Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Rhizopus stolonifer
(bulb rot)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Rhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 15 January 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Rhizopus stolonifer
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bulb rot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Zygomycota
  •       Subphylum: Mucoromycotina
  •         Order: Mucorales

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Rhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Mould colony. January 2012.
TitleHabit
CaptionRhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Mould colony. January 2012.
Copyright©WDKeeper (Романов Павел Ви)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Rhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Mould colony. January 2012.
HabitRhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Mould colony. January 2012.©WDKeeper (Романов Павел Ви)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Rhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Mould colony on ripe tomato. December 2012.
TitleHabit
CaptionRhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Mould colony on ripe tomato. December 2012.
Copyright©Xavier Robin (Calimo)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Rhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Mould colony on ripe tomato. December 2012.
HabitRhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Mould colony on ripe tomato. December 2012.©Xavier Robin (Calimo)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Rhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Mould colony on ripe tomato. December 2012.
TitleHabit
CaptionRhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Mould colony on ripe tomato. December 2012.
Copyright©Xavier Robin (Calimo)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Rhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Mould colony on ripe tomato. December 2012.
HabitRhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Mould colony on ripe tomato. December 2012.©Xavier Robin (Calimo)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Rhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Black Smut on young fruits of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), young fruits are more vulnerable than mature fruits to the fungus. In the first stage of attack the fungus appears as a grayish growth with abundant mycelia which gradually becomes dense forming a black growth. The fungus gradually advances until the whole fruit or the entire inflorescence rots & falls off. Khura Buri District, Thailand. December 2013.
TitleSymptom
CaptionRhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Black Smut on young fruits of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), young fruits are more vulnerable than mature fruits to the fungus. In the first stage of attack the fungus appears as a grayish growth with abundant mycelia which gradually becomes dense forming a black growth. The fungus gradually advances until the whole fruit or the entire inflorescence rots & falls off. Khura Buri District, Thailand. December 2013.
Copyright©Len Worthington (lennyworthington)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Rhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Black Smut on young fruits of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), young fruits are more vulnerable than mature fruits to the fungus. In the first stage of attack the fungus appears as a grayish growth with abundant mycelia which gradually becomes dense forming a black growth. The fungus gradually advances until the whole fruit or the entire inflorescence rots & falls off. Khura Buri District, Thailand. December 2013.
SymptomRhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Black Smut on young fruits of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), young fruits are more vulnerable than mature fruits to the fungus. In the first stage of attack the fungus appears as a grayish growth with abundant mycelia which gradually becomes dense forming a black growth. The fungus gradually advances until the whole fruit or the entire inflorescence rots & falls off. Khura Buri District, Thailand. December 2013.©Len Worthington (lennyworthington)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Rhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Sweet potato with soft rot incubated in a moist chamber. North Carolina State University, USA. November 1977.
TitleSymptom
CaptionRhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Sweet potato with soft rot incubated in a moist chamber. North Carolina State University, USA. November 1977.
Copyright©Charles Averre, North Carolina State University/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Rhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Sweet potato with soft rot incubated in a moist chamber. North Carolina State University, USA. November 1977.
SymptomRhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Sweet potato with soft rot incubated in a moist chamber. North Carolina State University, USA. November 1977.©Charles Averre, North Carolina State University/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Rhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Photomicrograph (ca. 400x) sporangia and sporangiopores of R. stolonifer. North Carolina State University, USA.
TitleSporangia and sporangiopores
CaptionRhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Photomicrograph (ca. 400x) sporangia and sporangiopores of R. stolonifer. North Carolina State University, USA.
Copyright©Charles Averre, North Carolina State University/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Rhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Photomicrograph (ca. 400x) sporangia and sporangiopores of R. stolonifer. North Carolina State University, USA.
Sporangia and sporangiopores Rhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Photomicrograph (ca. 400x) sporangia and sporangiopores of R. stolonifer. North Carolina State University, USA.©Charles Averre, North Carolina State University/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Rhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Photomicrograph (ca. 1000x) sporangia and sporangiopores of R. stolonifer. North Carolina State University, USA.
TitleSporangia and sporangiopores
CaptionRhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Photomicrograph (ca. 1000x) sporangia and sporangiopores of R. stolonifer. North Carolina State University, USA.
Copyright©Charles Averre, North Carolina State University/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Rhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Photomicrograph (ca. 1000x) sporangia and sporangiopores of R. stolonifer. North Carolina State University, USA.
Sporangia and sporangiopores Rhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Photomicrograph (ca. 1000x) sporangia and sporangiopores of R. stolonifer. North Carolina State University, USA.©Charles Averre, North Carolina State University/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Rhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Rhizoids, sporangiophores and collapsed columellae. Waldo County, Maine, USA. December 2012.
TitleRhizoids, sporangiophores and collapsed columellae
CaptionRhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Rhizoids, sporangiophores and collapsed columellae. Waldo County, Maine, USA. December 2012.
Copyright©Bruce Watt, University of Maine/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Rhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Rhizoids, sporangiophores and collapsed columellae. Waldo County, Maine, USA. December 2012.
Rhizoids, sporangiophores and collapsed columellaeRhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Rhizoids, sporangiophores and collapsed columellae. Waldo County, Maine, USA. December 2012.©Bruce Watt, University of Maine/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Rhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Collapsed columellae with air bubbles trapped. Waldo County, Maine, USA. December 2012.
TitleCollapsed columellae
CaptionRhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Collapsed columellae with air bubbles trapped. Waldo County, Maine, USA. December 2012.
Copyright©Bruce Watt, University of Maine/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Rhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Collapsed columellae with air bubbles trapped. Waldo County, Maine, USA. December 2012.
Collapsed columellaeRhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Collapsed columellae with air bubbles trapped. Waldo County, Maine, USA. December 2012.©Bruce Watt, University of Maine/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Rhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Sporangiospores. Waldo County, Maine, USA. December 2012.
TitleSporangiospores
CaptionRhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Sporangiospores. Waldo County, Maine, USA. December 2012.
Copyright©Bruce Watt, University of Maine/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Rhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Sporangiospores. Waldo County, Maine, USA. December 2012.
SporangiosporesRhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Sporangiospores. Waldo County, Maine, USA. December 2012.©Bruce Watt, University of Maine/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehrenb.) Lind

