Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Rigidoporus microporus
(white root disease of rubber)

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Datasheet

Rigidoporus microporus (white root disease of rubber)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Rigidoporus microporus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • white root disease of rubber
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •         Class: Agaricomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Leaves become yellowish-brown and exihibit downward curvature.
TitleFoliage symptoms
CaptionLeaves become yellowish-brown and exihibit downward curvature.
CopyrightRRIM
Leaves become yellowish-brown and exihibit downward curvature.
Foliage symptomsLeaves become yellowish-brown and exihibit downward curvature.RRIM
Off-season flowering of an infected tree.
TitleOff-season flowering
CaptionOff-season flowering of an infected tree.
CopyrightRRIM
Off-season flowering of an infected tree.
Off-season floweringOff-season flowering of an infected tree.RRIM
Multi-layered fruiting bodies form at the base of the tree.
TitleFruiting bodies
CaptionMulti-layered fruiting bodies form at the base of the tree.
CopyrightRRIM
Multi-layered fruiting bodies form at the base of the tree.
Fruiting bodiesMulti-layered fruiting bodies form at the base of the tree.RRIM
Network of mycelia of R. lignosus on tree collar exposed after digging away the soil.
TitleMycelia on tree collar
CaptionNetwork of mycelia of R. lignosus on tree collar exposed after digging away the soil.
CopyrightRRIM
Network of mycelia of R. lignosus on tree collar exposed after digging away the soil.
Mycelia on tree collarNetwork of mycelia of R. lignosus on tree collar exposed after digging away the soil.RRIM
Rhizomorphs spreading to the tree collar along the lateral roots.
TitleRhizomorphs on tree roots
CaptionRhizomorphs spreading to the tree collar along the lateral roots.
CopyrightRRIM
Rhizomorphs spreading to the tree collar along the lateral roots.
Rhizomorphs on tree rootsRhizomorphs spreading to the tree collar along the lateral roots.RRIM
Round strands of whitish-brown rhizomorphs firmly attached to the root surface.
TitleRhizomorphs attached to root surface
CaptionRound strands of whitish-brown rhizomorphs firmly attached to the root surface.
CopyrightRRIM
Round strands of whitish-brown rhizomorphs firmly attached to the root surface.
Rhizomorphs attached to root surfaceRound strands of whitish-brown rhizomorphs firmly attached to the root surface.RRIM
Fan-shaped ramification of growing tips of rhizomorphs; the growing parts are white.
TitleDeveloping rhizomorphs
CaptionFan-shaped ramification of growing tips of rhizomorphs; the growing parts are white.
CopyrightRRIM
Fan-shaped ramification of growing tips of rhizomorphs; the growing parts are white.
Developing rhizomorphsFan-shaped ramification of growing tips of rhizomorphs; the growing parts are white.RRIM
Carpophore, A, dorsal surface, B, ventral surface, x 1. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 198. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
TitleCarpophore
CaptionCarpophore, A, dorsal surface, B, ventral surface, x 1. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 198. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
CopyrightRoyal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Carpophore, A, dorsal surface, B, ventral surface, x 1. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 198. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
CarpophoreCarpophore, A, dorsal surface, B, ventral surface, x 1. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 198. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
C, spores; D, context hyphae. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 198. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
TitleSpores and context hyphae - line drawing
CaptionC, spores; D, context hyphae. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 198. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
CopyrightRoyal Botanic Gardens, Kew
C, spores; D, context hyphae. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 198. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Spores and context hyphae - line drawingC, spores; D, context hyphae. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 198. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Rigidoporus microporus (Fr.) Overeem

Preferred Common Name

  • white root disease of rubber

Other Scientific Names

  • Fomes auberianus (Mont.) Murrill
  • Fomes lignosus (Klotzsch) Bres.
  • Fomes semitostus Berk.
  • Leptoporus lignosus (Klotzsch) R. Heim
  • Oxyporus auberianus (Mont.) Kreisel
  • Polyporus auberianus Mont.
  • Polyporus lignosus Klotzsch
  • Rigidoporus lignosus (Klotzsch) Imazeki

