Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cuscuta monogyna
(eastern dodder)

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Datasheet

Cuscuta monogyna (eastern dodder)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 24 March 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cuscuta monogyna
  • Preferred Common Name
  • eastern dodder
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Cuscuta monogyna is an aerial hemiparasitic plant native to the Mediterranean and temperate regions in Europe, Central Western Asia and North Africa. It has been introduced in Malta and Lebanon. There is no evidence of any impacts on natu...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Cuscuta monogyna (eastern dodder); Flowering plant parasitizing European smoketree (Cotinus coggygria). Karadag Nature Reserve, Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukraine. June 2017.
TitleFlower and vines
CaptionCuscuta monogyna (eastern dodder); Flowering plant parasitizing European smoketree (Cotinus coggygria). Karadag Nature Reserve, Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukraine. June 2017.
Copyright©Yuliya Krasylenko/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Cuscuta monogyna (eastern dodder); Flowering plant parasitizing European smoketree (Cotinus coggygria). Karadag Nature Reserve, Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukraine. June 2017.
Flower and vinesCuscuta monogyna (eastern dodder); Flowering plant parasitizing European smoketree (Cotinus coggygria). Karadag Nature Reserve, Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukraine. June 2017.©Yuliya Krasylenko/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Cuscuta monogyna (eastern dodder); Flowering plant parasitizing European smoketree (Cotinus coggygria). Karadag Nature Reserve, Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukraine. June 2017.
TitleFlower and vines
CaptionCuscuta monogyna (eastern dodder); Flowering plant parasitizing European smoketree (Cotinus coggygria). Karadag Nature Reserve, Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukraine. June 2017.
Copyright©Yuliya Krasylenko/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Cuscuta monogyna (eastern dodder); Flowering plant parasitizing European smoketree (Cotinus coggygria). Karadag Nature Reserve, Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukraine. June 2017.
Flower and vinesCuscuta monogyna (eastern dodder); Flowering plant parasitizing European smoketree (Cotinus coggygria). Karadag Nature Reserve, Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukraine. June 2017.©Yuliya Krasylenko/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Cuscuta monogyna (eastern dodder); Seed taken under stereomicroscope. October 2017.
TitleSeed
CaptionCuscuta monogyna (eastern dodder); Seed taken under stereomicroscope. October 2017.
Copyright©Yuliya Krasylenko/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Cuscuta monogyna (eastern dodder); Seed taken under stereomicroscope. October 2017.
SeedCuscuta monogyna (eastern dodder); Seed taken under stereomicroscope. October 2017.©Yuliya Krasylenko/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cuscuta monogyna Vahl

Preferred Common Name

  • eastern dodder

Other Scientific Names

  • Cuscuta astyla Engelm.
  • Cuscuta scandens Brot.
  • Monogynella blancheana (Vahl) Des Moul. ex Engelm.
  • Monogynella monogyna (Vahl) Hadač & Chrtek
  • Monogynella vahliana (Vahl) Des Moul.

International Common Names

  • English: Mediterranean tree dodder; one-seeded dodder
  • Spanish: azafranillo; azafrin borde; barba de ajedrea; barba de raposo; barbas de capuchino; barbas de cuco; cabellos de monte; cabellos de Nuestro Senor; cabellos de tomillo; cabellos de Venus; coscuta; cuscuta; epitimo; flores de tomillo; manto de la Virgen; pelillo; tapioca; tina
  • French: cuscute à un style; cuscute de la vigne; cuscute des agrumes; rache à un style

Local Common Names

  • : povilika odnostolbikovaya
  • Bulgaria: povilika odnopestichnaya; yednostʹlbchesta kukuvicha prezhda
  • Croatia: jednovratna vilina kosa
  • Italy: cuscuta con uno stilo
  • Portugal: abracos; cabelos; cabelos-loiros; enleios; linheiro; linho-de-cuco; meadas
  • Serbia: vilina kositsa; vrbova vilina kositsa
  • Turkey: kızılkurtotu

