Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Rhyacionia frustrana
(Nantucket pine tip moth)

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Datasheet

Rhyacionia frustrana (Nantucket pine tip moth)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Rhyacionia frustrana
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Nantucket pine tip moth
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Extensive areas of intensively managed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and other highly susceptible hosts, such as Monterey pine (P. radiata), are widely planted throughout Australia, New Zealand, and South America. The accidental introduction and establ...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
An adult moth of R. frustrana at rest.
TitleAdult
CaptionAn adult moth of R. frustrana at rest.
CopyrightChristopher Asaro & Christopher J. Fettig
An adult moth of R. frustrana at rest.
AdultAn adult moth of R. frustrana at rest.Christopher Asaro & Christopher J. Fettig
Heavy R. frustrana damage on a 2-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) in Georgia, USA.
TitleDamage symptoms
CaptionHeavy R. frustrana damage on a 2-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) in Georgia, USA.
CopyrightChristopher Asaro
Heavy R. frustrana damage on a 2-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) in Georgia, USA.
Damage symptomsHeavy R. frustrana damage on a 2-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) in Georgia, USA.Christopher Asaro
Poor tree form resulting from repeated R. frustrana attacks.
TitleDamage symptoms
CaptionPoor tree form resulting from repeated R. frustrana attacks.
CopyrightChristopher Asaro
Poor tree form resulting from repeated R. frustrana attacks.
Damage symptomsPoor tree form resulting from repeated R. frustrana attacks.Christopher Asaro
Extensive shoot dieback resulting from repeated R. frustrana attacks.
TitleDamage symptoms
CaptionExtensive shoot dieback resulting from repeated R. frustrana attacks.
CopyrightChristopher Asaro
Extensive shoot dieback resulting from repeated R. frustrana attacks.
Damage symptomsExtensive shoot dieback resulting from repeated R. frustrana attacks.Christopher Asaro
Killing of the apical meristem caused by larval tunnelling.
TitleDamage symptoms
CaptionKilling of the apical meristem caused by larval tunnelling.
CopyrightChristopher J. Fettig
Killing of the apical meristem caused by larval tunnelling.
Damage symptomsKilling of the apical meristem caused by larval tunnelling.Christopher J. Fettig

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock 1880)

Preferred Common Name

  • Nantucket pine tip moth

Other Scientific Names

  • Evetria frustrana Comstock
  • Retinia frustrana Comstock (1880)
  • Rhyacionia pseudostrobana Amsel (1962)

International Common Names

  • English: pine shoot moth; pine, tip moth; tip moth; tip moth, eastern
  • Spanish: barrenador de los brotes terminales del pino
  • French: perce-rameau du pin; tordeuse des pousses du pin

Local Common Names

  • USA: pine tip moth

EPPO code

  • RHYAFR (Rhyacionia frustrana)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Extensive areas of intensively managed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and other highly susceptible hosts, such as Monterey pine (P. radiata), are widely planted throughout Australia, New Zealand, and South America. The accidental introduction and establishment of R. frustrana into these areas could have potentially devastating environmental and economic implications. Rhyacionia frustrana appears to be highly adaptable to different climatic and edaphic conditions. With increased global trade, concerns about R. frustrana at the international level are warranted.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Tortricidae
  •                             Genus: Rhyacionia
  •                                 Species: Rhyacionia frustrana

