Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Thanatephorus cucumeris
(many names, depending on host)

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Datasheet

Thanatephorus cucumeris (many names, depending on host)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Thanatephorus cucumeris
  • Preferred Common Name
  • many names, depending on host
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •         Class: Agaricomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Sheath blight caused by T. cucumeris - lesions on leaves.
TitleSymptoms on leaves
CaptionSheath blight caused by T. cucumeris - lesions on leaves.
CopyrightChin Khoon Min
Sheath blight caused by T. cucumeris - lesions on leaves.
Symptoms on leavesSheath blight caused by T. cucumeris - lesions on leaves.Chin Khoon Min
Sheath blight caused by Thanatephorus cucumeris - on leaf sheath.
TitleSymptoms on leaf sheath
CaptionSheath blight caused by Thanatephorus cucumeris - on leaf sheath.
CopyrightChin Khoon Min
Sheath blight caused by Thanatephorus cucumeris - on leaf sheath.
Symptoms on leaf sheathSheath blight caused by Thanatephorus cucumeris - on leaf sheath.Chin Khoon Min
Rice seedling blight - caused by a complex of diseases.
TitleRice seedling blight
CaptionRice seedling blight - caused by a complex of diseases.
CopyrightMark Holderness/CABI BioScience
Rice seedling blight - caused by a complex of diseases.
Rice seedling blightRice seedling blight - caused by a complex of diseases.Mark Holderness/CABI BioScience
Rice white head.
TitleRice white head
CaptionRice white head.
Copyright©Mark Holderness/CABI BioScience
Rice white head.
Rice white headRice white head.©Mark Holderness/CABI BioScience
Lesions on leaf sheath of maize.
TitleSheath blight of maize
CaptionLesions on leaf sheath of maize.
CopyrightMark Holderness/CABI BioScience
Lesions on leaf sheath of maize.
Sheath blight of maizeLesions on leaf sheath of maize.Mark Holderness/CABI BioScience
Web blight on cowpeas.
TitleSymptoms on cowpea
CaptionWeb blight on cowpeas.
CopyrightRob Williams/CAB International
Web blight on cowpeas.
Symptoms on cowpeaWeb blight on cowpeas.Rob Williams/CAB International
T. cucumeris, mycelium on celery plant.
TitleT. cucumeris on celery
CaptionT. cucumeris, mycelium on celery plant.
Copyright©Anna L. Snowdon
T. cucumeris, mycelium on celery plant.
T. cucumeris on celeryT. cucumeris, mycelium on celery plant.©Anna L. Snowdon
T. cucumeris - teleomorph (perfect state) on rice stem.
TitleTeleomorph
CaptionT. cucumeris - teleomorph (perfect state) on rice stem.
CopyrightChin Khoon Min
T. cucumeris - teleomorph (perfect state) on rice stem.
TeleomorphT. cucumeris - teleomorph (perfect state) on rice stem.Chin Khoon Min
Sclerotium.
TitleSclerotium
CaptionSclerotium.
CopyrightMark Holderness/CABI BioScience
Sclerotium.
SclerotiumSclerotium.Mark Holderness/CABI BioScience
A, Sclerotial cells; B, hyphae from aerial mycelium; C, monilioid cells; A, B and C all from PDA cultures of Solanum tuberosum isolates; D, basidia and basidiospores on Newbouldia leaves. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 406. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
TitleT. cucumeris - line drawing
CaptionA, Sclerotial cells; B, hyphae from aerial mycelium; C, monilioid cells; A, B and C all from PDA cultures of Solanum tuberosum isolates; D, basidia and basidiospores on Newbouldia leaves. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 406. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Copyright©CABI BioScience
A, Sclerotial cells; B, hyphae from aerial mycelium; C, monilioid cells; A, B and C all from PDA cultures of Solanum tuberosum isolates; D, basidia and basidiospores on Newbouldia leaves. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 406. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
T. cucumeris - line drawingA, Sclerotial cells; B, hyphae from aerial mycelium; C, monilioid cells; A, B and C all from PDA cultures of Solanum tuberosum isolates; D, basidia and basidiospores on Newbouldia leaves. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 406. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.©CABI BioScience
Damping off of quinoa caused by R. solani.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionDamping off of quinoa caused by R. solani.
CopyrightSolveig Danielsen
Damping off of quinoa caused by R. solani.
SymptomsDamping off of quinoa caused by R. solani.Solveig Danielsen
Damping off of quinoa caused by R. solani.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionDamping off of quinoa caused by R. solani.
CopyrightSolveig Danielsen
Damping off of quinoa caused by R. solani.
SymptomsDamping off of quinoa caused by R. solani.Solveig Danielsen

