Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Rhopalosiphum maidis
(green corn aphid)



Rhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid)


  • Last modified
  • 29 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Rhopalosiphum maidis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • green corn aphid
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Rhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); adults and nymphs.
TitleAdults and nymphs
CaptionRhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); adults and nymphs.
Copyright©Merle Shepard, Gerald R.Carner & P.A.C Ooi/Insects and their Natural Enemies Associated with Vegetables and Soybean in Southeast Asia/ - CC BY 3.0 US
Rhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); adults and nymphs.
Adults and nymphsRhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); adults and nymphs.©Merle Shepard, Gerald R.Carner & P.A.C Ooi/Insects and their Natural Enemies Associated with Vegetables and Soybean in Southeast Asia/ - CC BY 3.0 US
Rhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); apterae yellow-green to dark or bluish green, sometimes dusted with wax.
CaptionRhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); apterae yellow-green to dark or bluish green, sometimes dusted with wax.
Copyright©H. Banziger
Rhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); apterae yellow-green to dark or bluish green, sometimes dusted with wax.
AdultRhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); apterae yellow-green to dark or bluish green, sometimes dusted with wax. ©H. Banziger
Rhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); colony.
CaptionRhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); colony.
Copyright©James Litsinger
Rhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); colony.
ColonyRhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); colony.©James Litsinger
Rhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); apterae and alatae both 0.9-2.4 mm.
TitleAdults on leaf
CaptionRhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); apterae and alatae both 0.9-2.4 mm.
Copyright©H. Banziger
Rhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); apterae and alatae both 0.9-2.4 mm.
Adults on leafRhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); apterae and alatae both 0.9-2.4 mm.©H. Banziger
Rhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); colony on maize leaf (left); symptoms on maize (right).
TitleColony and symptoms
CaptionRhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); colony on maize leaf (left); symptoms on maize (right).
Copyright©James Litsinger
Rhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); colony on maize leaf (left); symptoms on maize (right).
Colony and symptomsRhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); colony on maize leaf (left); symptoms on maize (right).©James Litsinger


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, 1856)

Preferred Common Name

  • green corn aphid

Other Scientific Names

  • Aphis adjusta Zehntner, 1897
  • Aphis africana Theobald, 1914
  • Aphis cooki Essig, 1911
  • Aphis maidis Fitch, 1856
  • Aphis maydis del Guercio, 1913
  • Aphis vulpiae del Guercio, 1913
  • Aphis zeae Bonafous, 1835
  • Macrosiphum maidis
  • Rhopalosiphon maidis (Fitch)
  • Rhopalosiphum zeae Rusanova, 1960
  • Schizaphis setariae Rusanova, 1962
  • Siphonaphis adusta (Zehntner)
  • Siphonaphis maidis (Fitch)
  • Stenaphis monticellii del Guercio, 1913

International Common Names

  • English: barley aphid; cereal leaf aphid; corn aphid; corn leaf aphid; darkgreen grain aphid; maize aphid
  • Spanish: afido pulgones del maiz; afido verde del maíz; pulgon de la cana de azucar; pulgón de la hoja del maíz; pulgón del cogollo; pulgón del cogollo; pulgón oscuro de las hojas del maíz; pulgon verde del maiz
  • French: puceron du maïs; puceron vert du mais
  • Portuguese: palgao da cana de acucar (Brazil); piolho verde do milho

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: palgao da cana de acucar
  • Germany: gruene mais-blattlaus; Maisblattlaus
  • Iran: schatte sorrat
  • Israel: knimat ale hatiras
  • Italy: afide allungato verde scuro delle graminaceae; afide del mais
  • Japan: kibi-kubire-aburamusi
  • Netherlands: maisluis

EPPO code

  • RHOPMA (Rhopalosiphum maidis)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Aphidoidea
  •                                 Family: Aphididae
  •                                     Genus: Rhopalosiphum
  •                                         Species: Rhopalosiphum maidis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