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

TurkeyPresent

North America

CanadaPresent
-Nova ScotiaPresent
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresentNative
Dominican RepublicPresentNative
GuatemalaPresentNative
HondurasPresentNative
JamaicaPresentNative
MexicoPresentNative
NicaraguaPresentNative
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresent, WidespreadNative
-ArizonaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
-ArkansasPresent, WidespreadNative
-CaliforniaPresent, LocalizedIntroduced1967Invasive
-ConnecticutPresentNative
-DelawarePresentNative
-FloridaPresent, WidespreadNative
-GeorgiaPresent, WidespreadNative
-IllinoisPresent, LocalizedNative
-IndianaPresent, LocalizedNative
-KentuckyPresent, WidespreadNative
-LouisianaPresent, WidespreadNative
-MarylandPresent, WidespreadNative
-MassachusettsPresent, WidespreadNative
-MississippiPresent, WidespreadNative
-MissouriPresent, LocalizedNative
-NebraskaPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced1910Invasive
-New JerseyPresent, LocalizedNative
-New MexicoPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
-New YorkPresent, LocalizedNativeOriginal citation: Asaro et al., 1993
-North CarolinaPresent, WidespreadNative
-OhioPresent, LocalizedNative
-OklahomaPresent, LocalizedNative
-PennsylvaniaPresent, LocalizedNative
-Rhode IslandPresent, LocalizedNative
-South CarolinaPresent, WidespreadNative
-TennesseePresent, WidespreadNative
-TexasPresent, WidespreadNative
-VirginiaPresent, WidespreadNative
-West VirginiaPresent, WidespreadNative

Growth Stages

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Fruiting stage, Seedling stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / dieback
Growing point / internal feeding; boring
Leaves / frass visible
Leaves / internal feeding
Leaves / webbing
Stems / internal feeding
Stems / witches broom
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. dendrolimus Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae
Bracon gemmaecola Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Campoplex frustranae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Dolichogenidea petrovae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Erynnia tortricis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Eurytoma pini Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Formica integra Predator
Glypta rhyacioniae Parasite
Haltichella rhyacioniae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Hockeria micra Parasite
Itoplectis conquisator Parasite
Lixophaga mediocris Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae California
Macrocentrus ancylivora Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Macrocentrus ancylivora Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogen Cuba
Phyllobaenus Predator Arthropods|Larvae
Pristomerus austrinus Parasite
Scambus aplopappi Parasite
Trichogramma spp. Parasite Eggs
Zethus spinipes Predator Arthropods|Larvae

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx arthropods/eggs; arthropods/larvae; arthropods/pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Leaves arthropods/eggs; arthropods/larvae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants arthropods/adults; arthropods/eggs; arthropods/larvae; arthropods/pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches arthropods/adults; arthropods/eggs; arthropods/larvae; arthropods/pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

References

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Asaro C, Berisford CW, 2001. Predicting infestation levels of the Nantucket pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) using pheromone traps. Environmental Entomology, 30:776-784

Asaro C, Berisford CW, 2001. Seasonal changes in adult longevity and pupal weight of the Nantucket pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with implications for interpreting pheromone trap catch. Environmental Entomology, 30(6):999-1005; [Available online at http://www.entsoc.org/pubs/ee/eetocs]; 38 ref

Asaro C, Dalusky MJ, Berisford CW, 2001. Quantity and ratio of pheromone components among multiple generations of the Nantucket pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Georgia and Virginia. Environmental Entomology, 30(6):1006-1011; [Available online at http://www.entsoc.org/pubs/ee/eetocs]; 34 ref

Asaro C, Fettig CJ, McCravy KW, Nowak JT, Berisford CW, 2003. The Nantucket pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): a literature review with management implications. Journal of Entomological Science, 38(1):1-40; many ref

Baumhofer LG, 1936. Preventing the distribution of pine tip moths on nursery stock. USDA Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine Circular No. E-366

Beal RH, Haliburton W, Knight FB, 1952. Forest insects of the Southeast with special reference to species occurring in the Piedmont Plateau of North Carolina. Duke Univ. School Forestry Bulletin, 14:36-38

Becker VO, 1973. Some Microlepidoptera associated with Pinus in Central America (Pyralidae and Tortricidae). Turrialba, 23(1):104-106

Berisford CW, 1974. Species isolation mechanisms in Rhyacionia frustrana and R. rigidana. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 67(2):292-294

Berisford CW, 1977. Inhibition of male attraction of the Nantucket pine tip moth by a synthetic pheromone for the pitch pine tip moth. Environmental Entomology, 6(2):245-246

Berisford CW, 1988. The Nantucket pine tip moth. In: Berryman AA ed. Dynamics of Forest Insect Populations: Patterns, Causes, Implications. New York, USA: Plenum Publishing Corp., 141-161

