Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Rhopalosiphum padi
(grain aphid)

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Datasheet

Rhopalosiphum padi (grain aphid)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Rhopalosiphum padi
  • Preferred Common Name
  • grain aphid
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Rhopalosiphum padi Linnaeus

Preferred Common Name

  • grain aphid

Other Scientific Names

  • Anuraphis padi auct. nec. L.
  • Anuraphis prunina (Walker, 1848)
  • Aphis africana Theobald, 1926
  • Aphis annuae Oestlund, 1886
  • Aphis avenae Fabricius
  • Aphis avenae-sativae Shrank, 1801
  • Aphis fitchii Sanderson 1902
  • Aphis holci Ferrari, 1872
  • Aphis padi Linnaeus, 1758
  • Aphis prunifoliae (Fitch, 1855) partim.
  • Aphis prunina Walker, 1848
  • Aphis pseudoavenae Patch, 1917
  • Aphis tritici Lawson, 1866
  • Aphis uwamizusakurae Monz., 1929
  • Brachycaudus padi auct. nec. L.
  • Brachycaudus pruni (Koch, 1854)
  • Rhopalosiphon padi (L.)
  • Rhopalosiphum fitchii auct. nec. Fitch
  • Rhopalosiphum padi subsp. americanum Mordvilko, 1921
  • Rhopalosiphum prunifoliae (Fitch)
  • Siphocoryne acericola Matsumura, 1917
  • Siphocoryne donarium Matsumura, 1918
  • Siphocoryne faxinicola Matsumura, 1917
  • Siphonaphis padi (Linnaeus)
  • Siphonaphis prunifoliae

International Common Names

  • English: bird cherry aphid; birdcherry-oat aphid; cereal aphid; oat aphid; oat grain aphid; oat-birdcherry aphid; sugarcane aphid; wheat aphid
  • Spanish: afido; pulgon; pulgón del cogollo de la cebada (Mexico); pulgon verde de la avena
  • French: puceron bicolore des céréales; puceron des cereales; puceron vert de l'avoine

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: havrebladlus; havrelus
  • Finland: tuomikirva
  • Germany: hafer-blattlaus; mehlige traubenkirschen-blattlaus; traubenkirschenlaus
  • Israel: knimat hadagan haeropit
  • Italy: afide verde scuro dell'avena
  • Japan: mugi-kubire-aburamusi
  • Netherlands: graanbladluis; haverbladluis; vogelkersluis
  • Norway: havrebladlus
  • Sweden: haeggbladlus
  • Turkey: bugday yaprak biti

EPPO code

  • RHOPFI (Rhopalosiphum fitchii)
  • RHOPPA (Rhopalosiphum padi)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Aphidoidea
  •                                 Family: Aphididae
  •                                     Genus: Rhopalosiphum
  •                                         Species: Rhopalosiphum padi

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

CameroonPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
EgyptPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
EthiopiaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
KenyaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
LibyaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
MoroccoPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
Saint HelenaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
South AfricaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
TunisiaPresentHarbaoui et al. (2008)
ZimbabwePresentUK, CAB International (1971)

Asia

BangladeshPresentAPPPC (1987)
BhutanPresentAgarwala (1983)
ChinaPresentUK, CAB International (1971); APPPC (1987)
-GansuPresentChen YuTian et al. (1996)
-GuangdongPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-HebeiPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-HenanPresentLiu et al. (1999)
-HubeiPresentWang XiaoJun et al. (2004)
-JiangsuPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-LiaoningPresentLi XueJun et al. (2005)
-ShaanxiPresentGuo LiangZhen et al. (2000)
-ShandongPresentChen YuTian et al. (1996)
-SichuanPresentWang XiaoJun et al. (2004)
-TibetPresentHu et al. (1986)
-YunnanPresentChen Bin et al. (2008)
-ZhejiangPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
Hong KongPresentUK, CAB International (1971); APPPC (1987)
IndiaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-BiharPresentKumar (2014)
-DelhiPresentSekhar and Singh (2001)
-HaryanaPresentBabu and Sharma (2003)
-PunjabPresentSubhash Chander et al. (2003)
-Uttar PradeshPresentUsmani and Uzma Rafi (2009)
IndonesiaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
IranPresentHodjat (1984)
IraqPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
IsraelPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
JapanPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
JordanPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
LaosPresentWaterhouse (1993)
MalaysiaPresentUK, CAB International (1971); Waterhouse (1993)
MongoliaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
NepalPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
North KoreaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
PakistanPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
PhilippinesPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
Saudi ArabiaPresentAlsuhaibani (1996)
South KoreaPresentAPPPC (1987)
SyriaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
TaiwanPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
TurkeyPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
VietnamPresentUK, CAB International (1971)

