Species: Rosellinia necatrix

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Central African RepublicPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
EthiopiaPresent
KenyaPresent
MoroccoPresent
MozambiquePresent
NigeriaPresent
RéunionPresent
South AfricaPresent

Asia

ChinaPresent
GeorgiaPresent
IndiaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
IranPresent, Widespread
IraqPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent, Widespread
LebanonPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
South KoreaPresent
TaiwanPresent
TurkeyPresent

Europe

AustriaPresent
BulgariaPresent
CyprusPresent
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent
FrancePresent
-CorsicaPresent
GermanyPresent
GreecePresent
HungaryPresent
ItalyPresent
PortugalPresent
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Southern RussiaPresent
SpainPresent
-Canary IslandsPresent
SwitzerlandPresent
UkrainePresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CrimeaPresent
United KingdomPresent

North America

Costa RicaPresent
Dominican RepublicPresent
MexicoPresent
United StatesPresent
-AlabamaPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-IndianaPresent
-MichiganPresent
-New YorkPresent
-OhioPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
New ZealandPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BrazilPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ColombiaPresent
UruguayPresent

Growth Stages

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Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / wilting
Roots / hairy root
Roots / rot of wood
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Stems / dieback
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / gummosis or resinosis
Vegetative organs / dry rot
Vegetative organs / soft rot
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback
Whole plant / unusual odour

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fruiting bodies; hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Wood hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)

References

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Abbas, S. Q., Humaira Noureen, Alia Abbas, Tehreema Iftikhar, Mubashir Niaz, 2015. New fungal record on Bombax ceiba L. from Pakistan. I. International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, 12(3), 437-441. http://www.ijbbku.com

Abe T, Kono M, 1953. Studies on the white root rot of tea-bush. I. Scientific Reports of the Saikyo University, Kyoto (Agriculture), 5:93-105

Abe T, Kono M, 1954. Studies on the white root rot of tea-bush. II. On the relation between pathogenicity and different conditions of inoculation, as well as on fungal growth in deficient oxygen. Scientific Reports of the Saikyo University, Kyoto (Agriculture), 6:153-163

Abe T, Kono M, 1955. Studies on the white root rot of tea-bush. III. On the effect of composants of culture media to the fungal growth and the phytotoxicity of the filtrate of liquid media used by the fungus. Scientific Reports of the Saikyo University, Kyoto (Agriculture), 7:49-56

Abe T, Kono M, 1957. Studies on the white root rot of tea-bush. IV. On the toxicity of cultural filtrate of the fungus. Scientific Reports of the Saikyo University, Kyoto (Agriculture), 8:74-80

Agarwala RK, Sharma VC, 1966. White root rot disease of apple in Himachal Pradesh. Indian Phytopathology, 19(1):82-86

Anselmi N, Giorcelli A, 1990. Factors influencing the incidence of Rosellinia necatrix Prill. in poplars. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 20:175-183

Anselmi N, Giorcelli A, 1990. I marciumi radicali del pioppo da Rosellinia necatrix Prill. Informatore Fitopatologico, 1:45-52

Arene OB, 1990. Advances in integrated control systems of economic diseases of cassava in Nigeria. Integrated pest management for tropical root and tuber crops: proceedings of the workshop on the global status of and prospects for integrated pest management of root and tuber crops in the tropics held in Ibadan, Nigeria on 25-30 Oct. 1987 (edited by Hahn, S. K.; Caveness, F. E.) Ibadan, Nigeria; International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), 169-175

Baradaran GR, Aminaee MM, Assari MJ, 2012. Identification of fungal diseases of Rosa damascena in Kerman province of Iran. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 45(9):1087-1095. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gapp20

Behdad E, 1975. Morphology, distribution, importance and hosts of Rosellinia necatrix (Hart.) Berl., the cause of white root rot in Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 11(1/2):30-71; 13-17