EPPO code

  • CVCMO

Summary of Invasiveness

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Cuscuta monogyna is an aerial hemiparasitic plant native to the Mediterranean and temperate regions in Europe, Central Western Asia and North Africa. It has been introduced in Malta and Lebanon. There is no evidence of any impacts on natural habitat or biodiversity in these countries. It is considered invasive in Tajikistan, but the report did not differentiate between local and alien invasives. In its native range, C. monogyna is considered a weed species affecting crops in Ukraine and Russia, where it is included in the National List of Regulated Pests as a quarantine pest.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Solanales
  •                         Family: Cuscutaceae
  •                             Genus: Cuscuta
  •                                 Species: Cuscuta monogyna

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Cuscuta is a genus commonly known as dodders, represented by approximately 200 holo- and hemiparasitic species (Kaštier et al., 2018). This genus was originally included as the only genus in the Cuscutaceae family, but it has since moved to the Convolvulaceae (Stefanovic and Olmstead, 2004). Cuscuta is divided into three subgenera on the basis of style fusion and stigma shape (Engelmann, 1859). C. monogyna belongs to the subgenus Monogyna (which consists of thick-stemmed species that commonly parasitize trees and shrubs and have the two styles fused for most or all of their length), section Monogynella (which have shorter, stouter stigmas) (Yuncker, 1932). C.monogyna Vahl is an accepted name (Valentine, 1972) and includes two accepted taxonomic infraspecifics: C. monogyna subsp. esquamata (Engelm.) Plitmann and C. monogyna subsp. monogyna.

Description

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The following description is from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2019):

Stems pinkish, deep purple tuberculate, stout, 1-2 mm in diam. Inflorescences loosely or densely spicate-paniculate; bracts ovate-circular or ovate-triangular, 1-2 mm, fleshy, apex acute. Flowers subsessile or pedicellate. Calyx cupular; sepals ovate-circular, equal, apex acute. Corolla rose to white, or purple late in anthesis, urceolate to tubular, or campanulate, 3-3.5 mm; lobes 5, ovate-circular, 1/2 length of tube, margin entire or minutely dentate, apex obtuse. Stamens inserted at throat; filaments ca. as long as anthers; anthers oval or oval-cordate; scales oblong, reaching middle of tube, ± 2-cleft, fimbriate. Ovary subglobose. Style 1, ca. 0.5 mm; stigma capitate, ca. as long as style, shallowly cleft. Capsule ovoid-globose, ca. 4 mm, circumscissile. Seeds 1 or 2, dark brown, subcordate, 3-3.5 mm, smooth.

Plant Type

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Annual
Parasitic
Seed / spore propagated
Vine / climber

Distribution

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Cuscuta monogyna is native to the Mediterranean, Central, Southern, Northwestern and Eastern Europe and Central and Western Asia, as well as the Northern Caucasus, Trans-Caucasus and North Africa (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019; World Flora Online, 2019). It has been introduced in Malta and Lebanon (von Raab-Straube, 2018). It is considered invasive in Tajikistan, but the report did not differentiate between local and alien invasives (CBD, 2020).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 24 Mar 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNative
EgyptPresentNative
MoroccoPresentNative

Asia

AfghanistanPresentNative
ArmeniaPresentNative
AzerbaijanPresentNative
ChinaPresentNativeNative only to Xinjiang
-XinjiangPresentNative
GeorgiaPresentNative
IranPresentNative
IraqPresentNative
IsraelPresentNative
KazakhstanPresentNative
KyrgyzstanPresentNative
LebanonPresentIntroduced
MongoliaPresentNative
PakistanPresentNative
PalestinePresentNative
SyriaPresentNative
TajikistanPresentOne of five Cuscuta species that have been identified as harmful weeds, but impacts are not detailed
TurkeyPresentNative
TurkmenistanPresentNative
UzbekistanPresentNative