Europe

AlbaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
AustriaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
BelarusPresentProchorova et al. (2000)
BelgiumPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
BulgariaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
CroatiaPresentČuljak et al. (2008)
CzechiaPresentStarý (1996)
CzechoslovakiaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
DenmarkPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
Faroe IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
FinlandPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
FrancePresentUK, CAB International (1971)
GermanyPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
GreecePresentUK, CAB International (1971)
HungaryPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
IcelandPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
ItalyPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-SardiniaPresentDelrio et al. (2004)
LithuaniaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Surkus Jonaitis (1996)
NetherlandsPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
NorwayPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
PolandPresentUK, CAB International (1971); Ruszkowska and Strażyński (2015)
PortugalPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-AzoresPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-MadeiraPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
RomaniaPresentMalschi et al. (2003)
RussiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Central RussiaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-Russia (Europe)PresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-Russian Far EastPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-SiberiaPresentBokina (1999)
SerbiaPresentTomanović et al. (2008)
SlovakiaPresentPraslička et al. (1997)
SpainPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
SwedenPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
SwitzerlandPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
UkrainePresentUK, CAB International (1971)
United KingdomPresentUK, CAB International (1971)

North America

CanadaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-AlbertaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-British ColumbiaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-ManitobaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-New BrunswickPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-QuebecPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
MexicoPresentBurnett and Mezzalama (1990)
Puerto RicoPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-ArizonaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-ArkansasPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-CaliforniaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-ColoradoPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-ConnecticutPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-FloridaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-GeorgiaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-HawaiiPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-IdahoPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-IllinoisPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-IndianaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-IowaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-KansasPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-KentuckyPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-LouisianaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-MainePresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-MarylandPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-MassachusettsPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-MichiganPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-MinnesotaPresentDiFonzo et al. (1997)
-MississippiPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-MissouriPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-NebraskaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-NevadaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-New JerseyPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-New MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-New YorkPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-North CarolinaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-North DakotaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-OhioPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-OklahomaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-OregonPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-PennsylvaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-South CarolinaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-South DakotaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-TexasPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-UtahPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-VirginiaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-WashingtonPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-WisconsinPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-WyomingPresentUK, CAB International (1971)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-QueenslandPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-South AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-TasmaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-VictoriaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-Western AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
New ZealandPresentUK, CAB International (1971)

South America

ArgentinaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
BoliviaPresentFox et al. (1990)
BrazilPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-Mato GrossoPresentMichelotto and Busoli (2003)
-ParanaPresentAlves et al. (2005)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentSilva et al. (2004)
-Sao PauloPresentPitta et al. (2007)
ChilePresentUK, CAB International (1971)
ColombiaPresentFox et al. (1990)
EcuadorPresentFox et al. (1990)
Falkland IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
PeruPresentMallqui and Cobián (2011); UK, CAB International (1971)
UruguayPresentRamirez (1990)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / external feeding
Inflorescence / external feeding
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / leaves rolled or folded
Leaves / necrotic areas
Whole plant / wilt