Behdad E, 1975. Verbreitung von Rosellinia necatrix (Hartig) Berlese als Wurzelfaüleerreger im Iran und Möglichkeiten der Schadensverhütung, Thesis. Stuttgart, Germany: University of Stuttgart-Hohenheim

Behdad E, 1976. Influence of soil amendments, water management and tree species on the growth of Rosellinia necatrix (Hart.) Berl., the cause of white root rot. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 12(1/2):27-41; 24-25

Berlese AN, 1892. Rapporti tra Dematophora e Rosellinia. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale, 1:5-17, 33-34

Bethencourt Díaz LM, Prendes Ayala C, Lorenzo Bethencourt CD, 2001. Preliminary study of fungi on aerial parts of proteas grown in Tenerife (Canary Islands). Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the Fifth International Protea Research Symposium, Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Spain, 2-7 April, 2000.], 545:275-279

Bhardwaj LN, Nag N, Sharma SK, 2000. Effect of green amendments and VAM fungi on the management of white root rot of apple. Plant Disease Research, 15:53-59

Boesewinkel, H. J., 1977. New plant disease records in New Zealand: records in the period 1969-76. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 20(4), 583-589.

Cellerino GP, Anselmi N, Giorcelli A, 1989. Distribution of Rosellinia necatrix Prill. in Italy and conditions which favour its attack on poplars. Annali della Facolta di Scienze Agrarie della Universita degli Studi di Torino, 15:165-176

Creek, S., 1980. Host range of Dematophora necatrix, the cause of white root rot disease in fruit trees. Plant Disease, 64(7), 662-664. https://www.apsnet.org/publications/plantdisease/backissues/Documents/1980Articles/PlantDisease64n07_662.PDF

Duan CH, Tsai WH, Tu CC, 1990. Dissemination of white root rot disease of loquat and its control. Journal of Agricultural Research of China, 39(1):47-54

Eghbaltalab M, Debaud J-C, Bruchet G, 1976. In vitro study of the pectinolytic and cellulolytic activities of Fomes annosus (Fr.) Cke and Rosellinia quercina Hart. Bulletin Mensuel de la Societe Linneenne de Lyon, 45(2):85-90

Eguchi N, Kondo K, Yamagishi N, 2009. Bait twig method for soil detection of Rosellinia necatrix, causal agent of white root rot of Japanese pear and apple, at an early stage of tree infection. Journal of General Plant Pathology, 75(5):325-330. http://www.springerlink.com/content/h773719414211416/?p=3b462825e063477ca55f768aae41a73b&pi=0

Eguchi, N., Tokutake, H., Yamagishi, N., 2008. Hot water treatment of Japanese pear trees is effective against white root rot caused by Rosellinia necatrix Prillieux. Journal of General Plant Pathology, 74(5), 382-389. doi: 10.1007/s10327-008-0115-3

Fassi B, 1953. Ricerche sul marciume radicale del pioppo in Piemonte. Studi e ricerche sulla pioppicoltura. Rome, Italy: Ente Nazionale per la Cellulosa e per la Carta, 43-93

Francis SM, 1985. Rosellinia necatrix fact or fiction? Sydowia, 38:75-86

Freeman S, Sztejnberg A, Shabi E, Katan J, 1990. Long-term effect of soil solarization for the control of Rosellinia necatrix in apple. Crop Protection, 9(4):312-316

García-Jiménez, J., Busto, J., Vicent, A., Sales, R., Armengol, J., 1998. A tuber rot of Cyperus esculentus caused by Rosellinia necatrix. Plant Disease, 82(11), 1281. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.1998.82.11.1281A

García-Velasco, R., González-Díaz, J. G., Domínguez-Arizmendi, G., Ayala-Escobar, V., Aguilar-Medel, S., 2012. Rosellinia necatrix in Rosa sp. and sensitivity evaluation of fungicides. (Rosellinia necatrix en Rosa sp. y su evaluación a sensibilidad de fungicidas). Revista Chapingo. Serie Horticultura, 18(1), 39-54. http://www.chapingo.mx/revistas/horticultura/contenido.php?id_articulo=1275?id_revistas=1?id_revista_numero=119

