Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Rhopalosiphum maidis
(green corn aphid)

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Datasheet

Rhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 18 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Rhopalosiphum maidis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • green corn aphid
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Rhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); adults and nymphs.
TitleAdults and nymphs
CaptionRhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); adults and nymphs.
Copyright©Merle Shepard, Gerald R.Carner & P.A.C Ooi/Insects and their Natural Enemies Associated with Vegetables and Soybean in Southeast Asia/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Rhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); adults and nymphs.
Adults and nymphsRhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); adults and nymphs.©Merle Shepard, Gerald R.Carner & P.A.C Ooi/Insects and their Natural Enemies Associated with Vegetables and Soybean in Southeast Asia/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Rhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); apterae yellow-green to dark or bluish green, sometimes dusted with wax.
TitleAdult
CaptionRhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); apterae yellow-green to dark or bluish green, sometimes dusted with wax.
Copyright©H. Banziger
Rhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); apterae yellow-green to dark or bluish green, sometimes dusted with wax.
AdultRhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); apterae yellow-green to dark or bluish green, sometimes dusted with wax. ©H. Banziger
Rhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); colony.
TitleColony
CaptionRhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); colony.
Copyright©James Litsinger
Rhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); colony.
ColonyRhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); colony.©James Litsinger
Rhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); apterae and alatae both 0.9-2.4 mm.
TitleAdults on leaf
CaptionRhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); apterae and alatae both 0.9-2.4 mm.
Copyright©H. Banziger
Rhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); apterae and alatae both 0.9-2.4 mm.
Adults on leafRhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); apterae and alatae both 0.9-2.4 mm.©H. Banziger
Rhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); colony on maize leaf (left); symptoms on maize (right).
TitleColony and symptoms
CaptionRhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); colony on maize leaf (left); symptoms on maize (right).
Copyright©James Litsinger
Rhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); colony on maize leaf (left); symptoms on maize (right).
Colony and symptomsRhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); colony on maize leaf (left); symptoms on maize (right).©James Litsinger

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, 1856)

Preferred Common Name

  • green corn aphid

Other Scientific Names

  • Aphis adjusta Zehntner, 1897
  • Aphis africana Theobald, 1914
  • Aphis cooki Essig, 1911
  • Aphis maidis Fitch, 1856
  • Aphis maydis del Guercio, 1913
  • Aphis vulpiae del Guercio, 1913
  • Aphis zeae Bonafous, 1835
  • Macrosiphum maidis
  • Rhopalosiphon maidis (Fitch)
  • Rhopalosiphum zeae Rusanova, 1960
  • Schizaphis setariae Rusanova, 1962
  • Siphonaphis adusta (Zehntner)
  • Siphonaphis maidis (Fitch)
  • Stenaphis monticellii del Guercio, 1913

International Common Names

  • English: barley aphid; cereal leaf aphid; corn aphid; corn leaf aphid; darkgreen grain aphid; maize aphid
  • Spanish: afido pulgones del maiz; afido verde del maíz; pulgon de la cana de azucar; pulgón de la hoja del maíz; pulgón del cogollo; pulgón del cogollo; pulgón oscuro de las hojas del maíz; pulgon verde del maiz
  • French: puceron du maïs; puceron vert du mais
  • Portuguese: palgao da cana de acucar (Brazil); piolho verde do milho

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: palgao da cana de acucar
  • Germany: gruene mais-blattlaus; Maisblattlaus
  • Iran: schatte sorrat
  • Israel: knimat ale hatiras
  • Italy: afide allungato verde scuro delle graminaceae; afide del mais
  • Japan: kibi-kubire-aburamusi
  • Netherlands: maisluis

EPPO code

  • RHOPMA (Rhopalosiphum maidis)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Aphidoidea
  •                                 Family: Aphididae
  •                                     Genus: Rhopalosiphum
  •                                         Species: Rhopalosiphum maidis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
AngolaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
BotswanaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
BurundiPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
CameroonPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
ChadPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
Congo, Republic of thePresentUK, CAB International (1971)
EgyptPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
EthiopiaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
GambiaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
GhanaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
GuineaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
KenyaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
LibyaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
MadagascarPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
MalawiPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
MaliPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
MauritaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
MauritiusPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
MoroccoPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
MozambiquePresentUK, CAB International (1971)
NigerPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
NigeriaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
RéunionPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
RwandaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
SenegalPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
Sierra LeonePresentUK, CAB International (1971)
SomaliaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
South AfricaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
SudanPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
TanzaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1971); Bohlen (1973)
TogoPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
UgandaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
ZambiaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
ZimbabwePresentUK, CAB International (1971)