Berisford CW, Brady UE, 1972. Attraction of Nantucket pine tip moth males to the female sex pheromone. Journal of Economic Entomology, 65:430-435

Berisford CW, Brady UE, 1973. Specificity and inhibition of attraction of male Rhyacionia frustrana and R. rigidana to their female sex pheromone. Nature, UK, 241(5384):68-69

Berisford CW, Canalos CG, Godbee JFJr, Yates HOIII, 1992. Occurrence and seasonal activity of pine tip moths [Rhyacionia spp.] in Georgia. Georgia Forest Research Paper, No. 87:11 pp.; 27 ref

Berisford CW, Gargiullo PM, Canalos CG, 1984. Optimum timing for insecticidal control of the Nantucket pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 77(1):174-177

Berisford CW, Godbee JF, Bpr RG, 1974. Inhibition of Nantucket pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) attraction by small proportions of pitch pine tip moth pheromone. Canadian Entomologist, 106(10):1109-1110

Berisford CW, Harman DM, Freeman BL, Wilkinson RC, McGraw JR, 1979. Sex pheromone cross-attraction among four species of pine tip moths, Rhyacionia species. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 5(2):205-210

Berisford CW, Kulman HM, 1967. Infestation rate and damage by the Nantucket pine tip moth in six loblolly pine stand categories. Forest Science, 13:428-438

Boyd JP, Burton RL, Walton RR, 1968. Control of Nantucket pine tip moth on pines in ornamental or small plantations by systemic insecticides. Bulletin of the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station, No.661:39 pp

Can P, Ozcankaya IM, 2007. Occurrence of Rhyacionia frustrana on Pinus brutia in the Aegean Region of Turkey. Phytoparasitica, 35(1):13-14. http://www.phytoparasitica.org

Cresswell MJ, Sturgeon EE, Eikenbary RD, 1971. Laboratory rearing of the Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana, on artificial diets. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 64:1159-1163

Cushman RA, 1927. The parasites of the pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock). Journal of Agriculture Research, 34:615-622

Debarr GL, Brewer JW, Cameron RS, Berisford CW, 2002. Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana, lures and traps: What is the optimum combination? In: Berisford CW, Grosman DM, eds. The Nantucket Pine Tip Moth: Old Problems, New Research. Proceedings of an informal conference, The Entomological Society of America, Annual Meeting, December 12-16, 1999. USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, General Technical Report SRS-51, 56-68

Dickerson WA, Kearby WH, 1972. The identification and distribution of the tip moths of the genus Rhyacionia (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) in Missouri. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 45(4):542-551

Eikenbary RD, Fox RC, 1965. The parasites of the Nantucket pine tip moth in South Carolina. South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin 1017

Eikenbary RD, Fox RC, 1968. Arthropod predators of the Nantucket pine tip moth Rhyacionia frustrana. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 61:1218-1221

Etheridge DE, 1971. New pests and diseases of forest trees, Dominican Republic. Plant Protection Bulletin, 19:21-22

Fettig CJ, Berisford CW, 1999. Nantucket pine tip moth phenology in eastern North Carolina and Virginia: implications for effective timing of insecticide applications. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry, 23(1):30-38; 26 ref

Fettig CJ, Berisford CW, 2002. Use of historical temperature data for timing insecticide applications of the Nantucket pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): evaluation of damage and volume increment efficacy. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 4(3):167-171; 24 ref

Fettig CJ, Berisford CW, Dalusky MJ, 1998. Revision of a timing model for chemical control of the nantucket pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the southeastern coastal plain. Journal of Entomological Science, 33(4):336-342; 11 ref

Fettig CJ, Dalusky MJ, Berisford CW, 2000. Nantucket pine tip moth phenology and timing of insecticide spray applications in seven Southeastern States. Research Paper - Southern Research Station, USDA Forest Service, No. SRS-18:21 pp.; 27 ref