BhutanPresentAgarwala et al., 1981
Brunei DarussalamPresentWaterhouse, 1993
CambodiaPresentCIE, 1971; Waterhouse, 1993
ChinaPresentAPPPC, 1987
-FujianPresentCIE, 1971
-GuangdongPresentCIE, 1971
-HainanPresentCIE, 1971
-Hong KongPresentCIE, 1971
-JiangsuPresentCIE, 1971
-LiaoningPresentCIE, 1971
-ShandongPresentCIE, 1971
-SichuanPresentCIE, 1971
-ZhejiangPresentCIE, 1971
Cocos IslandsPresentBellis et al., 2004
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Andhra PradeshPresentCIE, 1971
-AssamPresentCIE, 1971
-BiharPresentCIE, 1971; Kumar, 2014
-GujaratPresentCIE, 1971
-HaryanaPresentBabu and Sharma, 2003
-Himachal PradeshPresentCIE, 1971
-Indian PunjabPresentCIE, 1971
-Jammu and KashmirPresentKant, 2007
-KarnatakaPresentRajasab and Frederiksen, 2001, publ. 2005
-Madhya PradeshPresentCIE, 1971
-MaharashtraPresentCIE, 1971
-MeghalayaPresentShukla and Pathak, 2000
-OdishaPresentCIE, 1971
-RajasthanPresentCIE, 1971
-SikkimPresentDeka et al., 2014
-Tamil NaduPresentCIE, 1971
-Uttar PradeshPresentCIE, 1971
-West BengalPresentCIE, 1971
IndonesiaPresentCIE, 1971; APPPC, 1987; Waterhouse, 1993
IranPresentCIE, 1971
IraqPresentCIE, 1971
IsraelPresentCIE, 1971
JapanPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HokkaidoPresentCIE, 1971
-HonshuPresentCIE, 1971
-KyushuPresentCIE, 1971
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentCIE, 1971
-ShikokuPresentCIE, 1971
JordanPresentCIE, 1971
Korea, DPRPresentCIE, 1971
Korea, Republic ofPresentCIE, 1971
LaosPresentWaterhouse, 1993
LebanonPresentCIE, 1971
MalaysiaPresentWaterhouse, 1993
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCIE, 1971
-SabahPresentCIE, 1971
-SarawakPresentCIE, 1971
MyanmarPresentCIE, 1971; Waterhouse, 1993
NepalPresentCIE, 1971
PakistanPresentCIE, 1971
PhilippinesPresentCIE, 1971; Waterhouse, 1993
Saudi ArabiaPresentCIE, 1971
SingaporePresentAPPPC, 1987; Waterhouse, 1993
SyriaPresentCIE, 1971
TaiwanPresentCIE, 1971
ThailandPresentCIE, 1971; APPPC, 1987; Waterhouse, 1993
TurkeyPresentGeneci and Görür, 2007
VietnamPresentCIE, 1971; APPPC, 1987; Waterhouse, 1993
YemenPresentCIE, 1971


AlgeriaPresentCIE, 1971
AngolaPresentCIE, 1971
BotswanaPresentCIE, 1971
BurundiPresentCIE, 1971
CameroonPresentCIE, 1971
ChadPresentCIE, 1971
CongoPresentCIE, 1971
EgyptPresentCIE, 1971
EthiopiaPresentCIE, 1971
GambiaPresentCIE, 1971
GhanaPresentCIE, 1971
GuineaPresentCIE, 1971
KenyaPresentCIE, 1971
LibyaPresentCIE, 1971
MadagascarPresentCIE, 1971
MalawiPresentCIE, 1971
MaliPresentCIE, 1971
MauritaniaPresentCIE, 1971
MauritiusPresentCIE, 1971
MoroccoPresentCIE, 1971
MozambiquePresentCIE, 1971
NigerPresentCIE, 1971
NigeriaPresentCIE, 1971
RéunionPresentCIE, 1971
RwandaPresentCIE, 1971
SenegalPresentCIE, 1971
Sierra LeonePresentCIE, 1971
SomaliaPresentCIE, 1971
South AfricaPresentCIE, 1971
-Canary IslandsPresentCIE, 1971
SudanPresentCIE, 1971
TanzaniaPresentCIE, 1971; Bohlen, 1973
TogoPresentCIE, 1971
UgandaPresentCIE, 1971
ZambiaPresentCIE, 1971
ZimbabwePresentCIE, 1971