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNative
AustriaPresent
BulgariaPresentNative
CyprusPresentNative
DenmarkPresent
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentNative
FrancePresentNative
GermanyPresent
GreecePresentNative
ItalyPresentNative
MaltaPresentIntroduced
MoldovaPresentNative
PortugalPresentNative
RomaniaPresentNative
RussiaPresentNative
-Southern RussiaPresentNative
SpainPresentNative
SwedenPresent
SwitzerlandPresent
UkrainePresentNative

History of Introduction and Spread

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Cuscuta monogyna was accidentally introduced to Malta, where it is reduced to small populations and is not spreading (Mifsud, 2020). It is introduced to Lebanon (von Raab-Straube, 2018), but no further information exists about the entry vector in this country.

Risk of Introduction

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Cuscuta spp. are subject to the strict quarantine regulations now in place in most countries (Holm et al., 1997), which should ensure that there is little risk of introduction.

Habitat

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Cuscuta monogyna is mainly associated with floodplains, forests and shrubs and steppe habitat in Eastern Europe (Fedorov, 2001). It is found growing on agricultural land (Fedorov, 2001; Nowak et al., 2014).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Principal habitat Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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Cuscuta monogyna is included in the National List of Regulated Pests as a quarantine pest present locally in crops in Ukraine (EPPO, 2014). It is also included in the list of quarantine pests in the Russian Federation (EPPO, 2009) and is of significance for vineyard crops (Fedorov, 2001). It is found growing in cereal crops in Tajikistan (Nowak et al., 2014), but no further information exists about its agricultural impact.

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Cuscuta spp. belong to subgenus Monogyna and have extremely large nuclear genomes (McNeal et al., 2007). The chromosome number of C. monogyna is 2n=28 (Fedorov, 2001).

Reproductive Biology

The flowers are actinomorphic hermaphrodites only, with homogeneous seeds and fruits (Danin and Fragman-Sapir, 2016). C. monogyna flowers need insects for fertilization and pollination (Nazari and Tavakoli, 1995). Most Cuscuta species readily produce massive quantities of seed (McNeal et al., 2007).

Physiology and Phenology

Flowering times are variable depending on climatic condition. In Israel flowering is from May to September (Danin and Fragman-Sapir, 2016) and in Malta from February to April (Mifsud, 2020). The seeds are mature between in the middle to the end of summer. Numerous seeds are produced and can form soil seed banks; large numbers (each filament mass is about 1500 seeds and for a whole plant about 3000 seeds) with high viability are produced and remain on the ground until germination starts in the next season (Nazari and Tavakoli, 1995).

The seeds can remain dormant in soil for many years, for some Cuscuta species this can be for more than 20 years (Baskin and Baskin, 2014). Seeds of C.monogyna appear to have a relatively high temperature requirement of 30-33°C for maximum germination (Baskin and Baskin, 2014), but the most appropriate temperature for germination is 10-25°C. Sunny conditions are required and the seed should be buried in the soil at a depth of 3-7 cm. Germination is low in the first year (Nazari and Tavakoli, 1995). Once germination has started, the radical of the embryo develops into a root, which absorbs water from the soil; and the embryonic shoot bud is able to spend several weeks without a host. Thin and whitish filaments come out from the seeds, which start to attach to the understory grasses, becoming brownish in colour. Growth of the filaments reduces from the middle of September and stops completely in December. The filaments become dry and black and disappear in winter (Nazari and Tavakoli, 1995).

Nearly all species of Cuscuta retain some photosynthetic ability, especially as seedlings and in maturing fruits (McNeal et al., 2007). They contain trace amounts of chlorophyll and there is no RUBISCO activity (van der Kooij et al., 2000; Těšitel, 2016). Cuscuta spp. have no roots at maturity and their leaves are reduced to minute scales; their vegetative portion appears to be a stem only; and they live as stem holoparasites on other plants (Jones, 2018). The adult plants need a host as a source of nutrients and have a special adhesion/absorption organ called the haustorium, which is able to penetrate into the vascular system of the stems, leaves or roots of the hosts. (McNeal et al., 2007; Kaštier et al., 2018). It is observed that the cytoskeleton in dodder shoot cells is organized in a similar way to non-parasitic dicots, while in the quickly senescing root-like structure and prehaustorium the cytoskeletal organization has some peculiarities (Kaštier et al., 2018).