Fettig CJ, McCravy KW, Berisford CW, 2000. Effects of Nantucket pine tip moth insecticide spray schedules on loblolly pine seedlings. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry, 24(2):106-111; 24 ref

Fettig CJ, Nowak JT, Grosman DM, Berisford CW, 2003. Nantucket pine tip moth phenology and timing of insecticide applications in the western Gulf Region. USDA Forest Service Research Paper SRS-32 (in press)

Forbes WTM, 1923. The Lepidoptera of New York and neighboring states, part 1. Ithaca, New York, USA: Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station, Memoir 68

Ford LB, 1986. The impact of Rhyacionia frustrana in Costa Rica. Turrialba, 36(4):559-561

Fox RC, Anderson NH, Garner SC, Walker AI, 1971. Larval head capsules of the Nantucket pine tip moth. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 65:513-514

Frank JH, Foltz JL, 1997. Classical biological control of pest insects of trees in the Southern United States: a review and recommendations. Classical biological control of pest insects of trees in the Southern United States: a review and recommendations., 78 pp.; FHT-96-20; 112 ref

Freeman BL, Berisford CW, 1979. Abundance and parasitic habits of some parasitoids of the Nantucket pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Canadian Entomologist, 111(4):509-514

Friend RB, 1934. Six species of pine tip moths occurring in Connecticut. In: Britton WE, ed. Connecticut State Entomologist 33rd Report, 1933 Conn. Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, 360:482-483

Gahan AB, 1927. Four new chalcidoid parasites of the pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock). Journal of Agricultural Research, 34:545-548

Gargiullo PM, Berisford CW, 1983. Life tables for the Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), and the pitch pine tip moth, Rhyacionia rigidana (Fernald) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Environmental Entomology, 12(5):1391-1402

Gargiullo PM, Berisford CW, Canalos CG, Richmond JA, Cade SC, 1984. Mathematical descriptions of Rhyacionia frustrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) cumulative catches in pheromone traps, cumulative eggs hatching, and their use in timing of chemical control. Environmental Entomology, 13(6):1681-1685

Gargiullo PM, Berisford CW, Godbee JF Jr, 1985. Prediction of optimal timing for chemical control of the Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in the southeastern coastal plain. Journal of Economic Entomology, 78(1):148-154

Gargiullo PM, Berisford CW, Richmond JA, 1983. How to time insecticide sprays against the Nantucket pine tip moth. Georgia Forestry Commission, Georgia Forestry Research Paper No. 44

Gibson LP, 1968. The 1958 pine tip moth collapse in Ohio. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 61:786-787

Graham SA, Baumhofer LG, 1927. The pine tip moth in the Nebraska National Forest. Journal of Agricultural Research, 35:323-333

Hansbrough T, 1956. Growth of planted loblolly and slash pines in north Louisiana. Louisiana State Univ. Forestry Notes 10

Harlan DP, Neel WW, 1967. Parasites, predators and pattern of emergence of the Nantucket pine tip moth in east central Mississippi. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society, 2:109-112

Harman DM, 1972. Parasites of the Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana on three pine species in Maryland. Chesapeake Science, 13:223-226

Harman DM, Kulman HM, ed. , 1973. A world survey of the parasites and predators of the pine moths of the genus Rhyacionia. Parts I to IV. Contribution, University of Maryland Natural Resources Institute, No. 527:178 pp

Haugen DA, Stephen FM, 1984. Development rates of Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), life stages in relation to temperature. Environmental Entomology, 13(1):56-60

Hedden RL, Clason T, 1980. Nantucket pine tip moth impact on loblolly pine wood and product quality. Homer, La, USA: LSU Agricultural Experiment Station, N. Louisiana Hill Farm Exp. Sta., Forestry Res. Rep. 1979

Heinrich C, 1923. Revision of the North American moths of the subfamily Eucosminae of the family Olethreutidae. US Natl. Mus. Bul. 123

Hill AS, Berisford CW, Brady UE, Roelofs WL, 1981. Nantucket pine tip moth Rhyacionia frustrana: identification of two sex pheromone components. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 7(3):517-528