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Adalia bipunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Agonum dorsale Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley
Alloxysta macrophadna Parasite
Alloxysta victrix Hyperparasite
Amara plebeja Predator Adults/Nymphs
Aphelinus abdominalis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphelinus asychis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphelinus chaonia Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphelinus varipes Parasite Adults/Nymphs
aphid lethal paralysis virus Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius autriquei Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius colemani Parasite Adults/Nymphs Lebanon Freesia
Aphidius ervi Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius frumentarius Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius matricariae Parasite Adults/Nymphs Lebanon Freesia
Aphidius picipes Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius rhopalosiphi Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius similis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius uzbekistanicus Parasite Adults/Nymphs France wheat
Aphidoletes aphidimyza Predator Adults/Nymphs
Aphidomyza aphidivora Predator Adults/Nymphs
Asaphes suspensus Hyperparasite
Asaphes vulgaris Hyperparasite
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Bembidion guttula Predator Adults/Nymphs
Bembidion lampros Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley
Bembidion quadrimaculatum Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley
Calathus melanocephalus Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley
Carabidae Predator Adults/Nymphs
Cheilomenes lunata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Cheilomenes sexmaculata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chrysopa oculata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chrysoperla carnea Predator Adults/Nymphs
Clivina fossor Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley
Clubiona pikei Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccinella novemnotata Predator
Coccinella septempunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley
Coccinella undecimpunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coelophora mulsanti Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coleomegilla maculata Predator Adults/Eggs/Nymphs
Conidiobolus coronatus Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Conidiobolus obscurus Pathogen Adults/Nymphs Canada; Quebec; Finland Prunus pensylvanica; wheat
Conidiobolus thromboides Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Dendrocerus carpenteri Hyperparasite
Diaeretiella rapae Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Ephedrus nacheri Parasite Adults/Nymphs China; Yunnan maize
Ephedrus persicae Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Ephedrus plagiator Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Episyrphus balteatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Eriopis connexa Predator Adults/Nymphs
Erynia nouryi Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Erynia radicans Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Eupeodes confrater Predator Adults/Nymphs
Eupeodes corollae Predator Adults/Nymphs
Forficula auricularia Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley
Harmonia axyridis Predator Adults/Nymphs China wheat
Harpalus affinis Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley
Harpalus rufipes Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley
Hemerobius humulinus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Himetobi P virus Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia convergens Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia parenthesis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia quinquesignata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia tredecimpunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia tredecimpunctata tibialis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia variegata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Lecanicillium lecanii Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Lysiphlebus fabarum Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Lysiphlebus testaceipes Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Melanostoma fasciatum Predator
Monoctonus nervosus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Monoctonus washingtonensis Parasite
Nabis ferus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Neda patula Predator Adults/Nymphs
Oenopia sauzeti Predator Adults/Nymphs
Orius insidiosus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Orius sauteri Predator Adults/Nymphs
Pandora neoaphidis Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Pardosa agrestis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Pardosa amentata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Pardosa palustris Predator Adults/Nymphs
Phaenoglyphis villosa Parasite
Pipiza quadrimaculata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Praon abjectum Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Praon gallicum Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Praon volucre Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Praon yakimanum Parasite
Propylea quatuordecimpunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Propylea quatuordecimpunctata
Pseudopauesia prunicola Parasite Adults/Nymphs Finland Prunus padus
Pterostichus cupreus Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley
Pterostichus melanarius Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley
Pterostichus niger Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley
Scaeva pyrastri Predator Adults/Nymphs
Scymnus babai Predator Adults/Nymphs
Sphaerophoria philanthus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Sphaerophoria scripta Predator Adults/Nymphs
Synuchus nivalis Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley
Tachyporus hypnorum Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley
Tachyporus obtusus Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley
Tetragnatha laboriosa Predator Adults/Nymphs
Trechus quadristriatus Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley
Trechus secalis Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley

References

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Agarwala BK, 1983. Notes on some aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) affecting economically important plants in Bhutan. Indian Agriculturist, 27(3):261-262.

Alsuhaibani AM, 1996. Seasonal abundance of two cereal aphids, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) and Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), (Homoptera, Aphididae) on twelve elite wheat lines in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research, 14(2):405-413; 7 ref.

Alves LFA; Prestes TMV; Zanini A; Dalmolin MF; Menezes Júnior Ade O, 2005. Natural biological control of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in a wheat field by parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Aphidiinae) in Medianeira, PR, Brazil. (Controle biológico natural de pulgões (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em lavoura de trigo por parasitóides (Hymenoptera, Aphidiinae), no município de Medianeira, PR, Brasil.) Semina: Ciencias Agrárias (Londrina), 26(2):155-160. http://www.uel.br/proppg/semina/pdf/semina_26_2_19_3.pdf

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Babu KS; Sharma AK, 2003. Compatibility of a newer insecticide, imidacloprid (Confidor) with propiconazole (Tilt 25 EC) against foliar aphids and their coccinellid predators of wheat ecosystem. Indian Journal of Entomology, 65(2):287-291.