Associations

Cuscuta spp. are parasitic plants that are are reported around the world with different host ranges, cultivated or not (Hull, 2002). The natural hosts of Cuscuta are mainly dicotyledonous plants from Brassicaceae, Leguminosae, Solanaceae and other taxa (García et al., 2014). Some Cuscuta species are host specific (Abaye, 2019), but C. monogyna is a generalist with broad host ranges, mostly bushes and even trees (Kaštier et al., 2018), as well as grasses and vines (Vitis, Rubus, Pistacia, Laurus, Olea, Viburnum, Salix, Jasminum, Tamarix, Berberis, Syringa, Cytisus, Cotinus, Clematis, Paliurus, Punica, Ricinus, etc.). Other recent hosts are Glycyrrhiza glabra in Armenia (Piwowarczyk et al., 2018); Ficus carica in the Crimean Peninsula (Krasylenko and Piwowarczyk, 2019); and the oak tree, Quercus persica [Quercus brantii], which extends from Eastern and Western Azerbaijan to Southwestern Iran (Nazari and Tavakoli, 1995). Occasionally, hosts are other plants, such as Alhagi, Artemisia, Salsola, Cardaria, Phragmites (Piwowarczyk et al., 2018). In the Iberian Peninsula, it is a parasite of trees and shrubs of different species (e.g. Retama sphaerocarpa, Dittrichia viscosa and Tamarix (Garcia, 2012).

Environmental Requirements

Cuscutamonogyna occurs in a wide range of climates, temperate and subtropical and soils and has some tolerance of saline conditions (Dubyna et al., 1995). In Iran, it grows from 1250-2200 m above sea level (Nazari and Tavakoli, 1995) and from 300-800 m altitude in the Iberian Peninsula (Garcia, 2012).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Preferred Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
55-30

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Special soil tolerances

  • saline
  • shallow

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Eupithecia barteli Herbivore Seeds

Notes on Natural Enemies

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It has been observed that the larvae of Eupithecia barteli, a moth in the family Geometridae, have been found in the ripening seed balls of C. monogyna in Kyrgyzstan and southern Kazakhstan (Mironov and Galsworthy, 2013). For further information on natural enemies of Cuscuta spp., including C. monogyna, see reviews by CAB International (1987).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

The mechanism of dispersal of Cuscuta spp. seeds is by gravity.

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Livestock can disperse the seeds as they are not digested in the tracts of ruminants (Nazari and Tavakoli, 1995). It has also been pointed out that birds can play a role in seed dispersal (Nazari and Tavakoli, 1995; Mifsud, 2020).

Accidental Introduction

Cuscutamonogyna has been identified contaminating imported seed crops in Tajikistan (CBD, 2020) and is found sporadically outside cultivated fields (Nowak et al., 2014).

Intentional Introduction

There is no evidence of intentional introductions of C. monogyna outside its natural range.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Digestion and excretionSeeds can pass through the digestive system of ruminants Yes Nazari and Tavakoli, 1995
Seed tradeAccidental contaminant Yes CBD, 2020

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
LivestockSeeds can pass through the digestive system of ruminants Yes Nazari and Tavakoli, 1995

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative

Economic Impact

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Cuscuta spp. affect many thousands of hectares of land worldwide, reducing yields, restricting choice of crop and interfering with international trade; but there are a few species of concern to agriculture. By far the most important of these is C. campestris (Parker, 2012), but C. monogyna and C. reflexa are also considered economically important species and occur on fruit and shrub crops in the Middle East and South Asia (Parker, 2012). In its native range C. monogyna is present in crops in Ukraine (EPPO, 2014) and of significance for vineyard crops in Russia (Fedorov, 2001). It is found growing in cereal crops in Tajikistan (Nowak et al., 2014), but no further information exists about its agricultural impact.