Asia

BhutanPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Agarwala et al., 1981
BruneiPresentWaterhouse (1993)
CambodiaPresentUK, CAB International (1971); Waterhouse (1993)
ChinaPresentAPPPC (1987)
-FujianPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-GuangdongPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-HainanPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-JiangsuPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-LiaoningPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-ShandongPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-SichuanPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-ZhejiangPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
Cocos IslandsPresentBellis et al. (2004)
Hong KongPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
IndiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Andhra PradeshPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-AssamPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-BiharPresentUK, CAB International (1971); Kumar (2014)
-GujaratPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-HaryanaPresentBabu and Sharma (2003)
-Himachal PradeshPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentKant (2007)
-KarnatakaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Rajasab and Frederiksen (2001, publ. 2005)
-Madhya PradeshPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-MaharashtraPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-MeghalayaPresentShukla and Pathak (2000)
-OdishaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-PunjabPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-RajasthanPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-SikkimPresentDeka et al. (2014)
-Tamil NaduPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-Uttar PradeshPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-West BengalPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
IndonesiaPresentUK, CAB International (1971); APPPC (1987); Waterhouse (1993)
IranPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
IraqPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
IsraelPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
JapanPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-HokkaidoPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-HonshuPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-KyushuPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-ShikokuPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
JordanPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
LaosPresentWaterhouse (1993)
LebanonPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
MalaysiaPresentWaterhouse (1993)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-SabahPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-SarawakPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
MyanmarPresentUK, CAB International (1971); Waterhouse (1993)
NepalPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
North KoreaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
PakistanPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
PhilippinesPresentUK, CAB International (1971); Waterhouse (1993)
Saudi ArabiaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
SingaporePresentAPPPC (1987); Waterhouse (1993)
South KoreaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
SyriaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
TaiwanPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
ThailandPresentUK, CAB International (1971); APPPC (1987); Waterhouse (1993)
TurkeyPresentGenecİ and Görür (2007)
VietnamPresentUK, CAB International (1971); APPPC (1987); Waterhouse (1993)
YemenPresentUK, CAB International (1971)

Europe

AustriaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
BelgiumPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
BulgariaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
CroatiaPresentKorić et al. (2005)
CyprusPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
CzechoslovakiaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
DenmarkPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
FrancePresentUK, CAB International (1971)
GermanyPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
GreecePresentUK, CAB International (1971)
HungaryPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
ItalyPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
NetherlandsPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
NorwayPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
PolandPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
PortugalPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-AzoresPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
RomaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
RussiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Russia (Europe)PresentUK, CAB International (1971)
SlovakiaPresentBarta and Cagáň (2007)
SloveniaPresentPajmon (1997)
SpainPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-Canary IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
SwedenPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
SwitzerlandPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
United KingdomPresentUK, CAB International (1971)

North America

BahamasPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
BarbadosPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
BermudaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
CanadaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-AlbertaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-British ColumbiaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-ManitobaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-New BrunswickPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-Nova ScotiaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-OntarioPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-Prince Edward IslandPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-QuebecPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-SaskatchewanPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
CubaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
Dominican RepublicPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
El SalvadorPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
GuatemalaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
HaitiPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
HondurasPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
JamaicaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
NicaraguaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
Puerto RicoPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-ArizonaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-ArkansasPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-CaliforniaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-ColoradoPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-DelawarePresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-GeorgiaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-HawaiiPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-IdahoPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-IllinoisPresentBhatti et al. (2005)
-IowaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-KansasPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-KentuckyPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-MainePresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-MassachusettsPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-MichiganPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-MinnesotaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-MississippiPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-MissouriPresentZwiener et al. (2005)
-MontanaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-NebraskaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-NevadaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-New HampshirePresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-New JerseyPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-New MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-New YorkPresentGildow et al. (2008)
-North DakotaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-OhioPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-OklahomaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-OregonPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-PennsylvaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-Rhode IslandPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-South DakotaPresentElliott and Kieckhefer (2000)
-TennesseePresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-TexasPresentMichels and Matis (2008)
-UtahPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-WashingtonPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-West VirginiaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-WyomingPresentUK, CAB International (1971)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-Northern TerritoryPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-QueenslandPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-South AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-TasmaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-VictoriaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-Western AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
Cook IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
FijiPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
New CaledoniaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
New ZealandPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
Papua New GuineaPresentUK, CAB International (1971); APPPC (1987)
Solomon IslandsPresentAPPPC (1987)
TongaPresentUK, CAB International (1971); APPPC (1987)
Wallis and FutunaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)