International Common Names

  • English: white cocoa root disease; white Hevea spp. root disease; white root rot; white thread
  • Spanish: caries blanca de la hevea; caries blanca del cacao; enfermedad de las raices blancas
  • French: carie blanche de l'hevea; carie blanche du cacaoyer; maladie des racines blanches; pourriture blanche des racines

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Weisse Wurzelfaeule
  • Indonesia: penyakit akar putih

EPPO code

  • RIGILI (Rigidoporus lignosus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •                 Class: Agaricomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Agaricomycetidae
  •                         Order: Polyporales
  •                             Family: Meripilaceae
  •                                 Genus: Rigidoporus
  •                                     Species: Rigidoporus microporus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresent
BeninPresent
CameroonPresent
Central African RepublicPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
Congo, Republic of thePresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent, Widespread
Equatorial GuineaPresent
EthiopiaPresent
GabonPresent
GhanaPresent
KenyaPresent
NigeriaPresent, Widespread
Sierra LeonePresent
UgandaPresent

Asia

BruneiPresent
IndiaPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent, Widespread
-JavaPresent
-SumatraPresent, Widespread
MalaysiaPresent, Widespread
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent, Widespread
-SabahPresent, Localized
-SarawakPresent, Localized
MyanmarPresent
PhilippinesPresent
Sri LankaPresent, Widespread
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresent, Widespread
VietnamPresent

North America

Costa RicaPresent
DominicaPresent
Dominican RepublicPresent
GuatemalaPresent
MexicoPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
United StatesPresent, Localized
-AlabamaPresent
-FloridaPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MississippiPresent

Oceania

American SamoaPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresent
VanuatuPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BrazilPresent
-AcrePresent
-AmazonasPresent
-ParaPresent
GuyanaPresent
PeruPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Inflorescence / premature ripening
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / fungal growth on surface
Roots / rot of wood
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Stems / dieback
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes fungi/hyphae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots fungi/hyphae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fungi/fruiting bodies; fungi/hyphae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Wood fungi/hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)

References

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Allen PW; Cronin ME, 1994. Analysis of the 1993/1994 IRRDB survey on severity of diseases of Hevea. IRRDB Symposium on Diseases of Hevea, Cochin, India.

Ann PJ; Tsai JN; Chang TT; Wang IT, 2005. Distribution of decline of fruit trees and ornamental woody plants in Taiwan. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 14(3):203-210.

Barkinshaw F, 1923. Cover crops and the spread of Fomes lignosus. Malayan Agriculture Journal, 5:216.

Basuki; Nasution U; Lubis P, 1976. Mengurangi penyakit akar putih pada karet dengan penggunaan serbuk belerang. Menara Pekebunan, 44:197-201.

Bose SR; Bakshi BK, 1957. Polyporus lignosus Klotzsch and its identity. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 40:456.

Bouychou JG, 1966. White root disease of Hevea in Africa especially in the Ivory Coast Bulletin. Rubber Research Institute Ceylon, 1:34-36.

Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. Land Grant Technical Report No. 44. Pago Pago, American Samoa: American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program.

CABI; EPPO, 1997. Rigidoporus microporus. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, December (Edition 4). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 176.

Canh TV, 1986. Use of Calixin and Sandofan against white root disease and black stripe of Hevea brasiliensis. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Proceeding International Rubber Conference, 222-236.

CMI, 1974. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 176, Edition 3. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Fox RA, 1960. White root disease of Hevea brasiliensis: the identity of the pathogen. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Proceeding National Rubber Conference, 473-482.

Fox RA, 1961a. White root disease of Hevea brasiliensis: the identity of the pathogen. Proceeding Natural Rubber Research Conference Rubber Research Institute of Malaya, 1969, Kuala Lumpur, 473-482.

Fox RA, 1961b. White root disease of Hevea brasiliensis: The role of fungicide on control techniques. Report of the 6th Commonwealth Mycological Conference, 1960:97-100.