Preferred Common Name

  • bulb rot

Other Scientific Names

  • Rhizopus nigricans Ehrenb.

International Common Names

  • English: fruit rot; post-harvest rot; soft rot
  • Spanish: marchitez barbada; marchitez barbada de los arboles frutales
  • French: moisissure chevelue; moisissure chevelue des arbres fruitiers; pourriture des fruits; pourriture noire

EPPO code

  • RIZPSN (Rhizopus stolonifer)
  • RIZPST (Rhizopus stolonifer)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Zygomycota
  •             Subphylum: Mucoromycotina
  •                 Order: Mucorales
  •                     Family: Mucoraceae
  •                         Genus: Rhizopus
  •                             Species: Rhizopus stolonifer

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 19 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

CameroonPresent
EgyptPresent
NigeriaPresent
SudanPresent

Asia

BangladeshPresent
ChinaPresent
-JilinPresent
-LiaoningPresent
IndiaPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-ManipurPresent
-OdishaPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresent
JapanPresent
-HonshuPresent
PakistanPresent
South KoreaPresent
TaiwanPresentOriginal citation: Lin et al. (2017)

Europe

Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresent
ItalyPresent
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresent

North America

MexicoPresent
United StatesPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-FloridaPresent

Oceania

American SamoaPresent
AustraliaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
SamoaPresent

South America

BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Mato Grosso do SulPresent
ColombiaPresent

Growth Stages

Top of page
Post-harvest

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus subtilis Pathogen
Bacillus subtilis Pathogen
Enterobacter cloacae Pathogen
Enterobacter cloacae Pathogen
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite

References

Top of page

Abdullah SK, Al-Mosawi KA, 2010. Fungi associated with seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) cultivars grown in Iraq. Phytopathologia, No.57:11-20. http://www.up.poznan.pl/ptfit/pdf/P57/P57_02.pdf

