Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Rhopalosiphum padi
(grain aphid)



Rhopalosiphum padi (grain aphid)


  • Last modified
  • 03 January 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Rhopalosiphum padi
  • Preferred Common Name
  • grain aphid
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Rhopalosiphum padi Linnaeus

Preferred Common Name

  • grain aphid

Other Scientific Names

  • Anuraphis padi auct. nec. L.
  • Anuraphis prunina (Walker, 1848)
  • Aphis africana Theobald, 1926
  • Aphis annuae Oestlund, 1886
  • Aphis avenae Fabricius
  • Aphis avenae-sativae Shrank, 1801
  • Aphis fitchii Sanderson 1902
  • Aphis holci Ferrari, 1872
  • Aphis padi Linnaeus, 1758
  • Aphis prunifoliae (Fitch, 1855) partim.
  • Aphis prunina Walker, 1848
  • Aphis pseudoavenae Patch, 1917
  • Aphis tritici Lawson, 1866
  • Aphis uwamizusakurae Monz., 1929
  • Brachycaudus padi auct. nec. L.
  • Brachycaudus pruni (Koch, 1854)
  • Rhopalosiphon padi (L.)
  • Rhopalosiphum fitchii auct. nec. Fitch
  • Rhopalosiphum padi subsp. americanum Mordvilko, 1921
  • Rhopalosiphum prunifoliae (Fitch)
  • Siphocoryne acericola Matsumura, 1917
  • Siphocoryne donarium Matsumura, 1918
  • Siphocoryne faxinicola Matsumura, 1917
  • Siphonaphis padi (Linnaeus)
  • Siphonaphis prunifoliae

International Common Names

  • English: bird cherry aphid; birdcherry-oat aphid; cereal aphid; oat aphid; oat grain aphid; oat-birdcherry aphid; sugarcane aphid; wheat aphid
  • Spanish: afido; pulgon; pulgón del cogollo de la cebada (Mexico); pulgon verde de la avena
  • French: puceron bicolore des céréales; puceron des cereales; puceron vert de l'avoine

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: havrebladlus; havrelus
  • Finland: tuomikirva
  • Germany: hafer-blattlaus; mehlige traubenkirschen-blattlaus; traubenkirschenlaus
  • Israel: knimat hadagan haeropit
  • Italy: afide verde scuro dell'avena
  • Japan: mugi-kubire-aburamusi
  • Netherlands: graanbladluis; haverbladluis; vogelkersluis
  • Norway: havrebladlus
  • Sweden: haeggbladlus
  • Turkey: bugday yaprak biti

EPPO code

  • RHOPFI (Rhopalosiphum fitchii)
  • RHOPPA (Rhopalosiphum padi)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Aphidoidea
  •                                 Family: Aphididae
  •                                     Genus: Rhopalosiphum
  •                                         Species: Rhopalosiphum padi

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


BangladeshPresentAPPPC, 1987
BhutanPresentAgarwala, 1983
ChinaPresentCIE, 1971; APPPC, 1987
-GansuPresentChen et al., 1996
-GuangdongPresentCIE, 1971
-HebeiPresentCIE, 1971
-HenanPresentLiu et al., 1999
-Hong KongPresentCIE, 1971; APPPC, 1987
-HubeiPresentWang et al., 2004
-JiangsuPresentCIE, 1971
-LiaoningPresentLi et al., 2005
-ShaanxiPresentGuo et al., 2000
-ShandongPresentChen et al., 1996
-SichuanPresentWang et al., 2004
-TibetPresentHu et al., 1986
-YunnanPresentChen et al., 2008
-ZhejiangPresentCIE, 1971
IndiaPresentCIE, 1971
-BiharPresentKumar, 2014
-DelhiPresentSekhar and Singh, 2001a
-HaryanaPresentBabu and Sharma, 2003
-Indian PunjabPresentSubhash et al., 2003
-Uttar PradeshPresentUsmani and Uzma, 2009
IndonesiaPresentCIE, 1971
IranPresentHodjat, 1984
IraqPresentCIE, 1971
IsraelPresentCIE, 1971
JapanPresentCIE, 1971
JordanPresentCIE, 1971
Korea, DPRPresentCIE, 1971
Korea, Republic ofPresentAPPPC, 1987
LaosPresentWaterhouse, 1993
MalaysiaPresentCIE, 1971; Waterhouse, 1993
MongoliaPresentCIE, 1971
NepalPresentCIE, 1971
PakistanPresentCIE, 1971
PhilippinesPresentCIE, 1971
Saudi ArabiaPresentAlsuhaibani, 1996
SyriaPresentCIE, 1971
TaiwanPresentCIE, 1971
TurkeyPresentCIE, 1971
VietnamPresentCIE, 1971