Fox RA, 1964. A report on a visit to Nigeria undertake to make a preliminary study of root diseases of rubber. Research Archive Rubber Research Institute Malaya, Doc. 27.

Fox RA, 1965a. Formulations of collar protectant dressing against Fomes lignosus. Research Archive Rubber Research Institute Malaya, Doc. 50.

Fox RA, 1965b. The role of biological eradication in root disease control in replantings of Hevea brasiliensis. In: Baker KF, Snyder WC, eds. Ecology of Soil-borne Pathogens. Berkeley, USA: University of California Press, 348-362.

Fox RA, 1966. White root disease of Hevea brasiliensis: collar protectant dressing. Journal Rubber Research Institute Malaya, 19:231-241.

Fox RA, 1971. A comparison of methods of dispersal, survival and parasitism in some fungi causing root diseases of tropical plantation crops. In: Tousson TA, Vega RV, Nelson PH, eds. Root Diseases and Soil-borne Pathogens. Berkeley, USA: University of California Press, 179-187.

Fox RA, 1977. The impact of ecological, cultural and biological factors on the strategy and costs of controlling root diseases in tropical plantation crops as exemplified by Hevea brasiliensis. Journal of the Rubber Research Institute of Sri Lanka, 54(1):329-362

Gohet E; Canh TV; Louandri M and Despereaux D, 1991. New developments in chemical control of white root disease of Hevea brasiliensis in Africa. Crop Protection, 10:234-238.

Hashim I; Azaldin MY, 1985. Interaction of sulphur with soil pH and root diseases of Hevea rubber. Journal of the Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia, 33(2):59-69

Hawksworth DL, 1972. Ustulina deusta. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 360. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Hilton RN, 1960. Sporulation of Fomes lignosus, Fomes noxius and Ganoderma psendoferreum. Proceeding National Rubber Research Conference Kuala Lumpur, 1960, 496-502.

Hutchison FW, 1960. Factors affecting root disease incidence and control in replantings. Proceeding National Rubber Research Conference Kuala Lumpur, 1960, 483-95.

Jayasuriya KE; Deacon JW, 1995. In vitro interactions between Rigidoporus lignosus, the cause of white root disease of rubber and some potentially antagonistic fungi. Journal of the Rubber Research Institute of Sri Lanka, 76:36-54; 23 ref.

John KP, 1956. Two experiments on the control of white root disease of Hevea rubber caused by Fomes lignosus Klotzsch leading to revision of established method. Journal Rubber Research Institute Malaya, 19:153-157.

John KP, 1958. Inoculation experiments with Fomes lignosus Klotzsch. Journal Rubber Research Institute Malaya, 15:223-230.

JOHN KP, 1960. Loss of viability of three root parasites in infected root sections buried in soil. Journal of the Rubber Research Institute of Malaya, 16(4):173-177 pp.

John KP, 1964. Spore dissemination of root disease. Planters Bulletin Rubber Research Institute Malaya, 75:233-37.

John KP, 1965. Some observations on spore infection of Hevea stumps by Fomes lignosus (Klotzsch) Bres. Journal Rubber Research Institute Malaya, 19:17-21.

JOHN KP, 1966. Effect of inoculum size and age of trees on root disease infection of Hevea brasiliensis. Journal of the Rubber Research Institute of Malaya, 19(4):226-230.

Lim TM and Abdul Aziz SAK, 1981. Triclopyr, a new arboricide for rubber. Proceedings of Rubber Research Institute Malaysia, Planters Conference, 1981, Kuala Lumpur, 327-336.

Lim TM, 1973. Factors affecting the aerial dissemination of Rigidoporus lignosus. 2nd International Congress Plant Pathology, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1973. Abstract No. 0981.

Lim TM, 1977. Penghasilan, percambahan dan penyerangan spora Rigidoporus lignosus terhadap Hevea. Jurnal Sains Pusat Penyelidikan Getah Malaysia, 1:13-18.