North America

BermudaPresentCIE, 1971
CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlbertaPresentCIE, 1971
-British ColumbiaPresentCIE, 1971
-ManitobaPresentCIE, 1971
-New BrunswickPresentCIE, 1971
-Nova ScotiaPresentCIE, 1971
-OntarioPresentCIE, 1971
-Prince Edward IslandPresentCIE, 1971
-QuebecPresentCIE, 1971
-SaskatchewanPresentCIE, 1971
MexicoPresentCIE, 1971
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentCIE, 1971
-ArizonaPresentCIE, 1971
-ArkansasPresentCIE, 1971
-CaliforniaPresentCIE, 1971
-ColoradoPresentCIE, 1971
-DelawarePresentCIE, 1971
-GeorgiaPresentCIE, 1971
-HawaiiPresentCIE, 1971
-IdahoPresentCIE, 1971
-IllinoisPresentBhatti et al., 2005
-IowaPresentCIE, 1971
-KansasPresentCIE, 1971
-KentuckyPresentCIE, 1971
-MainePresentCIE, 1971
-MassachusettsPresentCIE, 1971
-MichiganPresentCIE, 1971
-MinnesotaPresentCIE, 1971
-MississippiPresentCIE, 1971
-MissouriPresentZwiener et al., 2005
-MontanaPresentCIE, 1971
-NebraskaPresentCIE, 1971
-NevadaPresentCIE, 1971
-New HampshirePresentCIE, 1971
-New JerseyPresentCIE, 1971
-New MexicoPresentCIE, 1971
-New YorkPresentGildow et al., 2008
-North DakotaPresentCIE, 1971
-OhioPresentCIE, 1971
-OklahomaPresentCIE, 1971
-OregonPresentCIE, 1971
-PennsylvaniaPresentCIE, 1971
-Rhode IslandPresentCIE, 1971
-South DakotaPresentElliott and Kieckhefer, 2000
-TennesseePresentCIE, 1971
-TexasPresentMichels and Matis, 2008
-UtahPresentCIE, 1971
-WashingtonPresentCIE, 1971
-West VirginiaPresentCIE, 1971
-WyomingPresentCIE, 1971

Central America and Caribbean

BahamasPresentCIE, 1971
BarbadosPresentCIE, 1971
CubaPresentCIE, 1971
Dominican RepublicPresentCIE, 1971
El SalvadorPresentCIE, 1971
GuatemalaPresentCIE, 1971
HaitiPresentCIE, 1971
HondurasPresentCIE, 1971
JamaicaPresentCIE, 1971
NicaraguaPresentCIE, 1971
Puerto RicoPresentCIE, 1971
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentCIE, 1971
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentCIE, 1971
Trinidad and TobagoPresentCIE, 1971

South America

ArgentinaPresentCIE, 1971
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CearaPresentSouza et al., 2004
-Mato GrossoPresentMichelotto and Busoli, 2003
-Minas GeraisPresentCIE, 1971
-ParanaPresentAlves et al., 2005
-PernambucoPresentCIE, 1971
-Rio Grande do SulPresentCIE, 1971
-Sao PauloPresentCIE, 1971
ChilePresentCIE, 1971
-Easter IslandPresentCIE, 1971
ColombiaPresentCIE, 1971
EcuadorPresentCIE, 1971
GuyanaPresentCIE, 1971
PeruPresentCIE, 1971
SurinamePresentCIE, 1971
UruguayPresentCIE, 1971
VenezuelaPresentCIE, 1971