CameroonPresentCIE, 1971
EgyptPresentCIE, 1971
EthiopiaPresentCIE, 1971
KenyaPresentCIE, 1971
LibyaPresentCIE, 1971
MoroccoPresentCIE, 1971
Saint HelenaPresentCIE, 1971
South AfricaPresentCIE, 1971
TunisiaPresentHarbaoui et al., 2008
ZimbabwePresentCIE, 1971

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlbertaPresentCIE, 1971
-British ColumbiaPresentCIE, 1971
-ManitobaPresentCIE, 1971
-New BrunswickPresentCIE, 1971
-QuebecPresentCIE, 1971
MexicoPresentBurnett and Mezzalama, 1990
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ArizonaPresentCIE, 1971
-ArkansasPresentCIE, 1971
-CaliforniaPresentCIE, 1971
-ColoradoPresentCIE, 1971
-ConnecticutPresentCIE, 1971
-FloridaPresentCIE, 1971
-GeorgiaPresentCIE, 1971
-HawaiiPresentCIE, 1971
-IdahoPresentCIE, 1971
-IllinoisPresentCIE, 1971
-IndianaPresentCIE, 1971
-IowaPresentCIE, 1971
-KansasPresentCIE, 1971
-KentuckyPresentCIE, 1971
-LouisianaPresentCIE, 1971
-MainePresentCIE, 1971
-MarylandPresentCIE, 1971
-MassachusettsPresentCIE, 1971
-MichiganPresentCIE, 1971
-MinnesotaPresentDiFonzo et al., 1997
-MississippiPresentCIE, 1971
-MissouriPresentCIE, 1971
-NebraskaPresentCIE, 1971
-NevadaPresentCIE, 1971
-New JerseyPresentCIE, 1971
-New MexicoPresentCIE, 1971
-New YorkPresentCIE, 1971
-North CarolinaPresentCIE, 1971
-North DakotaPresentCIE, 1971
-OhioPresentCIE, 1971
-OklahomaPresentCIE, 1971
-OregonPresentCIE, 1971
-PennsylvaniaPresentCIE, 1971
-South CarolinaPresentCIE, 1971
-South DakotaPresentCIE, 1971
-TexasPresentCIE, 1971
-UtahPresentCIE, 1971
-VirginiaPresentCIE, 1971
-WashingtonPresentCIE, 1971
-WisconsinPresentCIE, 1971
-WyomingPresentCIE, 1971

Central America and Caribbean

Puerto RicoPresentCIE, 1971

South America

ArgentinaPresentCIE, 1971
BoliviaPresentFox et al., 1990
BrazilPresentCIE, 1971
-Mato GrossoPresentMichelotto and Busoli, 2003
-ParanaPresentAlves et al., 2005
-Rio Grande do SulPresentSilva et al., 2004
-Sao PauloPresentPitta et al., 2007
ChilePresentCIE, 1971
ColombiaPresentFox et al., 1990
EcuadorPresentFox et al., 1990
Falkland IslandsPresentCIE, 1971
PeruPresentCIE, 1971; Mallqui and Cobián, 2011
UruguayPresentRamirez, 1990