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Thanatephorus cucumeris (Frank) Donk

Preferred Common Name

  • many names, depending on host

Other Scientific Names

  • Botryobasidium solani
  • Ceratobasidium filamentosum (Pat.) Olive
  • Corticium areolatum
  • Corticium praticola Kotila
  • Corticium solani (Prillieux & Delacroix) Bourdot & Galzin
  • Corticium vagum Berk. & Curt.
  • Hypochnus aderholdii Kolosh.
  • Hypochnus cucumeris Frank
  • Hypochnus filamentosus Pat.
  • Hypochnus sasakii Shirai
  • Hypochnus solani Prillieux & Delacroix
  • Moniliopsis aderholdii Ruhland
  • Moniliopsis solani (Kühn) R. T. Moore
  • Pellicularia filamentosa (Pat.) Rogers
  • Pellicularia filamentosa f. sasakii (Pat.) Rogers
  • Pellicularia sasakii Ito
  • Rhizoctonia aderholdii Kolosch
  • Rhizoctonia macrosclerotia
  • Rhizoctonia microsclerotia
  • Rhizoctonia solani
  • Sclerotium irregulare Miyake
  • Thanatephorus praticola (Kotila) Flentje

International Common Names

  • English: areolate leaf spot; bare patch (tulips, cereals); barley stunt disease (cereals); basal rot; basal stem rot (soyabeans); basal stem rot (soybeans); black leg of sugar beet; black scurf and stem rot (potato); black speck of potato; bordered rice sheath spot; bottom rot of lettuce; bud rot (strawberry); bulb rot (ornamentals); collar rot; crater disease (carrots); crown and root rot (sugar beet); crown bud rot (alfalfa); damping-off; foot rot; fruit rot; leaf blight (alfalfa, soyabeans, rape, mustard ); leaf blight (of rice); leaf blight and tuber soft rot (yam); leaf spot (tobacco); netted scab/elephant hide (potato); potato stem canker; rhizoctonia head rot; rhizoctonia leaf blight (tomato); rice sheath blight; root canker (alfalfa, potato); root rot (bean, cotton, soybean); sclerotial blight of rice; seed rot (cotton, lupins, peanuts); seedling blight (alfalfa, clover, soybean, vegetables); sharp cereal eyespot; sheath blight of rice; sore shin of tobacco; spear tip (wheat); stem blight of rice; stem canker (potato, sweet potato); stem rot; stolon canker (potato); web blight (legumes, ornamentals); wirestem (cotton)
  • Spanish: hipocnosis de la soja; mancha de la vaina; podredumbre de los semilleros; rhizoctonosis de la patata; sarna de la patata; tizón de la vaina; viruela de la patata
  • French: chancre de la tige; chancre du pied de la pomme de terre; fonte des semis; hypochnose du soja; maladie des manchettes de la pomme de terre; pied noir; pourridie; pourriture basale; pourriture de la tige; pourriture du collet; pourriture fauve; pourriture noire des racines; rhizoctone brun; rhizoctone commun; rhizoctone noir de la pomme de terre; rhizoctone ocelle du blé; tige noire; toile ou fonte des semis; variole des tubercules de la pomme de terre
  • Portuguese: tombamento