South America

ArgentinaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
BrazilPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-CearaPresentSouza et al. (2004)
-Mato GrossoPresentMichelotto and Busoli (2003)
-Minas GeraisPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-ParanaPresentAlves et al. (2005)
-PernambucoPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-Sao PauloPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
ChilePresentUK, CAB International (1971)
-Easter IslandPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
ColombiaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
EcuadorPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
GuyanaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
PeruPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
SurinamePresentUK, CAB International (1971)
UruguayPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
VenezuelaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / external feeding
Growing point / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / wilting
Stems / external feeding
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Adalia bipunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Allograpta exotica Predator Adults/Nymphs
Alloxysta megourae Parasite
Aphelinus asychis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphelinus gossypii Parasite Nymphs
Aphelinus maidis Parasite Mau and Kessing, 1992 Hawaii
Aphelinus mali Parasite Nymphs
Aphelinus semiflavus Parasite Nymphs
Aphelinus varipes Parasite Adults/Nymphs South Africa
Aphidencyrtus aphidivorus Parasite
Aphidius colemani Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius ervi Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius matricariae Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius picipes Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius uzbekistanicus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aprostocetus minutus Parasite
Asaphes lucens Parasite
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Blaptostethus piceus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Cheilomenes sexmaculata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chrysopa oculata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chrysoperla carnea Predator Adults/Nymphs
Clubiona pikei Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccinella novemnotata Predator
Coccinella quinquepunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccinella septempunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs Canada; Prince Edward Island maize
Coccinella transversoguttata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccinella undecimpunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coelophora saucia
Coleomegilla maculata Predator Adults/Eggs/Nymphs
Conidiobolus coronatus Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Conidiobolus obscurus Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Conidiobolus thromboides Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Diaeretiella rapae Parasite Adults/Nymphs Morocco Hordeum distichon
Entomophaga planchoniana Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Ephedrus plagiator Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Episyrphus balteatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Eriopis connexa connexa Predator Duarte and Gómez Zenner de Polanía, 2006, publ. 2007
Erynia radicans Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Harmonia octomaculata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hemerobius humulinus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Himetobi P virus Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia convergens Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia koebelei Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia quinquesignata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia sinuata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia tredecimpunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia variegata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Ischiodon aegyptius Predator Adults/Nymphs
Ischiodon scutellaris Predator Adults/Nymphs
Lecanicillium aphanocladii Pathogen Zare and Mohammadi, 2006
Lecanicillium lecanii Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Leiocyrtus aphidivorus Parasite
Lipolexis scutellaris Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Lysiphlebia mirzai Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Lysiphlebus delhiensis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Lysiphlebus fabarum Parasite Nymphs
Lysiphlebus mirzai Parasite Nymphs
Lysiphlebus testaceipes Parasite Adults/Nymphs Guadeloupe; Honduras maize
Melanostoma fasciatum Predator
Melanostoma orientale Predator Adults/Nymphs India wheat
Neda patula Predator Adults/Nymphs
Orius insidiosus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Pachyneuron siphonophorae Parasite
Paederus alfierii Predator Adults/Nymphs
Pandora neoaphidis Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Paragus borbonicus Predator
Propylea quatuordecimpunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Propylea quatuordecimpunctata
Scymnus babai Predator Adults/Nymphs
Scymnus interruptus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Scymnus pupulus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Sphaerophoria philanthus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Sphaerophoria rueppellii Predator Adults/Nymphs
Syrphus shorae Predator Adults/Nymphs
Tetragnatha laboriosa Predator Adults/Nymphs
Trioxys indicus Parasite Adults/Nymphs

References

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Adams JB; Drew ME, 1964. Grain aphids in Brunswick. II. Comparative development in the greenhouse of three aphid species on four kinds of grasses. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 42:741-744.

Agarwala BK; Raychaudhuri DN, 1981. New records of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) from Bhutan. Entomon, 6(3):225-227

Al-Eryan MAS; El-Tabbakh SS, 2004. Forecasting yield of corn, Zea mays infested with corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis. Journal of Applied Entomology, 128(4):312-315.

Alves LFA; Prestes TMV; Zanini A; Dalmolin MF; Menezes Júnior Ade O, 2005. Natural biological control of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in a wheat field by parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Aphidiinae) in Medianeira, PR, Brazil. (Controle biológico natural de pulgões (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em lavoura de trigo por parasitóides (Hymenoptera, Aphidiinae), no município de Medianeira, PR, Brasil.) Semina: Ciencias Agrárias (Londrina), 26(2):155-160. http://www.uel.br/proppg/semina/pdf/semina_26_2_19_3.pdf

Amandeep Kaur; Neha Sharma; Gurpreet Kaur; Dhawan AK, 2012. Relative efficacy of new insecticides against wheat aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch). Indian Journal of Entomology, 74(2):206-208.