Cuscuta monogyna is a vector of the yellow diseases group transmitted to plants (Maramorosch, 2012), but this is probably an insignificant factor in the transmission of economically important diseases in the field (Hull, 2002).

Environmental Impact

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Cuscuta monogyna is not naturalized in its non-native range: in Malta, it is reduced to small populations (Mifsud, 2020). There is no evidence of any impacts on natural habitat or biodiversity in its introduced range.

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts animal health
Impact mechanisms
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Parasitism (incl. parasitoid)
  • Poisoning
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses

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Many parasitic plants, including Cuscuta spp., can transmit viruses between taxonomically disparate plant families (Jones, 2018). They have been used as a research tool to create a bridge between different plants for the transmission of viruses and mycoplasma-like organisms from one host to another, but in recent times are rarely used in experimental work (Hull, 2002).

Uses List

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General

  • Laboratory use

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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The identification of species within Cuscuta can be problematic due to the loss of vegetative organs and the reduced sizes of structures with relevance for taxonomic purposes (McNeal et al., 2007). C. monogyna can be distinguished from other Cuscuta spp. because of the presence of a single style in the gynoecium and seeds that are 2.8-3.6 mm long (Garcia, 2012).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Parasitic weeds are controlled through an integrated approach, employing a variety of measures in a concerted manner, starting with containment and sanitation, direct and indirect measures to prevent the damage caused by the parasites and, finally, eradicating the parasite seedbank in the soil (Saric-Krsmanovic et al., 2017).

Thus, various methods are used (or have been used) in attempts to control Cuscuta in crops, including burning portions of fields that are badly infested in order to destroy the seeds, solarization, biological control and an integration of crop rotation and prevention of Cuscuta seed production (Baskin and Baskin, 2014), plus prevention of movement of livestock (Nazari and Tavakoli, 1995).

SPS Measures

Cuscuta spp. are declared Class 1 Prohibited Noxious Weed Seed in Canada (Government of Canada, 2016) and a noxious weed in 25 other countries (Holm et al., 1997), given the risk of it being introduced as a contaminant of crop seeds.

Chemical control

Pre-emergence and post-emergence herbicides can be used (Baskin and Baskin, 2014). No herbicide gives fully reliable control and the only option is the removal of the parasitic plants together with host in order to prevent spread and seeding (Parker, 2012).

Biological Control

Alternaria destruens strain 059 is a fungus that is parasitic to the more common Cuscuta species, but has not been tested on C. monogyna. It does not pose any risk to humans and other non-target species (Bailey, 2014).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Risk assessments for C. monogyna are necessary in order to determine the risk of its introduction and associated invasiveness.

References

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Abaye AO, 2019. Non leguminous Forbs. In: Common Grasses, Legumes and Forbs of the Eastern United States, [ed. by Abaye AO]. Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Academic Press. 167-364.

Bailey KL, 2014. The bioherbicide approach to weed control using plant pathogens. In: Integrated Pest Management, [ed. by Abrol DP]. Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Academic Press. 245-266.

Baskin CC, Baskin JM, 2014. Germination ecology of plants with specialized life cycles and/or habitats. In: Seeds (Second Edition), [ed. by Baskin CC, Baskin JM]. Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Academic Press. 869-1004.

CAB International, 1987. Digest: potential for biological control of Cuscuta spp. and Orobanche spp. Biocontrol News and Information, 8(3), 193-199.

CBD, 2020. Biological Diversity of Tajikistan - National Strategy and Action Plan on Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity. Convention on Biological Diversity.https://www.cbd.int/doc/world/tj/tj-nbsap-01-p04-en.pdf

Danin A, Fragman-Sapir O, 2016. Flora of Israel Online. http://flora.org.il/en/plants/

Dubyna, D. V., Neuhäuslová, Z., Šeljag-Sosonko, J. R., 1995. Vegetation of the Birjučij Island spit in the Azov sea. Sand steppe vegetation. Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica, 30(1), 1-31. doi: 10.1007/BF02813216

Engelmann G, 1859. Systematic arrangement of the species of the genus Cuscuta, with critical remarks on old species and descriptions of new ones. Transactions of the Academy of Science of Saint Louis, 1, 453-523.