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Blattscheidenbrand: Reis; Fussfaeule; Pockenkrankheit: Kartoffel; Stengelfaeule; Umfallkrankheit: Keimlinge; Weisshosigkeit: Kartoffel; Wurzelbrand: Keimlinge; Wurzeltoeterkrankheit: Kartoffel

EPPO code

  • RHIZSO (Thanatephorus cucumeris)
  • RHIZSR (Thanatephorus cucumeris)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •                 Class: Agaricomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Agaricomycetidae
  •                         Order: Ceratobasidiales
  •                             Family: Ceratobasidiaceae
  •                                 Genus: Thanatephorus
  •                                     Species: Thanatephorus cucumeris

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BurundiPresentAllen (1995)
CameroonPresentCABI (Undated a)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentAllen (1995)
Côte d'IvoirePresentAllen (1995)
EgyptPresentCABI (Undated a)
EthiopiaPresentAllen (1995)
KenyaPresentAllen (1995)
MadagascarPresentOu (1985); Allen (1995)
MalawiPresentAllen (1995)
MauritiusPresentAllen (1995)
MozambiquePresentAllen (1995)
NigeriaPresentAllen (1995)
RwandaPresentAllen (1995)
SenegalPresentCABI (Undated a)
Sierra LeonePresentDeighton (1956)
South AfricaPresentAllen (1995); CABI (Undated);
TanzaniaPresentAllen (1995)
TunisiaPresentCABI (Undated a)
UgandaPresentAllen (1995)
ZambiaPresentAllen (1995)
ZimbabwePresentAllen (1995)