Hochmut R, 1972. Plagas del gTnero Rhyacionia Hnbner (Lepidoptera, Olethreutidae) de los brotes de los pinos en Cuba. Revista For. BARACOA, Publ. TTc., Cuba, 2:2-21

Hood WM, Berisford CW, Hedden RL, 1985. Oviposition preferences of the Nantucket pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on loblolly and slash pine. Journal of Entomological Science, 20(2):204-206

Hood WM, Hedden RL, Berisford CW, 1988. Hazard rating forest sites for pine tip moth, Rhyacionia spp. in the upper Piedmont plateau. Forest Science, 34(4):1083-1093

Huckenpahler BJ, 1951. Planting conifers for stand improvement. USDA Forest Service Southern Experimental Station Forestry Notes 73

Huckenpahler BJ, 1953. Loblolly best in north Mississippi despite tip moth and webworm. J. For. 51:640

Jones B, 1930. Pinus thunbergii on Nantucket. National Horticultural Magazine, 9:181-190

Kearby WH, Taylor B, 1975. Larval and pupal parasites reared from tip moths of the genus Rhyacionia in Missouri (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 48(2):206-211

Krupke CH, Roitberg BD, Judd GJR, 2002. Field and laboratory responses of male codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to a pheromone-based attract-and-kill strategy. Environmental Entomology, 31(2):189-197; [Available online at http:\\www.entsoc.org\pubs\ee\eetocs]; 39 ref

Kudon LH, Berisford CW, Dalusky MJ, 1988. Refinement of a spray timing technique for the Nantucket pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Journal of Entomological Science, 23(2):180-186

Lashomb JH, Steinhauer AL, 1974. Nantucket pine tip moth damage in Maryland as influenced by moth density, host preference, generation differences and life history. Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station MP 857

Lashomb JH, Steinhauer AL, 1980. Observations of Zethus spinipes Say (Hymenoptera: Eumenidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 77:164

Lashomb JH, Steinhauer AL, Dively G, 1980. Comparison of parasitism and infestation of Nantucket pine tip moth in different aged stands of loblolly pine. Environmental Entomology, 9:397-402

Lewis KR, Kulman HM, Heikkenen HJ, 1970. Parasites of the Nantucket pine tip moth in Virginia with notes on ecological relationships. Journal of Economic Entomology, 63:1135-1139

Littlefield EW, 1942. Pinus thunbergii: a successful exotic on the north Atlantic coast. Journal of Forestry, 40:566-573

Malinoski MK, Paine TD, 1988. A degree-day model to predict Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), flights in southern California. Environmental Entomology, 17(1):75-79

McCravy KW, Berisford CW, 1998. Parasitism by Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) in relation to nantucket pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) egg density and location. Environmental Entomology, 27(2):355-359; 22 ref

McCravy KW, Berisford CW, 2000. Parasitoids of the Nantucket pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the coastal plain of Georgia. Journal of Entomological Science, 35(3):220-226; 19 ref

McCravy KW, Berisford CW, 2001. Effects of vegetation control on parasitoids of the Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Florida Entomologist, 84(2):282-287; 38 ref

McGraw JR, Wilkinson RC, Grissell EE, 1974. Hymenopterous parasites of Rhyacionia spp. (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) in Florida. Florida Entomologist, 57(3):326

McLeod PJ, Wallis GW, Yearian WC, 1983. Evaluation of codling moth granulosis virus for Nantucket pine tip moth suppression. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society, 18(3):424-427

Mihelcic N, 1998. Pathogenic microorganisms associated with pine tip moths and southern pine coneworms attacking southern pines. MS Thesis. Athens, USA: Univ. of Georgia

Miller WE, 1967. Taxonomic review of the Rhyacionia frustrana group of pine-tip moths, with description of a new species (Olethreutidae). Canadian Entomologist, 99:590-596

Miller WE, Wilson LF, 1964. Composition and diagnosis of pine tip moth infestations in the Southeast. Journal of Economic Entomology, 57:722-726