EPPO, 2009. Lists of invasive alien plants in Russia. EPPO Reporting Service no. 07-2009 Num. article: 2009/149. Paris, France: EPPO.

EPPO, 2014. Situation of several quarantine pests in Ukraine in 2014. EPPO Reporting Service no. 04-2014. Num. article: 2014/075. Paris, France: EPPO.

EPPO, 2019. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database Paris, France: EPPO.https://gd.eppo.int/

Fedorov, A., 2001. Flora of Russia: the European part and bordering regions. Volume 5: Magnoliophyta (=Angiospermae), Magnoliopsida (=Dicotyledones), [ed. by Fedorov, A.]. Rotterdam, Netherlands: A.A. Balkema.xvi + 515 pp.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Garcia MA, 2012. Cuscuta L. In: Flora Iberica 11 [ed. by Castroviejo S, Aedo C, Laínz M, Muñoz Garmendia F, Nieto Feliner G, Paiva J, Benedí C]. Madrid, Spain: Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC.149-152. http://www.floraiberica.es/floraiberica/texto/pdfs/11_135_06_Cuscuta.pdf

García, M. A., Costea, M., Kuzmina, M., Stefanović, S., 2014. Phylogeny, character evolution, and biogeography of Cuscuta (dodders; Convolvulaceae) inferred from coding plastid and nuclear sequences. American Journal of Botany, 101(4), 670-690. doi: 10.3732/ajb.1300449

Government of Canada, 2016. Weed Seeds Order, 2016. The Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food. Government of Canada.https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/regulations/SOR-2016-93/FullText.html

Holm, L., Doll, J., Holm, E., Pancho, J., Herberger, J., 1997. World weeds: natural histories and distribution, New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons.xv + 1129 pp.

Hull R, 2002. Transmission 2: Mechanical, Seed, Pollen and Epidemiology. In: Matthew’s Plant Virology (Fourth Edition), Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Academic Press.

Jones, R. A. C., 2018. Plant and insect viruses in managed and natural environments: novel and neglected transmission pathways. Advances in Virus Research, 101, 149-187. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065352718300095

Kaštier, P., Krasylenko, Y. A., Martinčová, M., Panteris, E., Šamaj, J., Blehová, A., 2018. Cytoskeleton in the parasitic plant Cuscuta during germination and prehaustorium formation. Frontiers in Plant Science, 9(June), 794. https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpls.2018.00794/full

Kooij, T. A. W. van der, Krause, K., Dörr, I., Krupinska, K., 2000. Molecular, functional and ultrastructural characterisation of plastids from six species of the parasitic flowering plant genus Cuscuta. Planta, 210(5), 701-707. doi: 10.1007/s004250050670

Krasylenko Y, Piwowarczyk R, 2019. First report of eastern dodder (Cuscuta monogyna) parasitizing common fig (Ficus carica) at the Crimean Peninsula. Plant Disease, 10

Machado, M. A., Zetsche, K., 1990. A structural, functional and molecular analysis of plastids of the holoparasites Cuscuta reflexa and Cuscuta europaea. Planta, 181(1), 91-96. doi: 10.1007/BF00202329

Maramorosch K, 2012. Plant diseases and vectors: ecology and epidemiology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Academic Press.380 pp.

McNeal, J. R., Arumugunathan, K., Kuehl, J. V., Boore, J. L., Pamphilis, C. W. de, 2007. Systematics and plastid genome evolution of the cryptically photosynthetic parasitic plant genus Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae). BMC Biology, 5(55), (13 December 2007). http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1741-7007-5-55.pdf

Mifsud, S, 2020. Cuscuta monogyna. Malta Wild Plants.http://www.maltawildplants.com

Mironov V, Galsworthy AC, 2013. The Eupithecia of China: a revision, Leiden, Netherlands: Brill.