AlbaniaPresentCIE, 1971
AustriaPresentCIE, 1971
BelarusPresentProchorova et al., 2000
BelgiumPresentCIE, 1971
BulgariaPresentCIE, 1971
CroatiaPresentCuljak et al., 2008
Czech RepublicPresentStary, 1996
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentCIE, 1971
DenmarkPresentCIE, 1971
Faroe IslandsPresentCIE, 1971
FinlandPresentCIE, 1971
FrancePresentCIE, 1971
GermanyPresentCIE, 1971
GreecePresentCIE, 1971
HungaryPresentCIE, 1971
IcelandPresentCIE, 1971
ItalyPresentCIE, 1971
-SardiniaPresentDelrio et al., 2004
LithuaniaPresentSurkus Jonaitis, 1996
NetherlandsPresentCIE, 1971
NorwayPresentCIE, 1971
PolandPresentCIE, 1971; Ruszkowska and Strazynski, 2015
PortugalPresentCIE, 1971
-AzoresPresentCIE, 1971
-MadeiraPresentCIE, 1971
RomaniaPresentMalschi et al., 2003
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Central RussiaPresentCIE, 1971
-Russia (Europe)PresentCIE, 1971
-Russian Far EastPresentCIE, 1971
-SiberiaPresentBokina, 1999
SerbiaPresentTomanovic et al., 2008
SlovakiaPresentPraslicka et al., 1997
SpainPresentCIE, 1971
SwedenPresentCIE, 1971
SwitzerlandPresentCIE, 1971
UKPresentCIE, 1971
UkrainePresentCIE, 1971
Yugoslavia (former)PresentCIE, 1971


AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentCIE, 1971
-QueenslandPresentCIE, 1971
-South AustraliaPresentCIE, 1971
-TasmaniaPresentCIE, 1971
-VictoriaPresentCIE, 1971
-Western AustraliaPresentCIE, 1971
New ZealandPresentCIE, 1971

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / external feeding
Inflorescence / external feeding
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / leaves rolled or folded
Leaves / necrotic areas
Whole plant / wilt

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Adalia bipunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Agonum dorsale Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley
Alloxysta macrophadna Parasite
Alloxysta victrix Hyperparasite
Amara plebeja Predator Adults/Nymphs
Aphelinus abdominalis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphelinus asychis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphelinus chaonia Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphelinus varipes Parasite Adults/Nymphs
aphid lethal paralysis virus Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius autriquei Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius colemani Parasite Adults/Nymphs Lebanon Freesia
Aphidius ervi Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius frumentarius Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius matricariae Parasite Adults/Nymphs Lebanon Freesia
Aphidius picipes Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius rhopalosiphi Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius similis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius uzbekistanicus Parasite Adults/Nymphs France wheat
Aphidoletes aphidimyza Predator Adults/Nymphs
Aphidomyza aphidivora Predator Adults/Nymphs
Asaphes suspensus Hyperparasite
Asaphes vulgaris Hyperparasite
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Bembidion guttula Predator Adults/Nymphs
Bembidion lampros Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley
Bembidion quadrimaculatum Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley
Calathus melanocephalus Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley
Carabidae Predator Adults/Nymphs
Cheilomenes lunata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Cheilomenes sexmaculata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chrysopa oculata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chrysoperla carnea Predator Adults/Nymphs
Clivina fossor Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley
Clubiona pikei Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccinella novemnotata Predator
Coccinella septempunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley
Coccinella undecimpunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coelophora mulsanti Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coleomegilla maculata Predator Adults/Eggs/Nymphs
Conidiobolus coronatus Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Conidiobolus obscurus Pathogen Adults/Nymphs Canada; Quebec; Finland Prunus pensylvanica; wheat
Conidiobolus thromboides Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Dendrocerus carpenteri Hyperparasite
Diaeretiella rapae Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Ephedrus nacheri Parasite Adults/Nymphs China; Yunnan maize
Ephedrus persicae Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Ephedrus plagiator Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Episyrphus balteatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Eriopis connexa Predator Adults/Nymphs
Erynia nouryi Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Erynia radicans Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Eupeodes confrater Predator Adults/Nymphs
Eupeodes corollae Predator Adults/Nymphs
Forficula auricularia Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley
Harmonia axyridis Predator Adults/Nymphs China wheat
Harpalus affinis Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley
Harpalus rufipes Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley
Hemerobius humulinus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Himetobi P virus Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia convergens Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia parenthesis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia quinquesignata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia tredecimpunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia tredecimpunctata tibialis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia variegata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Lecanicillium lecanii Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Lysiphlebus fabarum Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Lysiphlebus testaceipes Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Melanostoma fasciatum Predator
Monoctonus nervosus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Monoctonus washingtonensis Parasite
Nabis ferus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Neda patula Predator Adults/Nymphs
Oenopia sauzeti Predator Adults/Nymphs
Orius insidiosus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Orius sauteri Predator Adults/Nymphs
Pandora neoaphidis Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Pardosa agrestis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Pardosa amentata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Pardosa palustris Predator Adults/Nymphs
Phaenoglyphis villosa Parasite
Pipiza quadrimaculata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Praon abjectum Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Praon gallicum Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Praon volucre Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Praon yakimanum Parasite
Propylea quatuordecimpunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Propylea quatuordecimpunctata
Pseudopauesia prunicola Parasite Adults/Nymphs Finland Prunus padus
Pterostichus cupreus Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley
Pterostichus melanarius Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley
Pterostichus niger Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley
Scaeva pyrastri Predator Adults/Nymphs
Scymnus babai Predator Adults/Nymphs
Sphaerophoria philanthus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Sphaerophoria scripta Predator Adults/Nymphs
Synuchus nivalis Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley
Tachyporus hypnorum Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley
Tachyporus obtusus Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley
Tetragnatha laboriosa Predator Adults/Nymphs
Trechus quadristriatus Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley
Trechus secalis Predator Adults/Nymphs Sweden barley