Guillaumin JJ, 1982. Les pourridiés des arbres fruitiers. Proceedings of 2nd Conference on Fruit Research, Bordeaux 1982. Bordeaux, France: INRA and CTIFL, 227-242

Guillaumin JJ, 1989. Rosellinia necatrix Prill. In: Smith IM, Dunez J, Leliott RA, Phillips DH, Archer SA, eds. European Handbook of Plant Diseases. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 333-335

Guillaumin JJ, Mercier S, Dubos B, 1982. Root rots due to Armillariella and Rosellinia in France on grapevine, fruit trees and flower crops. I. aetiology and symptoms. Agronomie, 2(1):71-80

Gupta VK, 1977. Possible use of carbendazim in the control of Dematophora root rot of apple. Indian Phytopathology, 30(4):527-531

Gupta VK, Gupta SK, 1992. Management of white root rot of apple with fungicide drenching. Indian Phytopathology, 45(2):239-240

Gupta VK, Verma KD, 1978. Comparative susceptibility of apple root-stocks to Dematophora necatrix. Indian Phytopathology, 31(3):377-378

Hansen HN, Thomas HE, Thomas HE, 1937. The connexion between Dematophora necatrix and Rosellinia necatrix. Hilgardia, 10(14):561-64

Heaton JB, Dullahide SR, 1990. Efficacy of phosphonic acid in other host pathogen systems. Australasian Plant Pathology, 19(4):133-134

Hoopen, G. M. ten, Ortíz, J. L., Aguilar, M. E., Krauss, U., 2004. Preservation methodology for Rosellinia species. Mycological Research, 108(3), 274-282. doi: 10.1017/S0953756204009712

Hsiao, W. W., Fu, C. H., Chen, C. Y., Sun, E. J., 2007. First report of white root rot of Japanese serissa caused by Rosellinia necatrix in Taiwan. Plant Disease, 91(11), 1512. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-91-11-1512B

Ieki H, 1969. Antagonistic actions of Trichoderma spp. to Rosellinia necatrix (Hart. ) Berl. and Helicobasidion mompa Tanaka. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 35:71-75

Kanadani G, Date H, Nasu H, 1998. Effect of fluazinam soil-drench on white root rot of grapevine. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 64(2):139-141; 5 ref

Kanematsu S, Hayashi T, Kudo A, 1997. Isolation of Rosellinia necatrix mutants with impaired cytochalasin E production and its pathogenicity. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 63(6):425-431; 21 ref

Karanastasi, E., Handoo, Z. A., Tzortzakakis, E. A., 2008. First report of Mesocriconema xenoplax (Nematoda: Criconematidae) in Greece and first record of Viburnum sp. as a possible host for this ring nematode. Helminthologia, 45(2), 103-105. doi: 10.2478/s11687-008-0019-y

Kimura Y, Nakajima H, Hamasaki T, 1987. Isolation and biological activity of the fungal metabolite cytochalasin E. Proceedings of the Plant Growth Regulator Society of America. Fourteenth Annual Meeting, Honolulu, Hawaii, Aug. 2-6, 1987 Lincoln, Nebraska, USA; Plant Growth Regulator Society of America, 51

Kimura Y, Nakajima H, Hamasaki T, 1989. Structure of rosellichalasin, a new metabolite produced by Rosellinia necatrix. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, 53(6):1699-1701

Kshirsagar A, Reid AJ, McColl SM, Saunders VA, Whalley AJS, Evans EH, 2001. The effect of fungal metabolites on leaves as detected by chlorophyll fluorescence. New Phytologist, 151(2):451-457; 30 ref

L=pez-Herrera CJ, PTrez-JimTnez RM, Basallote-Ureba MJ, Zea-Bonilla T, Melero-Vara JM, 1999. Loss of viability of Dematophora necatrix in solarized soils. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 105(6):571-576; 18 ref