Nash RF, Fox RC, 1969. Field control of the Nantucket pine tip moth by the Nematode DD-136. Journal of Economic Entomology, 62:660-663

Nowak JT, Fettig CJ, McCravy KW, Asaro C, Seltmann KC, Reardon RC, Berisford CW, 2001. Guide to common natural enemies of the Nantucket pine tip moth. Morgantown, WV, USA: USDA Forest Service FHTET-2001-02

Nowak JT, Fettig CJ, McCravy KW, Berisford CW, 2000. Efficacy tests and determination of optimal spray timing values to control Nantucket pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) infestations. Journal of Economic Entomology, 93(6):1708-1713; [Available online at http:/www.entsoc.org/pubs/jee/jeetocs/]; 27 ref

Orr DB, Suh CPC, McCravy KW, Berisford CW, Debarr GL, 2000. Evaluation of inundative releases of Trichogramma exiguum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) for suppression of Nantucket pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in pine (Pinaceae) plantations. Canadian Entomologist, 132:373-386

Overgaard NA, Wallace HN, Hertel GD, Stein C, Drake LE, 1976. Incidence of the Nantucket pine tip moth on shortleaf and loblolly pine in seed orchards treated with Furadan, Cygon Di-syston and fertilizers. USDA Forest Service Report No. 76-2-13

Pickering J, Ross DW, Berisford CW, 1989. An automated system for timing insecticidal sprays for Nantucket pine tip moth control. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry, 13(4):184-187; 18 ref

Polivka JB, Houser JS, 1936. Pine-tip moths of southern Ohio. Journal of Economic Entomology, 29:494-497

Powell JA, Miller WE, 1978. Nearctic pine tip moths of the genus Rhyacionia: biosystematic review (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, Olethreutinp). Agriculture Handbook, Forest Service, United States Department of Agriculture, No. 514:51 pp

Richmond JA, 1992. Timing sprays by a heat unit model of spring flight of the Nantucket pine tip moth in North Carolina. Asheville, NC, USA: USDA Forest Service, Southeast Forest Experiment Station. Res. Note

Richmond JA, Thomas HA, 1976. Development of the Nantucket pine tip moth Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock) under varied photoperiod and crowding conditions on artificial diet. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society, 11(2):95-101

Ross DW, Pickering J, Berg JD, Berisford CW, 1989. Mapping Nantucket pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) phenology in Georgia. Journal of Entomological Science, 24(4):405-412

Schaffner JV, 1959. Microlepidoptera and their parasites reared from field collections in the northeastern United States. USDA Misc. Pub. 767

Schwerdtfeger F, 1962. Microlepidoptera an Pinus-Arten in Guatemala. 10. Beitrag zur Forstentomolgie Mittelamerikas. Journal of Applied Entomology, 49:372-391

Scriven GT, Luck RF, 1978. Natural enemy promises control of Nantucket pine tip moth. California Agriculture, 32(10):19-20

Scriven GT, Luck RF, 1980. Susceptibility of pines to attack by the Nantucket pine tip moth in southern California. Journal of Economic Entomology, 73(2):318-320

Scudder SH, 1883. The pine tip moth of Nantucket - Retinia frustrana. Pub. Mass. Soc. Promotion of Agric, 22 pp

Stephen FM, Yearian WC, Young SY, Wallis GW, 1982. Preliminary evaluation of codling moth granulosis virus for suppression of Nantucket pine tip moth. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society, 17(3):398-403

Swenk MH, 1927. The pine tip moth in the Nebraska National Forest. Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station Research Bulletin No. 40

Thor E, Beavers JT, 1964. Nantucket pine tip moth damage on loblolly and shortleaf pine in west Tennessee. Tennessee Farm and Home Science. Program Rep. 49

Wadley FM, 1932. Minutes of the 434th regular meeting of the Entomological Society of Washington, January 7, 1932. Washington Entomological Society Proceedings, 34:26-28

Wakeley PC, 1928. Preliminary observations on the pine tip moth (Rhyacionia frustrana Comst.) on southern pines. 4th International Congress of Entomology Transcripts, 2:865-868