Aly AAE, Hussein EM, Omar MR, Abdel-Mongy AA, Abd-Elsalam KA, 2011. Effect of amino acid content on the level of cottonseed colonization by mycoflora. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 13(1):71-76. http://www.fspublishers.org/ijab/past-issues/IJABVOL_13_NO_1/12.pdf

Amin ABMR, Rashid MM, Meah MB, 2009. Efficacy of garlic tablet to control seed-borne fungal pathogens of cucumber. Journal of Agriculture & Rural Development (Gazipur), 7(1/2):135-138. http://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JARD/article/view/4433/3649

Assaf LH, Haleem RA, Abdullah SK, 2011. Association of entomopathogenic and other opportunistic fungi with insects in dormant locations. Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences (JJBS), 4(2):87-92. http://jjbs.hu.edu.jo/FILES/v4n2/Binder1.pdf

Biswas PK, Chowdhury MSM, Fakir GA, Aminuzzaman FM, 2006. Detection of seed borne fungi of some selected medicinal plants. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Technology, 2(8):28-33. http://www.gscience.net/IJSAT%20V2%20Iss8%20Dec%2006/06[Pd_%20PAPER%20OF%20PRADIP_8__.pdf

Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. Land Grant Technical Report No. 44. Pago Pago, American Samoa: American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program

Casaroli D, Garcia DC, Muniz MFB, Menezes NLde, 2006. Health and physiological quality of 'Menina Brasileira' squash seeds. (Qualidade sanitária e fisiológica de sementes de abóbora variedade Menina Brasileira.) Fitopatologia Brasileira, 31(2):158-163. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/fb/v31n2/30009.pdf

Chuku EG, Ogbalu OK, Osakwe JA, 2007. Fungi of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) - their deteriorative ability, quality stability and the role of the fungus-eating insects. Journal of Applied Sciences, 7(20):3106-3110. http://www.ansinet.org/jas

Cozmei E, Drobota I, 2008. The micromycetes presented on different vegetables seeds, stored in various atmospheric conditions. Lucrari Stiintifice, Universitatea de Stiinte Agricole Si Medicina Veterinara "Ion Ionescu de la Brad" Iasi, Seria Horticultura, 51:1027-1032

Cwalina-Ambroziak B, Kurowski TP, 2005. Shaping of the fungal communities isolated from yellow lupin seeds (Lupinus luteus L.) throughout storage time. (Ksztatowanie sie zbiorowiska grzybów izolowanych z nasion ubinu zótego (Lupinus luteus L.) pod wpywem okresu przechowywania.) Acta Agrobotanica, 58(2):407-416

Das K, Ranjana Das, 2004. Seed fungi of mejankari (Litsea citrata Blume) and their control. Indian Journal of Sericulture, 43(1):99-100

Dileep Kumar, Payal Lodha, Tribhuwan Singh, 2003. Effect of Callosobruchus chinensis infestation on seed quality and mycoflora of pigeon pea seeds. Journal of Phytological Research, 16(2):203-206

Djeugap JF, Kuiate JR, Fontem DA, 2009. Fungal contamination of mangoes sold in the town of Dschang and the in vitro effectiveness of essential oils against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz., the aetiologic agent of anthracnose. (Etat sanitaire post-recolte de la mangue commercialisee dans la ville de Dschang et efficacite in vitro des huiles essentielles contre Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz., agent causal de l'anthracnose.) In: Association Française de Protection des Plantes, 9ème conférence international sur les maladies des plantes, Tours, France, 8 et 9 Décembre 2009. Alfortville, France: Association Française de Protection des Plantes (AFPP), 571-578

Donli PO, Dauda H, 2003. Evaluation of aqueous Moringa seed extract as a seed treatment biofungicide for groundnuts. Pest Management Science, 59(9):1060-1062

García-Estrada, R. S., López-Martínez, J. C., Medina-López, R., Márquez-Zequera, I., Cruz-Lachica, I., 2019. First report of Rhizopus stolonifer causing fruit rot in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) in Mexico. Plant Disease, 103(11), 2957-2957. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-02-19-0395-PDN

Gerlach WWP, 1988. Plant diseases of Western Samoa. Apia, Western Samoa: Samoan German Crop Protection Project, 215 pp