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Agarwala BK, 1983. Notes on some aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) affecting economically important plants in Bhutan. Indian Agriculturist, 27(3):261-262.

Alsuhaibani AM, 1996. Seasonal abundance of two cereal aphids, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) and Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), (Homoptera, Aphididae) on twelve elite wheat lines in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research, 14(2):405-413; 7 ref.

Alves LFA; Prestes TMV; Zanini A; Dalmolin MF; Menezes Júnior Ade O, 2005. Natural biological control of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in a wheat field by parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Aphidiinae) in Medianeira, PR, Brazil. (Controle biológico natural de pulgões (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em lavoura de trigo por parasitóides (Hymenoptera, Aphidiinae), no município de Medianeira, PR, Brasil.) Semina: Ciencias Agrárias (Londrina), 26(2):155-160.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Babu KS; Sharma AK, 2003. Compatibility of a newer insecticide, imidacloprid (Confidor) with propiconazole (Tilt 25 EC) against foliar aphids and their coccinellid predators of wheat ecosystem. Indian Journal of Entomology, 65(2):287-291.

Barro PJ de; Maelzer DA, 1993. Influence of high temperatures on the survival of Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in irrigated perennial grass pastures in South Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology, 41(2):123-132

Blackman RL; Eastop VF, 1984. Aphids on the World's Crops. An Identification and Information Guide. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.

Bokina IG, 1999. Natural enemies of cereal aphids in western Siberia. Zashchita i Karantin Rastenii, No. 7:13-14.

Borgemeister C, 1992. Primary and hyperparasitoids of cereal aphids: interactions and interference from insecticides. Agrarokologie, No. 3:191 pp.

Burnett PA; Mezzalama M, 1990. Barley yellow dwarf virus and aphids in Mexico. In: Burnett PA, ed. World Perspectives on Barley Yellow Dwarf. Mexico: CIMMYT, 21-24.

Carter N; McLean IFG; Watt AD; Dixon AFG, 1980. Cereal aphids: a case study and review. Applied Biology, 5:271-348.