Anon., 2000. Cornleaf aphid. North Carolina, USA: Center for Integrated Pest Management. http://ipmwww.ncsu.edu/.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Ba-Angood SA; Stewart RK, 1980. Economic thresholds and economic injury levels of cereal aphids on barley in southwestern Quebec. Canadian Entomologist, 112(8):759-764

Ba-Angood SA; Stewart RK, 1980. Effect of granular and foliar insecticides on cereal aphids (Hemiptera) and their natural enemies on field barley in southwestern Quebec. Canadian Entomologist, 112(12):1309-1313

Babu KS; Sharma AK, 2003. Compatibility of a newer insecticide, imidacloprid (Confidor) with propiconazole (Tilt 25 EC) against foliar aphids and their coccinellid predators of wheat ecosystem. Indian Journal of Entomology, 65(2):287-291.

Barta M; Cagan L, 2007. Natural control of Diuraphis noxia and Rhopalosiphum maidis (Aphidoidea) by parasitic entomophthorales (Zygomycota) in Slovakia. Cereal Research Communications, 35(1):89-97. http://www.akademiai.com/content/40787021m3kj1422/fulltext.pdf

Bayhan E; Bayhan SÖ, 2011. Studies on survival rate, reproduction and biological parameters of corn leaf aphid (Rhopalosiphum maidis Fitch) on five corn cultivars. Research on Crops, 12(1):203-206. http://www.cropresearch.org

Beant Singh; Deol GS; Mahal MS, 2003. Economic threshold level for the control of cereal aphid complex on wheat. Crop Research (Hisar), 26(3):497-500.

Beck DL; Dunn GM; Routley DG; Bowman JS, 1983. Biochemical basis of resistance in corn to the corn leaf aphid. Crop Science, 23:995-998.

Bellis GA; Donaldson JF; Carver M; Hancock DL; Fletcher MJ, 2004. Records of insect pests on Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Indian Ocean. Australian Entomologist, 31(3):93-102.

Betsiashvili M; Ahern KR; Jander G, 2015. Additive effects of two quantitative trait loci that confer Rhopalosiphum maidis (corn leaf aphid) resistance in maize inbred line Mo17. Journal of Experimental Botany, 66(2):571-578. http://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/content/66/2/571.full

Bhatti MA; Duan J; Head GP; Jiang CJ; McKee MJ; Nickson TE; Pilcher CL; Pilcher CD, 2005. Field evaluation of the impact of corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)-protected Bt corn on foliage-dwelling arthropods. Environmental Entomology, 34(5):1336-1345. HTTP://www.esa.catchword.org

Blackman RL; Brown PA, 1991. Morphometric variation within and between populations of Rhopalosiphum maidis with a discussion of the taxonomic treatment of permanently parthenogenetic aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae). Entomologia Generalis, 16(2):97-113

Blackman RL; Eastop VF, 1984. Aphids on the World's Crops. An Identification and Information Guide. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.

Bodenheimer FS; Swirski E, 1957. Weizmann Sci. Pr. Israel. Jerusalem, 5 + ] 378 pp.

Bohlen E, 1973. Crop pests in Tanzania and their control. Berlin, Germany: Verlag Paul Parey.

Borer ET; Adams VT; Engler GA; Adams AL; Schumann CB; Seabloom EW, 2009. Aphid fecundity and grassland invasion: invader life history is the key. Ecological Applications, 19(5):1187-1196. http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/08-1205.1

Brown PA; Blackman RL, 1988. Karyotype variation in the corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), species complex (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in relation to host-plant and morphology. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 78(2):351-363

Bueno VHP; Sampaio MV; Lenteren JCvan; Conti BFde; Silva RJ; Rodrigues SMM; Carnevale AB, 2006. Evaluation of two aphid parasitoids as candidates for biocontrol of aphid pests in protected cultivation in Brazil. Bulletin OILB/SROP [Integrated control in protected crops under Mediterranean climate. Proceedings of the meeting of the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants, West Palearctic Regional Section (IOBC/WPRS) Working Group, Murcia, Spain, 14-18 May 2006.], 29(4):175-180.

Capinera JL; Weissling TJ; Schweizer EE, 1985. Compatibility of intercropping with mechanized agriculture: effects of strip intercropping of pinto beans and sweet corn on insect abundance in Colorado. Journal of Economic Entomology, 78(2):354-357

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Distribution References

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