L=pez-Herrera CJ, PTrez-JimTnez RM, Zea-Bonilla T, Basallote-Ureba MJ, Melero-Vara JM, 1998. Soil solarization in established avocado trees for control of Dematophora necatrix. Plant Disease, 82(10):1088-1092; 24 ref

Laville E, Vogel R, 1987. Les attaques de pourridié dans les vergers d'agrumes de Corse. Arboriculture fruitiFre, 31(369):34-36

Lee SangBum, Ko KiSung, Aldwinckle HS, 2000. Resistance of selected Malus germplasm to Rosellinia necatrix. Journal of American Pomological Society, 54(4):219-228; 13 ref

Lin YS, Duan CH, 1988. White rot of loquat and its pathogen. Journal of Agricultural Research of China, 37(3):305-312

López-Herrera, C. J., Zea-Bonilla, T., 2007. Effects of benomyl, carbendazim, fluazinam and thiophanate methyl on white root rot of avocado. Crop Protection, 26(8), 1186-1192. doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2006.10.015

Madar Z, Sztejnberg A, 1979. Biology and epidemiology of the white root disease in fruit trees. Alon Hanotea, 33(10):691-694

Makambila C, 1976. Contribution à l'étude du Rosellinia necatrix (Hartig) Berl. et du Rosellinia quercina Hartig, Thesis. Clermont-Ferrand, France: University of Clermont-Ferrand

Makambila C, 1978. Morphogenesis of Rosellinia spp. Phyton, Argentina, 36(1):25-30

Mansilla, J. P., Aguín, O., Salinero, M. C., 2002. First report of a root rot caused by Rosellinia necatrix on Camellia in Spain. Plant Disease, 86(7), 813. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.2002.86.7.813A

Mantell SH, Wheeler BEJ, 1973. Rosellinia and white root rot of Narcissus in the Scilly Isles. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 60(1):23-35

Matuo T, Sakurai Y, 1959. On the fungicidal effect of chloropicrin and other few drugs upon Rosellinia necatrix and Corticium centrifugum in the soil. Journal of Sericultural Science of Japan, 28(6):395

Maublanc A, 1926. Maladies des plantes cultivées. In: Maladies Parasitaires. Paris, France:Baillere JB

Molnár P, Véghelyi K, Balogh I, 2003. Grapevine and apple replant disease in Hungary. International Journal of Horticultural Science, 9(1):29-33

Osanai Y, Nakazawa N, Fukushima C, 1983. Effect of basamid on the violet and white root rot diseases of apple tree. Annual Report of the Society of Plant Protection of North Japan, No. 34:128-129

Papachatzis, A., Eliopoulos, P., Statharas, G., Vagelas, I., 2008. Ficus carica root rot disease caused by Armillaria mellea and Rosellinia necatrix in Greece. Analele Universitătcedilla˜ii din Craiova - Biologie, Horticultura, Tehnologia Prelucrarii Produselor Agricole, Ingineria Mediului, 13, 143-148. http://anucraiova.3x.ro/

Pasini, L., Prodorutti, D., Pastorelli, S., Pertot, I., 2016. Genetic diversity and biocontrol of Rosellinia necatrix infecting apple in northern Italy. Plant Disease, 100(2), 444-452. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-04-15-0480-RE

Pérez-Jiménez, R. M., Zea-Bonilla, T., López-Herrera, C. J., 2003. Studies of Rosellinia necatrix Perithecia found in nature on avocado roots. Journal of Phytopathology, 151(11/12), 660-664. doi: 10.1046/j.0931-1785.2003.00782.x

Prillieux E, 1902. Les périthFces du Rosellinia necatrix. Comptes-Rendus des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris. Séance du 12 août 1902:275-278

Proffer TJ, Jones AL, Perry RL, 1988. Testing of cherry rootstocks for resistance to infection by species of Armillaria. Plant Disease, 72(6):488-490

Raj Kumar, Pandey JC, Verma BL, 1998. Chemical control of replant disease of apple. Recent Horticulture, 4:64-68; 11 ref