Chen Bin; Li ZhengYue; Feng MingGuang, 2008. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in migratory alate aphids in Yunnan Province of China. BioControl, 53(2):317-326.

Chen YT; Guo MK; Zhu XY; Gao WD; Da FC; Lin L, 1996. Evaluation of resistance to germplasm dwarf mosaic virus in maize. Plant Protection, 22(2):13-15.

CIE, 1971. Distribution Maps of Pests, No. 288. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Culjak TG; Grubi?ic D; Jelovcan S, 2008. Seasonal abundance of Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Homoptera: Aphididae) in wheat and its role as barley yellow dwarf virus vectors. Cereal Research Communications [Proceedings of the VII Alps-Adria Scientific Workshop, Stara Lesna, Slovakia, 28 April-2 May 2008.], 36(Suppl. 5):27-30.

D'arcy CJ; Bennett PA, 1995. Barley Yellow Dwarf: 40 Years of Progress. St Paul, MN, USA: APS Press.

Delrio G; Verdinelli M; Serra G, 2004. Monitoring of pest and beneficial insect populations in summer sown Bt maize. Bulletin OILB/SROP [Proceedings of the meeting of the IOBC/WPRS Working Group 'GMOs in Integrated Production', entitled Ecological Impact of Genetically Modified Organisms held in Prague, Czech Republic, 26-29 November 2003.], 27(3):43-48.

DiFonzo CD; Ragsdale DW; Radcliffe EB; Gudmestad NC; Secor GA, 1997. Seasonal abundance of aphid vectors of potato virus Y in the Red River Valley of Minnesota and North Dakota. Journal of Economic Entomology, 90(3):824-831; 32 ref.

Easterling WE; Aggarwal PK; Batima P; Brander KM; Erda L; Howden SM; Kirilenko A; Morton J; Soussana J-F; Schmidhuber J; Tubiello FN, 2007. Food, fibre and forest products. Climate Change 2007. Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. In: Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [ed. by Parry, M. L. \Canziani, O. F. \Palutikof, J. P. \Linden, P. J. van der \Hanson, C. E.]. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 273-313.

Elek H; Smart L; Ahmad S; Anda A; Werner CP; Pickett JA, 2014. A comparison of the levels of hydroxamic acids in Aegilops speltoides and a hexaploid wheat and effects on Rhopalosiphum padi behaviour and fecundity. Acta Biologica Hungarica, 65(1):38-46.

Elek H; Smart L; Martin J; Ahmad S; Gordon-Weeks R; Welham S; Nádasy M; Pickett JA; Werner CP, 2013. The potential of hydroxamic acids in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat varieties as resistance factors against the bird-cherry oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi. Annals of Applied Biology, 162(1):100-109.

Escobar CA; Sicker D; Niemeyer HM, 1999. Evaluation of DIMBOA analogs as antifeedants and antibiotics towards the aphid Sitobion avenae in artificial diets. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 25(7):1543-1554.

Feng MG; Johnson JB; Kish LP, 1990. Survey of entomopathogenic fungi naturally infecting cereal aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) of irrigated grain crops in southwestern Idaho. Environmental Entomology, 19(5):1534-1542

Feng MG; Johnson JB; Kish LP, 1990. Virulence of Verticillium lecanii and an aphid-derived isolate of Beauveria bassiana (Fungi: Hyphomycetes) for six species of cereal-infesting aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae). Environmental Entomology, 19(3):815-820

Fox BN; Tola J; Chicaiza O, 1990. Barley yellow dwarf in the Andean countries of South America. In: Burnett PA, ed. World Perspectives on Barley Yellow Dwarf. Mexico: CIMMYT, 25-28.

Frey M; Chomet P; Glawischnig E; Stettner C; Grün S; Winklmair A; Eisenreich W; Bacher A; Meeley RB; Briggs SP; Simcox K; Gierl A, 1997. Analysis of a chemical plant defense mechanism in grasses. Science (Washington), 277(5326):698-699.