Asia

BangladeshPresentHossain et al. (1989)
ChinaPresentTai (1979); Liu AiXin et al. (2014); Xie et al. (2015)
-AnhuiPresentTai (1979)
-FujianPresentTai (1979)
-GansuPresentTai (1979); Yang and Wu (2013a)
-GuangdongPresentTai (1979)
-GuangxiPresentTai (1979)
-HebeiPresentTai (1979)
-HeilongjiangPresentTai (1979); Yang and Wu (2012)
-HenanPresentTai (1979)
-HubeiPresentTai (1979)
-HunanPresentTai (1979)
-Inner MongoliaPresentTai (1979); Li XiaoNi et al. (2014); Zhou et al. (2015); Zhang et al. (2016)
-JiangsuPresentTai (1979)
-JiangxiPresentTai (1979)
-JilinPresentTai (1979); Bai et al. (2012); Yang and Wu (2013); Bai et al. (2015); Sun et al. (2015); Ou et al. (2016); Xie et al. (2016)Changchun
-LiaoningPresentTai (1979)
-QinghaiPresentLi XiaoNi et al. (2014)
-ShaanxiPresentTai (1979)
-ShandongPresentTai (1979); Chi et al. (2016); Yi et al. (2016)Laixi District, Qingdao City
-ShanxiPresentTai (1979); CABI (Undated)
-SichuanPresentTai (1979)
-XinjiangPresentTai (1979)
-YunnanPresentTai (1979)
-ZhejiangPresentTai (1979); CABI (Undated)
IndiaPresentSrinivasan and Visalakchi (2010); Manju Rani et al. (2013)
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentBilgrami et al. (1991)
-Andhra PradeshPresentBilgrami et al. (1991)
-AssamPresentBilgrami et al. (1991)
-BiharPresentCABI (Undated a)
-ChhattisgarhPresentYadav and Anamika Tiwari (2005)
-DelhiPresentBilgrami et al. (1991)
-GujaratPresentBilgrami et al. (1991)
-HaryanaPresentBilgrami et al. (1991); Ram Singh et al. (2012)
-Himachal PradeshPresentBilgrami et al. (1991)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentBilgrami et al. (1991)
-KarnatakaPresentBilgrami et al. (1991); Nagaraja and Reddy (2010)
-KeralaPresentBilgrami et al. (1991); Cherian et al. (2014)
-Madhya PradeshPresentBilgrami et al. (1991)
-MaharashtraPresentBilgrami et al. (1991)
-ManipurPresentCABI (Undated a)
-MeghalayaPresentBilgrami et al. (1991); Baiswar et al. (2012);
-OdishaPresentBilgrami et al. (1991)
-PunjabPresentBilgrami et al. (1991)
-RajasthanPresentBilgrami et al. (1991)
-SikkimPresentCABI (Undated a)
-Tamil NaduPresentBilgrami et al. (1991); Srinivasan and Visalakchi (2010)
-Uttar PradeshPresentBilgrami et al. (1991)
-UttarakhandPresentVineeta Singh et al. (2002); Bijender Kumar (2016)
-West BengalPresentBilgrami et al. (1991)
IndonesiaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Naito et al., 1993
IranPresentKhosravi et al. (2011); Pourmahdi and Taheri (2015); CABI (Undated)
IraqPresentCABI (Undated a)
IsraelPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Nachmias et al., 1995
JapanPresentOu (1985); Ono et al. (2012)
-HokkaidoPresentCABI (Undated); Misawa and Kuninaga (2013); Misawa et al. (2013)Original citation: Hyakumachi et al., 1996
-HonshuPresentCABI (Undated a)
-KyushuPresentSakaguchi et al. (1990)
LaosPresentIreland et al. (2015)
LebanonPresentChoueiri et al. (2004)
MalaysiaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentSingh (1980)
-SabahPresentSingh (1980)
-SarawakPresentSingh (1980)
NepalPresent, WidespreadIPPC (2005)
North KoreaPresentCABI (Undated a)
OmanPresentAl-Mawaali et al. (2013)
PakistanPresentCABI (Undated a)
PhilippinesPresentOu (1985)
SingaporePresent, Few occurrencesYik and Wong (1992); AVA (2001)
South KoreaPresentAktaruzzaman et al. (2015); Kim et al. (1993)
Sri LankaPresentOu (1985); CABI (Undated)
SyriaPresentCABI (Undated a)
TaiwanPresentTai (1979)
ThailandPresentCABI (Undated a)
TurkeyPresentCABI (Undated); Erper et al. (2016)AG-4 HG-I; Original citation: Özer and Bayraktar (2012)
VietnamPresentMai et al. (1993)

Europe

AustriaPresentBedlan (2016)
BulgariaPresentCABI (Undated a)
CroatiaPresentCABI (Undated a)
CzechiaPresentCABI (Undated a)
CzechoslovakiaPresentCABI (Undated a)
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresentCABI (Undated a)
DenmarkPresentCABI (Undated a)
FinlandPresentCABI (Undated a)
FrancePresentCABI (Undated a)
GermanyPresentCABI (Undated a)
GreecePresentCABI (Undated a)
HungaryPresentCABI (Undated a)
ItalyPresentPolizzi et al. (2011); Garibaldi et al. (2013); Garibaldi et al. (2013a); Garibaldi et al. (2014); Bertetti et al. (2015); CABI (Undated);
-SicilyPresentPolizzi et al. (2010)
LithuaniaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Rep?iene and Mineikiene (2006)
NetherlandsPresentCABI (Undated a)
NorwayPresentCABI (Undated a)
PolandPresentZalewska et al. (2015)East
RomaniaPresentCABI (Undated a)
RussiaPresentCABI (Undated a)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentCABI (Undated a)
SpainPresentPalmero Llamas et al. (2012)
SwedenPresentCABI (Undated a)
SwitzerlandPresentKeiser et al. (2002)
UkrainePresentCABI (Undated a)
United KingdomPresentCABI (Undated); McCormack et al. (2013); Gómez et al. (2015)Original citation: Gilligan et al., 1996
-Northern IrelandPresentCABI (Undated a)