AustriaPresentCIE, 1971
BelgiumPresentCIE, 1971
BulgariaPresentCIE, 1971
CroatiaPresentKoric et al., 2005
CyprusPresentCIE, 1971
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentCIE, 1971
DenmarkPresentCIE, 1971
FrancePresentCIE, 1971
GermanyPresentCIE, 1971
GreecePresentCIE, 1971
HungaryPresentCIE, 1971
ItalyPresentCIE, 1971
NetherlandsPresentCIE, 1971
NorwayPresentCIE, 1971
PolandPresentCIE, 1971
PortugalPresentCIE, 1971
-AzoresPresentCIE, 1971
RomaniaPresentCIE, 1971
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Russia (Europe)PresentCIE, 1971
SlovakiaPresentBarta and Cagan, 2007
SloveniaPresentPajmon, 1997
SpainPresentCIE, 1971
SwedenPresentCIE, 1971
SwitzerlandPresentCIE, 1971
UKPresentCIE, 1971
Yugoslavia (former)PresentCIE, 1971


AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentCIE, 1971
-New South WalesPresentCIE, 1971
-QueenslandPresentCIE, 1971
-South AustraliaPresentCIE, 1971
-TasmaniaPresentCIE, 1971
-VictoriaPresentCIE, 1971
-Western AustraliaPresentCIE, 1971
Cook IslandsPresentCIE, 1971
FijiPresentCIE, 1971
New CaledoniaPresentCIE, 1971
New ZealandPresentCIE, 1971
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentCIE, 1971
Papua New GuineaPresentCIE, 1971; APPPC, 1987
Solomon IslandsPresentAPPPC, 1987
TongaPresentCIE, 1971; APPPC, 1987
Wallis and Futuna IslandsPresentCIE, 1971

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / external feeding
Growing point / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / wilting
Stems / external feeding
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Adalia bipunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Allograpta exotica Predator Adults/Nymphs
Alloxysta megourae Parasite
Aphelinus asychis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphelinus gossypii Parasite Nymphs
Aphelinus maidis Parasite Mau and Kessing, 1992 Hawaii
Aphelinus mali Parasite Nymphs
Aphelinus semiflavus Parasite Nymphs
Aphelinus varipes Parasite Adults/Nymphs South Africa
Aphidencyrtus aphidivorus Parasite
Aphidius colemani Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius ervi Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius matricariae Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius picipes Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius uzbekistanicus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aprostocetus minutus Parasite
Asaphes lucens Parasite
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Blaptostethus piceus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Cheilomenes sexmaculata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chrysopa oculata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chrysoperla carnea Predator Adults/Nymphs
Clubiona pikei Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccinella novemnotata Predator
Coccinella quinquepunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccinella septempunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs Canada; Prince Edward Island maize
Coccinella transversoguttata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccinella undecimpunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coelophora saucia
Coleomegilla maculata Predator Adults/Eggs/Nymphs
Conidiobolus coronatus Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Conidiobolus obscurus Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Conidiobolus thromboides Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Diaeretiella rapae Parasite Adults/Nymphs Morocco Hordeum distichon
Entomophaga planchoniana Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Ephedrus plagiator Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Episyrphus balteatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Eriopis connexa connexa Predator Duarte and Gómez Zenner de Polanía, 2006, publ. 2007
Erynia radicans Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Harmonia octomaculata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hemerobius humulinus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Himetobi P virus Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia convergens Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia koebelei Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia quinquesignata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia sinuata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia tredecimpunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia variegata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Ischiodon aegyptius Predator Adults/Nymphs
Ischiodon scutellaris Predator Adults/Nymphs
Lecanicillium aphanocladii Pathogen Zare and Mohammadi, 2006
Lecanicillium lecanii Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Leiocyrtus aphidivorus Parasite
Lipolexis scutellaris Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Lysiphlebia mirzai Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Lysiphlebus delhiensis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Lysiphlebus fabarum Parasite Nymphs
Lysiphlebus mirzai Parasite Nymphs
Lysiphlebus testaceipes Parasite Adults/Nymphs Guadeloupe; Honduras maize
Melanostoma fasciatum Predator
Melanostoma orientale Predator Adults/Nymphs India wheat
Neda patula Predator Adults/Nymphs
Orius insidiosus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Pachyneuron siphonophorae Parasite
Paederus alfierii Predator Adults/Nymphs
Pandora neoaphidis Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Paragus borbonicus Predator
Propylea quatuordecimpunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Propylea quatuordecimpunctata
Scymnus babai Predator Adults/Nymphs
Scymnus interruptus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Scymnus pupulus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Sphaerophoria philanthus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Sphaerophoria rueppellii Predator Adults/Nymphs
Syrphus shorae Predator Adults/Nymphs
Tetragnatha laboriosa Predator Adults/Nymphs
Trioxys indicus Parasite Adults/Nymphs