Gianoli E; Papp M; Niemeyer HM, 1996. Costs and benefits of hydroxamic acids-related resistance in winter wheat against the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi L. Annals of Applied Biology, 129(1):83-90.

Givovich A; Niemeyer HM, 1991. Hydroxamic acids affecting barley yellow dwarf virus transmission by the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 59(1):79-85

Givovich A; Sandström J; Niemeyer HM; Pettersson J, 1994. Presence of a hydroxamic acid glucoside in wheat phloem sap, and its consequences for performance of Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Homoptera: Aphididae). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 20(8):1923-1930.

Gonzßles WL; Fuentes-Contreras E; Niemeyer HM, 1999. Semiochemicals associated to spacing behaviour of the bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Hem., Aphididae) do not affect the olfactometric behaviour of the cereal aphid parasitoid Aphidius rhopalosiphi De Stephani-PTrez (Hym., Braconidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 123(7):413-415; 8 ref.

Guo LiangZhen; Liu ShaoWen; Su Li, 2000. Study on the losses of wheat infested by Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) and its control threshold. Plant Protection, 26(6):12-14.

Halbert SE; Voegtlin DJ; Nieto Nafria JM, 1998. Evidence for the North American origin of Rhopalosiphum and barley yellow dwarf virus. In: Dixon AFG, ed. Aphids in natural and managed ecosystems. Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Aphids, Leon, Spain, 15-19 September, 1997. Leon, Spain: Universidad de Leon Secretariado de Publicaciones, 351-356.

Harbaoui H; Mezghani KM; Marrakchi M; Makni M; Makni H, 2008. Morphological and toxicological study of cereal aphids (Homoptera, Aphididae) in Tunisia. (Étude morphologique et toxicologique des pucerons (Homoptères: Aphididae) des céréales en Tunisie.) Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France [Troisième Congrès Franco-Tunisien de Zoologie, Tabarka, Tunisia, 3-7 November 2006.], 133(1/3):203-213.

Hardie J; Peace L; Pickett JA; Smiley DWM; Storer JR; Wadhams LJ, 1997. Sex pheromone stereochemistry and purity affect field catches of male aphids. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 23(11):2547-2554; 19 ref.

Hardie J; Storer JR; Nottingham SF; Peace L; Harrington R; Merritt LA; Wadhams LJ; Wood DK, 1994. The interaction of sex pheromone and plant volatiles for field attraction of male bird-cherry aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi. Proceedings - Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases, 1994, vol. 3., 1223-1230; [^italic~BCPC Publications^roman~]; 23 ref.

Hardie J; Tatchell GM, 1989. A method for separating summer and autumn migrants of host-alternating aphids. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 52(1):89-90

Harrington R; Clark SJ; Welham SJ; Verrier PJ; Denholm CH; Hullé M; Maurice D; Rounsevell MD; Cocu N, 2007. Environmental change and the phenology of European aphids. Global Change Biology, 13(8):1550-1564.

Harrington R; Fleming RA; Woiwod IP, 2001. Climate change impacts on insect management and conservation in temperate regions: can they be predicted? Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 3(4):233-240.

Harrington R; Verrier P; Denholm C; Hullé M; Maurice D; Bell N; Knight J; Rounsevell M; Cocu N; Barbagallo S; Basky Z; Coceano PG; Derron J; Katis N; Lukásová H; Marrkula I; Mohar J; Pickup J; Rolot JL; Ruszkowska M; Schliephake E; Seco-Fernandez MV; Sigvald R; Tsitsipis J; Ulber B, 2004. Examine (EXploitation of aphid monitoring in Europe): an European thematic network for the study of global change impacts on aphids. In: Aphids in a new millennium. Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Aphids, September, 2001, Rennes, France [ed. by Simon, J. C.\Dedryver, C. A.\Rispe, C.\Hullé, M.]. Paris, France: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 45-49.

Hatting JL; Humber RA; Poprawski TJ; Miller RM, 1999. A survey of fungal pathogens of aphids from South Africa, with special reference to cereal aphids. Biological Control, 16(1):1-12; 49 ref.

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