North America

BarbadosPresentSchotman (1989)
CanadaPresentBains and Bisht (1995)
-AlbertaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-ManitobaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-OntarioPresentCABI (Undated a)
-Prince Edward IslandPresentCABI (Undated a)
-SaskatchewanPresentCABI (Undated a)
Costa RicaPresentSchotman (1989); EPPO (2006)
CubaPresentSchotman (1989)
Dominican RepublicPresentSchotman (1989)
GuadeloupePresentSchotman (1989)
HondurasPresentSchotman (1989); EPPO (2006)
JamaicaPresentSchotman (1989)
MartiniquePresentSchotman (1989)
MexicoPresentCABI (Undated a)
PanamaPresentCABI (Undated a)
Puerto RicoPresentSchotman (1989)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentSchotman (1989)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentSchotman (1989)
United StatesPresentOu (1985); CABI (Undated)
-AlabamaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-AlaskaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-ArkansasPresentFaske and Spurlock (2013)AG1-IA
-CaliforniaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-ColoradoPresentCABI (Undated a)
-ConnecticutPresentLaMondia and Vossbrinck (2012)
-FloridaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-GeorgiaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-HawaiiPresentTrujillo et al. (1988)
-IdahoPresentWoodhall et al. (2012); Miles et al. (2013)
-IllinoisPresentCABI (Undated a)
-IndianaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-IowaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-KansasPresentCABI (Undated a)
-KentuckyPresentCABI (Undated a)
-LouisianaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-MainePresentCABI (Undated a)
-MarylandPresentCABI (Undated a)
-MassachusettsPresentLaMondia and Vossbrinck (2011)
-MichiganPresentWoodhall et al. (2012)
-MinnesotaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-MississippiPresentTrigiano et al. (2014)
-MissouriPresentCABI (Undated a)
-MontanaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-NebraskaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-New JerseyPresentCABI (Undated a)
-New YorkPresentCABI (Undated a)
-North CarolinaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-North DakotaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-OhioPresentCABI (Undated a)
-OklahomaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-OregonPresentCABI (Undated a)
-South CarolinaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-TennesseePresentCABI (Undated a)
-TexasPresentCABI (Undated a)
-WashingtonPresentCABI (Undated a)
-WisconsinPresentCABI (Undated a)

Oceania

American SamoaPresentBrooks (2002)
AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: MacNish et al., 1995
-New South WalesPresentCABI (Undated a)
-South AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-VictoriaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-Western AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated a)
New ZealandPresentCABI (Undated a)
Papua New GuineaPresentShaw (1984)
SamoaPresentGerlach (1988)