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Adams JB; Drew ME, 1964. Grain aphids in Brunswick. II. Comparative development in the greenhouse of three aphid species on four kinds of grasses. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 42:741-744.

Agarwala BK; Raychaudhuri DN, 1981. New records of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) from Bhutan. Entomon, 6(3):225-227

Al-Eryan MAS; El-Tabbakh SS, 2004. Forecasting yield of corn, Zea mays infested with corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis. Journal of Applied Entomology, 128(4):312-315.

Alves LFA; Prestes TMV; Zanini A; Dalmolin MF; Menezes Júnior Ade O, 2005. Natural biological control of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in a wheat field by parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Aphidiinae) in Medianeira, PR, Brazil. (Controle biológico natural de pulgões (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em lavoura de trigo por parasitóides (Hymenoptera, Aphidiinae), no município de Medianeira, PR, Brasil.) Semina: Ciencias Agrárias (Londrina), 26(2):155-160.

Amandeep Kaur; Neha Sharma; Gurpreet Kaur; Dhawan AK, 2012. Relative efficacy of new insecticides against wheat aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch). Indian Journal of Entomology, 74(2):206-208.

Anon., 2000. Cornleaf aphid. North Carolina, USA: Center for Integrated Pest Management.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Ba-Angood SA; Stewart RK, 1980. Economic thresholds and economic injury levels of cereal aphids on barley in southwestern Quebec. Canadian Entomologist, 112(8):759-764

Ba-Angood SA; Stewart RK, 1980. Effect of granular and foliar insecticides on cereal aphids (Hemiptera) and their natural enemies on field barley in southwestern Quebec. Canadian Entomologist, 112(12):1309-1313

Babu KS; Sharma AK, 2003. Compatibility of a newer insecticide, imidacloprid (Confidor) with propiconazole (Tilt 25 EC) against foliar aphids and their coccinellid predators of wheat ecosystem. Indian Journal of Entomology, 65(2):287-291.

Barta M; Cagan L, 2007. Natural control of Diuraphis noxia and Rhopalosiphum maidis (Aphidoidea) by parasitic entomophthorales (Zygomycota) in Slovakia. Cereal Research Communications, 35(1):89-97.

Bayhan E; Bayhan SÖ, 2011. Studies on survival rate, reproduction and biological parameters of corn leaf aphid (Rhopalosiphum maidis Fitch) on five corn cultivars. Research on Crops, 12(1):203-206.

Beant Singh; Deol GS; Mahal MS, 2003. Economic threshold level for the control of cereal aphid complex on wheat. Crop Research (Hisar), 26(3):497-500.

Beck DL; Dunn GM; Routley DG; Bowman JS, 1983. Biochemical basis of resistance in corn to the corn leaf aphid. Crop Science, 23:995-998.

Bellis GA; Donaldson JF; Carver M; Hancock DL; Fletcher MJ, 2004. Records of insect pests on Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Indian Ocean. Australian Entomologist, 31(3):93-102.

Betsiashvili M; Ahern KR; Jander G, 2015. Additive effects of two quantitative trait loci that confer Rhopalosiphum maidis (corn leaf aphid) resistance in maize inbred line Mo17. Journal of Experimental Botany, 66(2):571-578.