Hossain I, Sultana I, 2011. Advantage of biocontrol means over chemicals in controlling seed and seedling diseases of maize. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Technology, 7(5):21-27. http://gscience.gurpukur.com/product_info.php?cPath=6_193_222&products_id=1125&osCsid=a67f963b6bef7c008e4e2e456f81a687

Kiran Singh, Singh AK, Singh RP, 2005. Detection of seed mycoflora of chick pea (Cicer arietinum L.). Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 13(1):167-171

Kirti Joshi, Harsh NSK, Rawat PS, Shukla AN, 2004. Mycoflora associated with different seed sources of Pinus wallichiana. Indian Forester, 130(12):1410-1415

Lezcano JC, Martínez B, Alonso O, 2010. Cultural and morphological characterization and identification of 12 fungal isolations in seeds of Leucaena leucocephala cv. Peru. Pastos y Forrajes, 33(1):51-63

Lõiveke H, Ilumäe E, Laitamm H, 2004. Microfungi in grain and grain feeds and their potential toxicity. Agronomy Research, 2(2):195-205

Marium Tariq, Shahnaz Dawar, Muhammad Abid, Shaukat SS, 2005. Seedborne mycoflora of soybean. International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, 2(3):711-713

Nagaraja O, Krishnappa M, 2009. Seed-borne mycoflora of niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) and its effect on germination. Indian Phytopathology, 62(4):513-517. http://www.ipsdis.org

Ono T, Ohta T, Kagiwada S, Sugawara Y, Amino N, Hoshi H, Horie H, 2014. First record of rhizopus rot of mango, atemoya and white sapote fruits caused by Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer in Japan. Annual Report of the Kanto-Tosan Plant Protection Society, No.61:67-69. http://www.ktpps.org/

Ora N, Faruq AN, Islam MMT, Akhtar N, Rahman MM, 2011. Detection and identification of seed borne pathogens from some cultivated hybrid rice varieties in Bangladesh. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, 10(4):482-488. http://www.idosi.org/mejsr/mejsr10(4)11/11.pdf

Osanyinlusi SA, Ashamo MO, Adedire CO, 2007. Biodeterioration of melon seeds (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad) during storage. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 15(1):170-174. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

Patil PJ, Padule DN, Suryawanshi JS, Pinjari SS, 2008. Fungi associated with mouldy seeds of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] cv. CSH-9 in Western Maharashtra. International Journal of Plant Protection, 1(2):84-87

Pradeep AG, Lokesh S, Rai VR, 2003. Efficacy of some essential oils on seed mycoflora and seedling quality of some crop species saved by farmers. Advances in Plant Sciences, 16(1):53-58

Rahman MME, Fakir GA, 2007. Study on seed health status of sunflower in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Pathology, 23(1/2):51-56

Razia Sultana, Shamim Shamsi, 2010. Association of fungi with symptomatic plant parts of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) from Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Pathology, 26(1/2):69-75

Sahu RK, Agarwal VK, 2003. Effect of fungicidal seed treatment on seedborne fungi, germination and seedling vigour of rusty shield bearer (Peltophorum ferrugineum Decne, Benth.). Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 33(1):84-88

Sahu RK, Agarwal VK, 2004. Association of mycoflora with the seeds of Rusty shield bearer (Peltophorum ferrugineum) from Uttaranchal. Plant Disease Research (Ludhiana), 19(1):68-69

Seweta Srivastava, Asha Sinha, Srivastava CP, 2011. Screening of seed-borne mycoflora of Jatropha curcas L. Research Journal of Seed Science, 4(2):94-105. http://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=rjss.2011.94.105&org=10

Shalini Verma, Dohroo NP, 2004. Seed mycoflora of Pisum sativum in Himachal Pradesh. Plant Disease Research (Ludhiana), 19(2):189

Sharfun-Nahar, Muhammad Mushtaq, Hashmi MH, 2005. Seed-borne mycoflora of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Pakistan Journal of Botany, 37(2):451-457. http://www.pjbot.org