South America

ArgentinaPresentMercado Cárdenas et al. (2012); CABI (Undated)
BoliviaPresentSchotman (1989); EPPO (2006)
BrazilPresentSchotman (1989); EPPO (2006); Macedo et al. (2016)
-AmazonasPresentCABI (Undated a)
-GoiasPresentCosta et al. (2007)
-Minas GeraisPresentCABI (Undated a)
-ParaPresentGasparotto et al. (2001)
-PernambucoPresentCABI (Undated a)
-RoraimaPresentNechet and Halfeld-Vieira (2006)
-Sao PauloPresentCABI (Undated a)
ChilePresentCABI (Undated a)
ColombiaPresentCABI (Undated a)
GuyanaPresentSchotman (1989)
ParaguayPresentCABI (Undated a)
PeruPresentSchotman (1989); EPPO (2006)
SurinamePresentOu (1985)
UruguayPresentCABI (Undated a)
VenezuelaPresentOu (1985)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / extensive mould
Growing point / rot
Inflorescence / discoloration panicle
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / webbing
Leaves / wilting
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Seeds / discolorations
Seeds / rot
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / mould growth on lesion
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Vegetative organs / surface cracking
Whole plant / damping off
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aphelenchus avenae Herbivore
Aporrectodea caliginosa Predator South Australia
Aporrectodea rosea Predator South Australia
Arachnula impatiens Pathogen
Aspergillus niger Antagonist
Azotobacter chroococcum Pathogen potatoes
Bacillus megaterium Pathogen
Bacillus subtilis Pathogen Taiwan
Burkholderia cepacia Antagonist
Clonostachys rosea Antagonist potatoes
Coniothyrium minitans Mycoparasite
Cylindrocarpon olivaceum Pathogen
Enterobacter cloacae Pathogen
Epicoccum nigrum Antagonist
Fusarium culmorum Pathogen
Geomyces pannorum Pathogen
Gibberella baccata Pathogen
Gibberella fujikuroi Pathogen
Gibberella indica Pathogen
Gliocladium deliquescens Antagonist
Gliocladium virens Antagonist Maryland potatoes
Hormiactis fimicola Pathogen
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite Germany potatoes
Laetisaria arvalis Pathogen sugarbeet
Lecanicillium lecanii Pathogen
Monacrosporium salinum Pathogen
Neurospora sitophila Pathogen
Penicillium aurantiogriseum Antagonist
Penicillium nigricans Pathogen
Penicillium verrucosum cyclopium Pathogen
Phyxia scabiei Herbivore
Pnyxia scabiei
Pseudomonas fluorescens Antagonist Tamil Nadu
Pseudomonas stutzeri Pathogen
Pythium oligandrum Mycoparasite
Sarocladium strictum Mycoparasite Gupta, 2013
Streptomyces ahygroscopicus Pathogen
Streptomyces hygroscopicus geldanus Pathogen
Tolypocladium niveum Pathogen
Trichoderma aureoviride Antagonist
Trichoderma hamatum Antagonist Maryland potatoes
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist potatoes
Trichoderma koningii Antagonist Nigeria
Trichoderma longibrachiatum Antagonist
Trichoderma pseudokoningii Antagonist
Trichothecium roseum Antagonist
Verticillium biguttatum Pathogen potatoes
Verticillium lamellicola Pathogen
Verticillium psalliotae Pathogen
Verticillium tenerum Pathogen
Verticillium tricorpus Pathogen California cotton seedlings; potato
Zygorhynchus moelleri Pathogen

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes hyphae; sclerotia Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; sclerotia Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; sclerotia Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants sclerotia Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; sclerotia Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots hyphae; sclerotia Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; sclerotia Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; sclerotia Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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ABARE, 1999. Australian Grains Industry: Performance by agroecological zones. ABARE Report prepared for the Grains Research and Development Corporation Canberra April 1999.

Aktaruzzaman M, Kim JoonYoung, Afroz T, Kim ByungSup, 2015. First report of web blight of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-1-IB in Korea. Mycobiology, 43(2):170-173. http://mycobiology.or.kr/search.php?where=aview&id=10.5941/MYCO.2015.43.2.170&code=0184MB&vmode=FULL

Aleksandrov IN, 1980. Basidiomycetes parasitizing agricultural crops in Mali. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 14(2):127-129

Allen DJ, 1995. An annotated list of diseases, pathogens and associated fungi of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in eastern and southern Africa. Phytopathological Papers Wallingford, UK; CAB International., No. 34:xx + 42 pp.

Al-Mawaali QS, Al-Sadi AME, Al-Said FA, Deadman ML, 2013. Etiology, development and reaction of muskmelon to vine decline under arid conditions of Oman. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 52(3):457-465. http://www.fupress.com/pm/

Amani M, 2011. Identification of fungal pathogens on banana (Musa acuminata L.) in Sistan & Bluchestan province. Plant Protection Journal, 3(2):Pe147-Pe159, En160. http://www.ppjiau.com/fa/index.php

Ames de Icochea T, 1998. Enfermedades fungosas y bacterianas de raices y tuberculos andinos. Lima, Peru: CIP, 172 pp.

Ashworth LJ, Langley BC, Thomas WH, 1961. Comparative pathogenicity of Sclerotium rolfsii and Rhizoctonia solani to Spanish peanuts. Phytopathology, 51:600-605.

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore.

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