Nazari S, Tavakoli M, 1995. Report on Cuscuta monogyna as an oak tree ectoparasite in Lorestan province. In: Proceedings of the 12th Iranian Plant Protection Congress 2-7 September 1995 Karadj (Iran Islamic Republic) . 285. http://www.bepls.com/bepsljan2014/28.pdf

Nowak, A., Nowak, S., Nobis, M., Nobis, A., 2014. A report on the conservation status of segetal weeds in Tajikistan. Weed Research (Oxford), 54(6), 635-648. doi: 10.1111/wre.12103

Parker, C., 2012. Parasitic weeds: a world challenge. Weed Science, 60(2), 269-276. doi: 10.1614/WS-D-11-00068.1

Piwowarczyk, R., Góralski, G., Denysenko-Bennett, M., Kwolek, D., Joachimiak, A. J., Fayvush, G., 2018. First report of eastern dodder (Cuscuta monogyna) parasitizing licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) in Armenia. Plant Disease, 102(12), 2664. doi: 10.1094/pdis-06-18-1058-pdn

Saric-Krsmanovic, M. M., Bozic, D. M., Radivojevic, L. M., Umiljendic, J. S. G., Vrbnicanin, S. P., 2017. Effect of Cuscuta campestris parasitism on the physiological and anatomical changes in untreated and herbicide-treated sugar beet. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes, 52(11), 812-816. doi: 10.1080/03601234.2017.1356167

Stefanovic, S., Olmstead, R. G., 2004. Testing the phylogenetic position of a parasitic plant (Cuscuta, Convolvulaceae, Asteridae): Bayesian inference and the parametric bootstrap on data drawn from three genomes. Systematic Biology, 53, 384-399.

Těšitel, J., 2016. Functional biology of parasitic plants: a review. Plant Ecology and Evolution, 149(1), 5-20. doi: 10.5091/plecevo.2016.1097

Valentine DH, 1972. Convolvulaceae. In: Flora Europaea 3, [ed. by Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Valentine DH]. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 74-83.

von Raab-Straube, E, 2018. Convolvulaceae. In: Euro+Med Plantbase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity, Palermo, Italy: Dipartimento di Scienzeambientali e Biodiversità ed Orto botanico, Università degli Studi di Palermo.https://www.emplantbase.org/home.html

World Flora Online, 2019. World Flora Online. In: World Flora Online : World Flora Online Consortium.www.worldfloraonline.org

Yuncker, T. G., 1932. The genus Cuscuta. Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club, 18, 113-331.

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2011. Invasive Species Databases.,

CBD, 2020. Biological Diversity of Tajikistan - National Strategy and Action Plan on Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity., Convention on Biological Diversity. https://www.cbd.int/doc/world/tj/tj-nbsap-01-p04-en.pdf

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Ghafarbi S P, Hassannejad S, 2013. Weed flora survey in University of Tabriz Botanical Garden. International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production. 4 (1), 7-14. http://ijappjournal.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/1/7-14.doc.pdf

Mosyakin SL, Fedoronchuk MM, 1999. Vascular plants of Ukraine. A nomenclatural checklist., Kiev, Ukraine: Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine Kiev.

Piwowarczyk R, Góralski G, Denysenko-Bennett M, Kwolek D, Joachimiak A J, Fayvush G, 2018. First report of eastern dodder (Cuscuta monogyna) parasitizing licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) in Armenia. Plant Disease. 102 (12), 2664. DOI:10.1094/pdis-06-18-1058-pdn

von Raab-Straube E, 2018. Convolvulaceae. Palermo, Italy: Dipartimento di Scienzeambientali e Biodiversità ed Orto botanico, Università degli Studi di Palermo. https://www.emplantbase.org/home.html

World Flora Online, 2019. World Flora Online. In: World Flora Online. World Flora Online Consortium. www.worldfloraonline.org

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06/05/20 Original text by:

Manuel Angel Duenas-Lopez, Consultant, UK

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