Barro PJ de; Maelzer DA, 1993. Influence of high temperatures on the survival of Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in irrigated perennial grass pastures in South Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology, 41(2):123-132

Blackman RL; Eastop VF, 1984. Aphids on the World's Crops. An Identification and Information Guide. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.

Bokina IG, 1999. Natural enemies of cereal aphids in western Siberia. Zashchita i Karantin Rastenii, No. 7:13-14.

Borgemeister C, 1992. Primary and hyperparasitoids of cereal aphids: interactions and interference from insecticides. Agrarokologie, No. 3:191 pp.

Burnett PA; Mezzalama M, 1990. Barley yellow dwarf virus and aphids in Mexico. In: Burnett PA, ed. World Perspectives on Barley Yellow Dwarf. Mexico: CIMMYT, 21-24.

Carter N; McLean IFG; Watt AD; Dixon AFG, 1980. Cereal aphids: a case study and review. Applied Biology, 5:271-348.

Chen Bin; Li ZhengYue; Feng MingGuang, 2008. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in migratory alate aphids in Yunnan Province of China. BioControl, 53(2):317-326. http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=102853

Chen YT; Guo MK; Zhu XY; Gao WD; Da FC; Lin L, 1996. Evaluation of resistance to germplasm dwarf mosaic virus in maize. Plant Protection, 22(2):13-15.

CIE, 1971. Distribution Maps of Pests, No. 288. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Culjak TG; Grubi?ic D; Jelovcan S, 2008. Seasonal abundance of Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Homoptera: Aphididae) in wheat and its role as barley yellow dwarf virus vectors. Cereal Research Communications [Proceedings of the VII Alps-Adria Scientific Workshop, Stara Lesna, Slovakia, 28 April-2 May 2008.], 36(Suppl. 5):27-30. http://www.akademiai.com/content/120427/?p=b072c916dba348608b53baee193d0181&pi=1

D'arcy CJ; Bennett PA, 1995. Barley Yellow Dwarf: 40 Years of Progress. St Paul, MN, USA: APS Press.

Delrio G; Verdinelli M; Serra G, 2004. Monitoring of pest and beneficial insect populations in summer sown Bt maize. Bulletin OILB/SROP [Proceedings of the meeting of the IOBC/WPRS Working Group 'GMOs in Integrated Production', entitled Ecological Impact of Genetically Modified Organisms held in Prague, Czech Republic, 26-29 November 2003.], 27(3):43-48.

DiFonzo CD; Ragsdale DW; Radcliffe EB; Gudmestad NC; Secor GA, 1997. Seasonal abundance of aphid vectors of potato virus Y in the Red River Valley of Minnesota and North Dakota. Journal of Economic Entomology, 90(3):824-831; 32 ref.

Easterling WE; Aggarwal PK; Batima P; Brander KM; Erda L; Howden SM; Kirilenko A; Morton J; Soussana J-F; Schmidhuber J; Tubiello FN, 2007. Food, fibre and forest products. Climate Change 2007. Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. In: Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [ed. by Parry, M. L. \Canziani, O. F. \Palutikof, J. P. \Linden, P. J. van der \Hanson, C. E.]. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 273-313.

Elek H; Smart L; Ahmad S; Anda A; Werner CP; Pickett JA, 2014. A comparison of the levels of hydroxamic acids in Aegilops speltoides and a hexaploid wheat and effects on Rhopalosiphum padi behaviour and fecundity. Acta Biologica Hungarica, 65(1):38-46. http://metapress.com/content/glj72q606vuk9k29/

Elek H; Smart L; Martin J; Ahmad S; Gordon-Weeks R; Welham S; Nádasy M; Pickett JA; Werner CP, 2013. The potential of hydroxamic acids in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat varieties as resistance factors against the bird-cherry oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi. Annals of Applied Biology, 162(1):100-109. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1744-7348

Escobar CA; Sicker D; Niemeyer HM, 1999. Evaluation of DIMBOA analogs as antifeedants and antibiotics towards the aphid Sitobion avenae in artificial diets. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 25(7):1543-1554.