Ram RD, 1982. Evaluation of wild germplasm of temperate fruit against root rot of apple caused by Dematophora necatrix Hartig. Progressive Horticulture, 14(4):249-251

Ruano-Rosa, D., Schena, L., Ippolito, A., López-Herrera, C. J., 2007. Comparison of conventional and molecular methods for the detection of Rosellinia necatrix in avocado orchards in southern Spain. Plant Pathology, 56(2), 251-256. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2006.01546.x

Sakurai Y, 1952. Pathologico-anatomical observations on the white root rot of mulberry trees caused by Rosellinia necatrix (Hart.) Berl. Research Reports of the Faculty of Textile and Sericulture, No. II. Ueda, Japan: Shinsu University, 19-26

Sawai K, Okuno T, Ito T, 1982. The toxicity of cytochalasin E on plants. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 48(4):529-531

Schena, L., Nigro, F., Ippolito, A., 2002. Identification and detection of Rosellinia necatrix by conventional and real-time Scorpion-PCR. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 108(4), 355-366. doi: 10.1023/A:1015697813352

Sharma, R., Rana, S., Kaur, M., 2014. Isolation and characterization of bacterial isolates for phosphate solubilization and other plant growth promoting activities from apple soil of Himachal Pradesh. The Bioscan, 9(1), 173 230. http://thebioscan.in/Journal%20Supplement/91Sup41%203455_RANJNA%20SHARMA.pdf

Sivanesan A, Holliday P, 1972. Rosellinia necatrix. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No 352. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Sousa AJT de, Guillaumin JJ, Sharples GP, Whalley AJS, 1995. Rosellinia necatrix and white root rot of fruit trees and other plants in Portugal and nearby regions. Mycologist, 9(1):31-33

Sun, E. J., Lin, H. S., Hsieh, H. J., 2008. Study on Rosellinia necatrix isolates causing white root rot disease in Taiwan. Journal of Phytopathology, 156(2), 104-111. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0434.2007.01326.x

Sztejnberg A, Freeman S, Chet I, Katan J, 1987. Control of Rosellinia necatrix in soil and in apple orchard by solarization and Trichoderma harzianum. Plant Disease, 71(4):365-369

Sztejnberg A, Madar Z, 1980. Host range of Dematophora necatrix, the cause of white root rot disease in fruit trees. Plant Disease, 64(7):662-664

Takemoto, S., Nakamura, H., Sasaki, A., Shimane, T., 2009. Rosellinia compacta, a new species similar to the white root rot fungus Rosellinia necatrix. 101(1), 84-94 . doi: 10.3852/08-100

Takemoto, S., Nakamura, H., Tabata, M., Sasaki, A., Ichihara, Y., Aikawa, T., Koiwa, T., 2012. White root rot disease of the lacquer tree Toxicodendron vernicifluum caused by Rosellinia necatrix. Journal of General Plant Pathology, 78(1), 77-79. doi: 10.1007/s10327-011-0347-5

Teixeira de Sousa AJ, 1985. Lutte contre Rosellinia necatrix (Hartig) Berlese, agent du "pourridié laineux": Sensibilité de quelues espFces végétales et lutte chimique. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 15(5/6):323-332

Teixeira de Sousa AJ, Whalley AJS, 1991. Induction of mature stromata in Rosellinia necatrix and its taxonomic implications. Sydowia, 43:281-290

Tourvieille de Labrouhe D, 1981. Contribution à l'étude de Rosellinia necatrix (Hart.) Berl., agent du "pourridié laineux sur pommier", Thesis. Rennes, France: Ecole Nationale Supérieure Agronomique de Rennes

Tourvieille de Labrouhe D, 1982. Penetration of Rosellinia necatrix (Hart.) Berl. into apple roots under inoculation. Agronomie, 2(6):553-560

Tourvieille de Labrouhe D, 1986. Etude sur les toxines produites par Rosellinia necatrix (Hart.) Berl. Agronomie, 6(2):195-201

UK CAB International, 1987. Rosellinia necatrix. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, April (Edition 4). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 306

Veghelyi K, 1985. Fungal diseases of the root system of fruit-tree grafts. Kertgazdasag, 3:21-27

Veghelyi K, 1991. The role of Rosellinia necatrix (Hart.) Berl. in early decline of fruit trees. Novenyvedelem, 27(3):103-113

Viala P, 1891. Monographie du Pourridié des Vignes et des Arbres Fruitiers. Paris, France: Masson

Watanabe T, 1991. Evaluation of Sordaria spp. as biocontrol agents against soilborne plant diseases caused by Pythium aphanidermatum and Dematophora necatrix. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 58(1):65-71

Yasuda M, Katoh K, 1987. Properties of fluorescent pigment-producing Pseudomonas strains isolated from soil and roots of fruit trees. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 33(4):577-583

Distribution References

Abbas S Q, Humaira Noureen, Alia Abbas, Tehreema Iftikhar, Mubashir Niaz, 2015. New fungal record on Bombax ceiba L. from Pakistan. I. International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology. 12 (3), 437-441. http://www.ijbbku.com

Arene O B, 1990. Advances in integrated control systems of economic diseases of cassava in Nigeria. In: Integrated pest management for tropical root and tuber crops: proceedings of the workshop on the global status of and prospects for integrated pest management of root and tuber crops in the tropics held in Ibadan, Nigeria on 25-30 Oct. 1987. [Integrated pest management for tropical root and tuber crops: proceedings of the workshop on the global status of and prospects for integrated pest management of root and tuber crops in the tropics held in Ibadan, Nigeria on 25-30 Oct. 1987.], [ed. by Hahn S K, Caveness F E]. Ibadan, Nigeria: International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). 169-175.

Arjona-Girona I, López-Herrera C J, 2018. First report of Rosellinia necatrix causing white root rot in mango trees in Spain. Plant Disease. 102 (12), 2639-2640. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-18-0133-PDN

Baradaran G R, Aminaee M M, Assari M J, 2012. Identification of fungal diseases of Rosa damascena in Kerman province of Iran. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 45 (9), 1087-1095. DOI:10.1080/03235408.2012.657891

Bethencourt Díaz L M, Prendes Ayala C, Lorenzo Bethencourt C D, 2001. Preliminary study of fungi on aerial parts of proteas grown in Tenerife (Canary Islands). Acta Horticulturae. 275-279.

Boesewinkel H J, 1977. New plant disease records in New Zealand: records in the period 1969-76. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research. 20 (4), 583-589.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Choi I Y, Oh H T, Lee W H, Cho S E, Shin H D, 2017. First report of white root rot caused by Rosellinia necatrix on Aronia melanocarpa in Korea. Plant Disease. 101 (1), 253. DOI:10.1094/pdis-07-16-1006-pdn

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García-Velasco R, González-Díaz J G, Domínguez-Arizmendi G, Ayala-Escobar V, Aguilar-Medel S, 2012. Rosellinia necatrix in Rosa sp. and sensitivity evaluation of fungicides. (Rosellinia necatrix en Rosa sp. y su evaluación a sensibilidad de fungicidas.). Revista Chapingo. Serie Horticultura. 18 (1), 39-54. http://www.chapingo.mx/revistas/horticultura/contenido.php?id_articulo=1275?id_revistas=1?id_revista_numero=119

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Hsiao W W, Fu C H, Chen C Y, Sun E J, 2007. First report of white root rot of Japanese serissa caused by Rosellinia necatrix in Taiwan. Plant Disease. 91 (11), 1512. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-91-11-1512B

Karanastasi E, Handoo Z A, Tzortzakakis E A, 2008. First report of Mesocriconema xenoplax (Nematoda: Criconematidae) in Greece and first record of Viburnum sp. as a possible host for this ring nematode. Helminthologia. 45 (2), 103-105. DOI:10.2478/s11687-008-0019-y

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