Liyanage AdeS, 1977. Economics of white root disease control. Bulletin Rubber Research Institute Sri Lanka, 12:51-58.

Liyanage AdeS; OS Peries, 1982. Strategies used for the control of white root diseases (Rigidoporus lignosus) in Sri Lanka. Proceeding International Conference Plant Protection in the Tropics, Kuala Lumpur.

Liyanage GW; Liyanage A de S; Peries OS; Halangoda L, 1977. Studies on the variability and pathogenicity of Rigidoporus lignosus. Journal of the Rubber Research Institute of Sri Lanka, 54(1):363-372

Liyanage I; Peries OS; Liyanage A de S; Wettasinghe C, 1982. Observations on the development of the sporophore of Rigidoporus lignosus and the realease and germination of basidiospores. Journal of the Rubber Research Institute of Sri Lanka, 60:59-68

Liyanage NIS; Peries OS; Liyanage AdeS, 1980a. The role of the basidiospores of Rigidoporus lignosus in the spread of white root disease of Hevea. Journal Rubber Research Institute Sri Lanka, 57:37-40.

Liyanage NIS; Peries OS; Liyanage AdeS; Warnapura SS, 1980b. Studies on the spread of white root disease caused by Rigidoporus lignosus in Sri Lanka. Journal Rubber Research Institute Sri Lanka, 57:26-36.

Lloyd GC, 1912. Mycol. Notes No. 38, 519.

Martin R; Plessix du CJ, 1969. White root disease (Leptoporus lignosus) of rubber in Ivory Coast. Journal Rubber Research Institute Malaya, 21:1-10.

Napper RPN, 1932a. A scheme of treatment for the control of Fomes lignosus in young rubber areas. Journal Rubber Research Institute Malaya, 4:34-38.

Napper RPN, 1932b. Observations on the root disease of rubber trees caused by Fomes lignosus. Journal Rubber Research Institute Malaya, 4:5-33.

Newsam A, 1963. Covers and root disease. Planters Bulletin Rubber Research Insttitute Malaya, 68:177-81.

Newsam A, 1964. Root disease inspection and treatment. Planters Bulletin Rubber Research Institute Malaya, 75:238-43.

NEWSAM A, 1967. Clearing methods and root disease control. Planters' Bulletin. Rubber Research Institute of Malaya, 92. 176-82 pp.

Newsam A; John KP; Rao BS, 1960. Decay of rubberwood in a replanting and its effect on root disease. Journal Rubber Research Institute Malaysia, 20:1-7.

Pegler DN; Waterston JM, 1968. Rigidoporus lignosus. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 198. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Peries OS; Fernando DM; Samarweera SK, 1965. Field evaluation of methods for the control of white root disease of Hevea. Quarterly Journal Rubber Research Institute Ceylon, 38:1-2.

Peries OS; Liyanage AdeS, 1985. Hevea diseases of economic importance and integrated methods of control. Proceedings International Rubber Conference, 1985, Kuala Lumpur, 255-269.

Peries OS; Liyanage NIS, 1983. The use of sulphur for the control of white root disease caused by Rigidoporus lignosus. Journal of the Rubber Research Institute of Sri Lanka, 61:35-40

Petch T, 1906. Root diseases of Hevea brasiliensis (Fomes semitostus). Circular Agriculture Journal Royal Botanic Gardens, Ceylon, 3:237.

Petch T, 1921. Diseases and pests of the rubber tree. London, UK: Macmillan and Company.

Rao BS, 1974. Diseases and pests of rubber in South and South East Asia. World Crops, 26:75.

Ridley HN, 1904. Parasitic fungi on Hevea brasiliensis. Agriculture Bulletin Federated Malay States, 3:173-175.

Riggenbach A, 1958. A note on the chemical control of the white root disease of rubber. Quarterly Circular Rubber Research Institute Ceylon, 34:8-10.

Rubber Research Institute of Malaya, 1957. Decaying timber spreads root disease. Planters Bulletin Rubber Research Institute Malaya, 29:31-35.

Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia, 1964. Collar protectant dressing against white root disease. Planters Bulletin Rubber Research Institute Malaya, 70:8-10.

Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia, 1974a. Root disease. Part 1: Detection and recognition. Planters Bulletin Rubber Research Institute Malaysia, 133:111-19.

Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia, 1974b. Root diseases part 11: Control. Planters Bulletin Rubber Research Institute Malaysia, 134:157-64.

Sail RM; Shah RB; Ibrahim AG; Muhammad AF; Muhammad M; Tahir MHM; Noor MY; Salleh WM, 1990. Research Report From Smallholders Practices constraints and needs to appropriate technology generation, development and adoption. The case of rubber smallholders in Peninsular Malaysia, Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia and Universiti Pertanian Malaysia.

Satchuthanan Thavale V and Halangoda L, 1971. Sulphur in the control of white root disease. Quarterly Journal Rubber Research Institute Ceylon, 48:82-91.

Singh KG, 1980. A check list of host and disease in Malaysia. Bulletin Ministry of Agriculture Malaysia, No.154:280 pp.

Soepena H, 1993. Pemberantasan jamur akar putih dengn Trichoderma. Warta Perkaretan, 12:17-22.

Tan AM; Ismail Hashim, 1992. Control of white root disease of rubber by fungicide drenching. In: Abdul Aziz SAK, ed. Towards Greater Viability of the Rubber Industry. Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia, 343-358.

Thompson A; Johnston A, 1953. A host list of plant diseases in Malaya. Mycological Papers Commonwealth Mycological Institute, 52, 38 pp.

Tran VC, 1985. Use of calixin and Sandofan F against white root disease and black stripe of Hevea brasiliensis. Proceedings International Rubber Conference, Kuala Lumpur, 1985, 21-25.

Weir JR, 1926. A pathological survey of the para rubber tree in the Amazon Valley. United States Department of Agriculture Bulletin, 1380.

Weir JR, 1929. Preliminary studies on some diseases of cover crop under rubber in Malaya. Journal Rubber Research Institute Malaya, 1:29-40.

Wijewantha RT, 1964. Influence of environment on incidence of Fomes lignosus in rubber replantation in Ceylon. Tropical Agriculture, 41:69-75.

Young HE, 1955. White root diesease of Hevea (Leptoporus lignosus = Fomes lignosus). Quarterly Circular Rubber Research Institute Ceylon, 30:84.

Zhang KM; Chee KH, 1989. Hevea diseases of economic importance in China. Planter, 65(754):3-8

Distribution References

Ann P J, Tsai J N, Chang T T, Wang I T, 2005. Distribution of decline of fruit trees and ornamental woody plants in Taiwan. Plant Pathology Bulletin. 14 (3), 203-210.

Basuki, Nasution U, Lubis P, 1976. (Mengurangi penyakit akar putih pada karet dengan penggunaan serbuk belerang). In: Menara Pekebunan, 44 197-201.

Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. In: Land Grant Technical Report No. 44, Pago Pago, American Samoa, American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program.

CABI, EPPO, 1997. Rigidoporus microporus. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 176. DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20066500176

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Gohet E, Canh T van, Louanchi M, Despreaux D, 1991. New developments in chemical control of white root disease of Hevea brasiliensis in Africa. Crop Protection. 10 (3), 234-238. DOI:10.1016/0261-2194(91)90049-W

Lim TM, 1977. (Penghasilan, percambahan dan penyerangan spora Rigidoporus lignosus terhadap Hevea). In: Jurnal Sains Pusat Penyelidikan Getah Malaysia, 1 13-18.

Liyanage AdeS, 1977. Economics of white root disease control. In: Bulletin Rubber Research Institute Sri Lanka, 12 51-58.

Soepena H, 1993. (Pemberantasan jamur akar putih dengn Trichoderma). In: Warta Perkaretan, 12 17-22.

Weir J R, 1926. United States Department of Agriculture Bulletin,

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