Feng MG; Johnson JB; Kish LP, 1990. Survey of entomopathogenic fungi naturally infecting cereal aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) of irrigated grain crops in southwestern Idaho. Environmental Entomology, 19(5):1534-1542

Feng MG; Johnson JB; Kish LP, 1990. Virulence of Verticillium lecanii and an aphid-derived isolate of Beauveria bassiana (Fungi: Hyphomycetes) for six species of cereal-infesting aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae). Environmental Entomology, 19(3):815-820

Fox BN; Tola J; Chicaiza O, 1990. Barley yellow dwarf in the Andean countries of South America. In: Burnett PA, ed. World Perspectives on Barley Yellow Dwarf. Mexico: CIMMYT, 25-28.

Frey M; Chomet P; Glawischnig E; Stettner C; Grün S; Winklmair A; Eisenreich W; Bacher A; Meeley RB; Briggs SP; Simcox K; Gierl A, 1997. Analysis of a chemical plant defense mechanism in grasses. Science (Washington), 277(5326):698-699.

Gianoli E; Papp M; Niemeyer HM, 1996. Costs and benefits of hydroxamic acids-related resistance in winter wheat against the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi L. Annals of Applied Biology, 129(1):83-90.

Givovich A; Niemeyer HM, 1991. Hydroxamic acids affecting barley yellow dwarf virus transmission by the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 59(1):79-85

Givovich A; Sandström J; Niemeyer HM; Pettersson J, 1994. Presence of a hydroxamic acid glucoside in wheat phloem sap, and its consequences for performance of Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Homoptera: Aphididae). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 20(8):1923-1930.

Gonzßles WL; Fuentes-Contreras E; Niemeyer HM, 1999. Semiochemicals associated to spacing behaviour of the bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Hem., Aphididae) do not affect the olfactometric behaviour of the cereal aphid parasitoid Aphidius rhopalosiphi De Stephani-PTrez (Hym., Braconidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 123(7):413-415; 8 ref.

Guo LiangZhen; Liu ShaoWen; Su Li, 2000. Study on the losses of wheat infested by Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) and its control threshold. Plant Protection, 26(6):12-14.

Halbert SE; Voegtlin DJ; Nieto Nafria JM, 1998. Evidence for the North American origin of Rhopalosiphum and barley yellow dwarf virus. In: Dixon AFG, ed. Aphids in natural and managed ecosystems. Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Aphids, Leon, Spain, 15-19 September, 1997. Leon, Spain: Universidad de Leon Secretariado de Publicaciones, 351-356.

Harbaoui H; Mezghani KM; Marrakchi M; Makni M; Makni H, 2008. Morphological and toxicological study of cereal aphids (Homoptera, Aphididae) in Tunisia. (Étude morphologique et toxicologique des pucerons (Homoptères: Aphididae) des céréales en Tunisie.) Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France [Troisième Congrès Franco-Tunisien de Zoologie, Tabarka, Tunisia, 3-7 November 2006.], 133(1/3):203-213.

Hardie J; Peace L; Pickett JA; Smiley DWM; Storer JR; Wadhams LJ, 1997. Sex pheromone stereochemistry and purity affect field catches of male aphids. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 23(11):2547-2554; 19 ref.

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Pitta R M, Duarte A P, Boiça Junior A L, Yuki V A, 2007. Population dynamics of aphids in maize cultivars in off-season crop and influence on its parasitoids. (Dinâmica populacional de afídeos em cultivares de milho safrinha e influêcia sobre seus parasitóides.). Revista Brasileira de Milho e Sorgo. 6 (2), 131-139.

Praslička J, Bokorová M, Al-Dobai S, 1997. Abundance of cereal aphids in winter wheat in different agricultural systems. (Výskyt obilných vošiek na ozimnej pšenici v rôznych sústavách polacute˜nohospodárstva.). Acta Fytotechnica. 91-96.

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