Shehzad Shakoor, Sobia Chohan, Abid Riaz, Rashida Perveen, Safina Naz, Mehmood MA, Haider MS, Shakeel Ahmad, 2011. Screening of systemic fungicides and biochemicals against seed borne mycoflora associated with Momordica charantia. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(36):6933-6940. http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB/full%20text/2011/18Jul/Shakoor%20et%20al.htm

Shulyak II, 2009. Pathogenic microflora of sunflower seeds in conditions of the Krasnodar region. Zashchita i Karantin Rastenii, No.2:23-25. http://www.z-i-k-r.ru

Singh SD, Swami SD, 2004. Pathogenic potential of seed mycoflora of pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.]. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 34(1):122-124

Sonawane VV, Bharaswadkar SB, Chavan AM, 2004. Studies on seedborne fungi of pea varieties cultivated in Marathwada. Flora and Fauna (Jhansi), 10(2):131-134

Swati Dumbre, Damayanti Guldekar, Potdukhe SR, 2011. Survey of seed borne fungi of onion (Allium cepa L.) from various locations of Maharashtra. Journal of Soils and Crops, 21(2):221-224

Telang SM, 2010. Effect of extracts of various plant parts on seed mycoflora and seed germination of brinjal. International Journal of Plant Sciences (Muzaffarnagar), 5(2):556-560

Telang SM, Baig MMV, 2011. Effect of extracts of various plant parts on seed mycoflora and seed germination of Solanum xanthocarpum. Bioscience Discovery Journal, 2(1):122-126. http://www.biosciencediscovery.com/attachments/File/Telang.pdf

Tripti Agarwal, Abhiniti Malhotra, Trivedi PC, 2012. Seed borne fungi of mung bean and moth bean seeds. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 20(1):251-252. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

Yildirim I, Turhan H, Özgen B, 2010. The effects of head rot disease (Rhizopus stolonifer) on sunflower genotypes at two different growth stages. Turkish Journal of Field Crops, 15(1):94-98

Distribution References

Abdullah S K, Al-Mosawi K A, 2010. Fungi associated with seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) cultivars grown in Iraq. Phytopathologia. 11-20. http://www.up.poznan.pl/ptfit/pdf/P57/P57_02.pdf

Abdulrahman M D, Abdullahi F, Uwais U U, Tahir S M, Abdulkadir S, Ibrahim B, Yunusa A, Labaran I, Muhammad U, 2019. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations of fungi associated with Ipomoea batatas in Kaduna state, northern Nigeria. Annals Food Science and Technology. 20 (4), 909-915. http://www.afst.valahia.ro/images/documente/2019/issue4/V.1_Dogara.pdf

Assaf L H, Haleem R A, Abdullah S K, 2011. Association of entomopathogenic and other opportunistic fungi with insects in dormant locations. Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences (JJBS). 4 (2), 87-92. http://jjbs.hu.edu.jo/FILES/v4n2/Binder1.pdf

Bilal Ahmed, Babar Khan, Ghazanfar M U, Rajput N A, Amir Saleem, Abdul Jabbar, Waqar Ahmed, Madassar Walait, 2017. Occurrence and distribution of vegetables seed-borne mycoflora in Punjab Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology. 29 (2), 265-271. DOI:10.33866/phytopathol.029.02.0405

Biswas P K, Chowdhury M S M, Fakir G A, Aminuzzaman F M, 2006. Detection of seed borne fungi of some selected medicinal plants. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Technology. 2 (8), 28-33. http://www.gscience.net/IJSAT%20V2%20Iss8%20Dec%2006/06[Pd_%20PAPER%20OF%20PRADIP_8__.pdf

Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. In: Land Grant Technical Report No. 44, Pago Pago, American Samoa, American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program.