Wallis GW, Stephen FM, 1980. Diapause of the Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), in Arkansas. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society, 15(4):454-455

Warren LO, 1985. Primary hymenopterous parasites of Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock). Journal of Entomological Science, 20(4):383-389

Webb JW, Berisford CW, 1978. Temperature modification of flight and response to pheromones in Rhyacionia frustrana. Environmental Entomology, 7(2):278-280

Williston HL, 1958. Shortleaf versus loblolly pine in north Mississippi. Journal of Forestry, 56:761

Williston HL, Huckenpahler BJ, 1960. Response of six conifers in north Mississippi underplantings. Journal of Forestry, 56:135-138

Yates HO III, 1960. The Nantucket pine tip moth: A literature review. USDA Forest Service Southeastern Research Station Paper No. 115

Yates HO III, 1966. Susceptibility of loblolly and slash pines to Rhyacionia spp.: oviposition, injury and damage. Journal of Economic Entomology, 59:1461-1464

Yates HO III, 1967. Pupae of Rhyacionia frustrana, R. rigidana, and R. subtropica (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 60:1096-1099

Yates HO III, Ebel BH, 1972. Shortleaf pine conelet loss caused by the Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 65:100-104

Yates HO III, Overgaard NA, Koerber TW, 1981. Nantucket pine tip moth. USDA Forest Service Forest Insect and Disease Leaflet No. 70

Distribution References

Asaro C, Fettig C J, McCravy K W, Nowak J T, Berisford C W, 2003. The Nantucket pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): a literature review with management implications. Journal of Entomological Science. 38 (1), 1-40.

Becker V O, 1973. Some Microlepidoptera associated with Pinus in Central America (Pyralidae and Tortricidae). (Algunos microlepidopteros asociados con Pinus en Centroamerica (Pyralidae y Tortricidae).). Turrialba. 23 (1), 104-106.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Can P, Ozcankaya I M, 2007. Occurrence of Rhyacionia frustrana on Pinus brutia in the Aegean Region of Turkey. Phytoparasitica. 35 (1), 13-14. http://www.phytoparasitica.org

ETHERIDGE D E, 1971. Dominican Republic. New pests and diseases of forest trees: mistletoes. Plant Protection Bulletin, F.A.O. 19 (1), 21-2.

Fettig C J, Berisford C W, 2002. Use of historical temperature data for timing insecticide applications of the Nantucket pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): evaluation of damage and volume increment efficacy. Agricultural and Forest Entomology. 4 (3), 167-171. DOI:10.1046/j.1461-9563.2002.00135.x

Ford L B, 1986. The impact of Rhyacionia frustrana in Costa Rica. (El impacto de Rhyacionia frustrana en Costa Rica.). Turrialba. 36 (4), 559-561.

Hochmut R, 1972. Pests of the genus Rhyacionia (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) on shoots of pines in Cuba. (Plagas del genero Rhyacionia Hubner (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) de los brotes de los pinos en Cuba.). Baracoa. 2 (2), 2-21.

Kudon L H, Berisford C W, Dalusky M J, 1988. Refinement of a spray timing technique for the Nantucket pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Journal of Entomological Science. 23 (2), 180-186.

Malinoski M K, Paine T D, 1988. A degree-day model to predict Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), flights in southern California. Environmental Entomology. 17 (1), 75-79. DOI:10.1093/ee/17.1.75

Powell J A, Miller W E, 1978. Nearctic pine tip moths of the genus Rhyacionia: biosystematic review (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, Olethreutinae). In: Agriculture Handbook, Forest Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 51 pp.

Schwerdtfeger F, 1962. (Microlepidoptera an Pinus-Arten in Guatemala. 10. Beitrag zur Forstentomolgie Mittelamerikas). In: Journal of Applied Entomology, 49 372-391.

Scudder S H, 1883. The pine tip moth of Nantucket - Retinia frustrana. In: Pub. Mass. Soc. Promotion of Agric. 22 pp.

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