Bhatti MA; Duan J; Head GP; Jiang CJ; McKee MJ; Nickson TE; Pilcher CL; Pilcher CD, 2005. Field evaluation of the impact of corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)-protected Bt corn on foliage-dwelling arthropods. Environmental Entomology, 34(5):1336-1345. HTTP://

Blackman RL; Brown PA, 1991. Morphometric variation within and between populations of Rhopalosiphum maidis with a discussion of the taxonomic treatment of permanently parthenogenetic aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae). Entomologia Generalis, 16(2):97-113

Blackman RL; Eastop VF, 1984. Aphids on the World's Crops. An Identification and Information Guide. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.

Bodenheimer FS; Swirski E, 1957. Weizmann Sci. Pr. Israel. Jerusalem, 5 + ] 378 pp.

Bohlen E, 1973. Crop pests in Tanzania and their control. Berlin, Germany: Verlag Paul Parey.

Borer ET; Adams VT; Engler GA; Adams AL; Schumann CB; Seabloom EW, 2009. Aphid fecundity and grassland invasion: invader life history is the key. Ecological Applications, 19(5):1187-1196.

Brown PA; Blackman RL, 1988. Karyotype variation in the corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), species complex (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in relation to host-plant and morphology. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 78(2):351-363

Bueno VHP; Sampaio MV; Lenteren JCvan; Conti BFde; Silva RJ; Rodrigues SMM; Carnevale AB, 2006. Evaluation of two aphid parasitoids as candidates for biocontrol of aphid pests in protected cultivation in Brazil. Bulletin OILB/SROP [Integrated control in protected crops under Mediterranean climate. Proceedings of the meeting of the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants, West Palearctic Regional Section (IOBC/WPRS) Working Group, Murcia, Spain, 14-18 May 2006.], 29(4):175-180.

Capinera JL; Weissling TJ; Schweizer EE, 1985. Compatibility of intercropping with mechanized agriculture: effects of strip intercropping of pinto beans and sweet corn on insect abundance in Colorado. Journal of Economic Entomology, 78(2):354-357

Carena MJ; Glogoza P, 2004. Resistance of maize to the corn leaf aphid: a review. Maydica, 49(4):241-254.

Chhillar BS; Verma AN, 1982. Yield losses caused by the aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch.) in different varieties/strains of barley crop. Haryana Agricultural University Journal of Research, 12(2):298-300

CIE, 1971. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 67. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

D'Arcy CJ; Burnett PA, 1995. Barley Yellow Dwarf: 40 Years of Progress. St Paul, MN, USA: APS Press.

Datta SK; Raychaudhuri D; Agarwala BK, 1982. Study on aphid tending ants in India. I. New records of aphid and ant species in their association. Entomon, 7(3):327-328

Deka TN; Gudade BA; Vijayan AK; Chhetri P, 2014. Mollitrichosiphum spp: a new record of aphid from Alder-large cardamom ecosystem in Sikkim. International Journal of Forestry and Crop Improvement, 5(2):94-97.

Duarte Gómez HW; Zenner de Polanía I; 2006, publ. 2007. Feeding preference of Eriopis connexa connexa (Germar) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). (Preferencia alimentaria del depredador Eriopis connexa connexa (Germar) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).) Revista U.D.C.A. Actualidad & Divulgacion Centrifica, 9(1):163-171.

Eastop VF, 1954. The males of Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and a discussion on the uses of males in aphid taxonomy. Royal Entomological Society of London, Proceedings (A) 29:84-86.

El-Ibrashy MT; El-Ziady S; Riad AA, 1972. Laboratory studies on the biology of the corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Homoptera:Aphididae). Entomologia experimentalis et Applicata, 15(2):166-174

Elliott NC; Kieckhefer RW, 2000. Response by coccinellids to spatial variation in cereal aphid density. Population Ecology, 42(1):81-90.

Elliott NC; Kieckhefer RW; Walgenbach DD, 1988. Effects of constant and fluctuating temperatures on developmental rates and demographic statistics for the corn leaf aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 81(5):1383-1389

Feng MG; Nowierski RM; Scharen AL; Sands DC, 1991. Entomopathogenic fungi (Zygomycotina: Entomophthorales) infecting cereal aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Montana. Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 7(1):55-64

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