CABI Data Mining, Undated. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cheng Y Q, Ming Y T, Yang B W, Liu T, Liu J F, 2017. First report of Alternaria alternata causing hybrid hazel (Corylus heterophylla × C. avellana) fruit drop in China. Plant Disease. 101 (2), 382-383. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-16-1079-PDN

Danazumi I B, Khan A U, Dangora D B, Polycap G A, 2015. Seed-borne fungi isolated from five selected varieties of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.). International Journal of Current Science. 43-49. http://www.currentsciencejournal.info/issuespdf/Seed%20Imbal.pdf

Djeugap J F, Kuiate J R, Fontem D A, 2009. Fungal contamination of mangoes sold in the town of Dschang and the in vitro effectiveness of essential oils against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz., the aetiologic agent of anthracnose. (Etat sanitaire post-recolte de la mangue commercialisee dans la ville de Dschang et efficacite in vitro des huiles essentielles contre Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz., agent causal de l'anthracnose.). In: Association Française de Protection des Plantes, 9ème conférence international sur les maladies des plantes, Tours, France, 8 et 9 Décembre 2009 [Association Française de Protection des Plantes, 9ème conférence international sur les maladies des plantes, Tours, France, 8 et 9 Décembre 2009.], Alfortville, France: Association Française de Protection des Plantes (AFPP). 571-578.

El-Nagerabi S A F, Elshafie A E, 2000. Composition of mycoflora and aflatoxins in lupine seeds from the Sudan. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 39 (2), 257-262.

García-Estrada R S, López-Martínez J C, Medina-López R, Márquez-Zequera I, Cruz-Lachica I, 2019. First report of Rhizopus stolonifer causing fruit rot in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) in Mexico. Plant Disease. 103 (11), 2957-2957. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-02-19-0395-PDN

Gerlach W W P, 1988. Plant diseases of Western Samoa. Apia, Western Samoa: Samoan German Crop Protection Project. vii + 215 pp.

Lin C P, Tsai J N, Ann P J, Chang J T, Chen P R, 2017. First report of rhizopus rot of strawberry fruit caused by Rhizopus stolonifer in Taiwan. Plant Disease. 101 (1), 254-255. DOI:10.1094/pdis-07-16-1033-pdn

Mirzaee M R, Heydari A, Zare R, Naraghi L, Sabzali F, Hasheminasab M, 2013. Fungi associated with boll and lint rot of cotton in Southern Khorasan province of Iran. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 46 (11), 1285-1294. DOI:10.1080/03235408.2013.765135

Narendra Kumar, Deepika Kulshreshtha, Sapna Sharma, Rashmi Aggarwal, Khurana S M P, 2016. First record of Acrophialophora levis causing wilt of Plumeria in Gurgaon. Indian Phytopathology. 69 (4), 400-406. http://epubs.icar.org.in/ejournal/index.php/IPPJ/article/view/66253/28410

Nosheen Akhtar, Tehmina Anjum, Rasheda Jabeen, 2013. Isolation and identification of storage fungi from citrus sampled from major growing areas of Punjab, Pakistan. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 15 (6), 1283-1288. http://www.fspublishers.org/published_papers/18513_..pdf

Rashtra Vardhana, 2017. Plant's diseases of district Ghaziabad and adjacent areas. Plant Archives. 17 (1), 727-732. http://www.plantarchives.org/PDF%2017-1/727-732%20(3511).pdf

Razia Sultana, Shamim Shamsi, 2010. Association of fungi with symptomatic plant parts of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) from Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Pathology. 26 (1/2), 69-75.

Renu Srivastava, Lal A A, 2009. Incidence of post-harvest fungal pathogens in guava and banana in Allahabad. Journal of Horticultural Sciences. 4 (1), 85-89.

Shaista Akhund, Muhammad Suhail, Ishrat Rani, Hidayatullah Abro, 2006. Fungi detected on Sapindus trifoliatus (Ritha) fruit from Miani forest in Hyderabad, Sindh. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 38 (3), 873-874. http://www.pjbot.org

Shulyak I I, 2009. Pathogenic microflora of sunflower seeds in conditions of the Krasnodar region. Zashchita i Karantin Rasteniĭ. 23-25. http://www.z-i-k-r.ru

Swati Dumbre, Damayanti Guldekar, Potdukhe S R, 2011. Survey of seed borne fungi of onion (Allium cepa L.) from various locations of Maharashtra. Journal of Soils and Crops. 21 (2), 221-224.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map
Select a dataset
Map Legends
  • CABI Summary Records
Map Filters
Extent
Invasive
Origin
Third party data sources: