Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Rhagoletis cingulata
(cherry fruit fly)

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Datasheet

Rhagoletis cingulata (cherry fruit fly)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Rhagoletis cingulata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • cherry fruit fly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • R. cingulata (listed on EPPO A2 list) is a severe pest of cherries. It is closely connected to its host plants Prunus avium, P. cerasi, P. serotina, P. mahaleb and P. emarginata. Prunus ma...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleLine drawing of adult R. cingulata
Caption
Copyright©CABI BioScience
Line drawing of adult R. cingulata©CABI BioScience

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew)

Preferred Common Name

  • cherry fruit fly

Other Scientific Names

  • Trypeta (Rhagoletis) cingulata Loew
  • Trypeta cingulata Loew

International Common Names

  • French: mouche des cerises; trypete des cerises

Local Common Names

  • : cherry maggot; eastern cherry fruit fly; whitebanded cherry fruit fly

EPPO code

  • RHAGCI (Rhagoletis cingulata)

Summary of Invasiveness

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R. cingulata (listed on EPPO A2 list) is a severe pest of cherries. It is closely connected to its host plants Prunus avium, P. cerasi, P. serotina, P. mahaleb and P. emarginata. Prunus mahaleb is native in warm locations of Southern and Central Europe. It is used as rootstock for tart cherries and as ornamental plant. In Germany R. cingulata appears 3-4 weeks later than the native species R. cerasi, and due to this attacks late cherry varieties, mainly tart cherries, e.g. the economic important variety “Schattenmorellen”. This has been proven by fruit samples, from which pupae were obtained and in the following year R. cingulata adults emerged (species confirmed by Dr. Allen Norrbom, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA). Infestation levels in tart cherries amounted to more than 20%.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Tephritidae
  •                             Genus: Rhagoletis
  •                                 Species: Rhagoletis cingulata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Prior to the work of Bush (1966)R. cingulata and R. indifferens were generally considered as a single species.

Description

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Adult

Specimens should be carefully examined for the wing pattern.

Diagnostic features of the genus are as follows (characters extracted from key to North American genera of Tephritidae by Foote et al., 1993): Head with two pairs orbital setae; posterior pair reclinate. Gena with only short anterior setae. First flagellomere (third antennal segment) at least slightly pointed at the apex. Thorax with dorsocentral setae closer to level of anterior supra-alar setae than transverse suture. Scutellum not swollen or shiny. Wing with cells bm and bcu of similar depth; bcu with a short acute extension. Crossvein R-M near middle of cell dm.

This species may be identified using the Diptera key in the Crop Protection Compendium taxonomic identification aid. For full details of its separation from other North American species, see Foote et al. (1993).

The main features of the R. cingulata species complex (which also includes R. indifferens) are as follows: thorax and abdomen predominantly black. Scutellum base black. Apical band of wing forked, or upper arm of fork separated by clear area, leaving isolated dark spot at wing-tip.

In general, R. cingulata and R. indifferens are most easily separated by their location, with R. cingulata being eastern North American and R. indifferens being western North American, but there is a slight overlap in the distributions (see Distribution Section). In general, R. cingulata differs from R. indifferens as follows: R. cingulata has fore coxa yellow, anterior apical crossband on wing often reduced to an isolated spot (the stipple in the drawing shows possible joined condition); R. indifferens has fore coxa shaded black on posterior surface, anterior apical crossband rarely reduced to an isolated spot. See also Carroll et al. (2002).

Larva

Diagnosis of genus by Elson-Harris (White and Elson-Harris, 1994): Antennal sensory organ with a short basal segment and cone-shaped distal segment; maxillary sensory organ flat, with well defined sensilla surrounded by small cuticular folds; stomal sensory organ rounded, with a peg-like sensilla; large, preoral teeth near base of stomal sensory organ; no preoral lobes; oral ridges in 5-13 short, unserrated rows; no accessory plates. Stout spinules forming discontinuous rows on almost all segments. Anterior spiracles with 7-35 stout tubules. Posterior spiracular slits 3-8 times as long as broad, with 3-16 short, branched spiracular hairs. Anal lobes large, protuberant with well defined tubercles and sensilla.

An updated description of  the larva of this species can be found in Carroll et al. (2004). Any Rhagoletis larvae found in cherry and having the following feature is likely to be this species: at least 21 tubules in each anterior spiracle. See the key to larvae in White and Elson-Harris (1994), which used a combination of host and fragmentary morphological data.

Distribution

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R. cingulata is an eastern North American species. Western records of this species were mostly based on misidentifications of R. indifferens. However, there is a small overlap as R. cingulata is known from Arizona, and R. indifferens is found to its east in New Mexico (see map in Foote et al., 1993).

Data from Harris (1989) and Foote et al. (1993) were extracted from distribution maps which were in some cases difficult to interpret. The following records quoted by CIE (1990), as derived from Harris (1989), appear to have been based on misinterpretations of Harris' map and are not accepted here: USA (Delaware, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont) and Canada (Nova Scotia). A record for Nebraska (CIE, 1990) also could not be confirmed from a reliable source.

A record for Nova Scotia published in previous versions of the Compendium was erroneous. This species has never been reported from Nova Scotia (CFIA, personal communication, 2015).

Harris (1989)Foote et al. (1993) and CABI/EPPO (2015) all provide distribution maps.

See also CABI/EPPO (1998, No. 132 and No. 135).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

North America

CanadaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-ManitobaAbsent, invalid recordBush, 1966; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-New BrunswickAbsent, reported but not confirmedHarris, 1989; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-Newfoundland and LabradorAbsent, unreliable recordHarris, 1989; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-Nova ScotiaAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-OntarioPresentNativeBush, 1966; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-Prince Edward IslandAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-QuebecPresentNativeHarris, 1989; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-SaskatchewanPresentNativeHarris, 1989; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
MexicoRestricted distributionFoote, 1981; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
USARestricted distributionEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-AlabamaAbsent, reported but not confirmedHarris, 1989; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-ArizonaRestricted distributionNativeFoote et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-ArkansasAbsent, reported but not confirmedHarris, 1989; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-ConnecticutPresent, few occurrencesNativeHarris, 1989; Foote et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-DelawareAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-District of ColumbiaPresent, few occurrencesNativeHarris, 1989; Foote et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-FloridaRestricted distributionNativeBush, 1966; Foote et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-GeorgiaPresentNativeBush, 1966; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-IllinoisPresent, few occurrencesNativeFoote et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-IndianaPresent, few occurrencesNativeBush, 1966; Foote et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-IowaRestricted distributionNativeFoote et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-LouisianaPresent, few occurrencesNativeHarris, 1989; Foote et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-MaineAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-MarylandPresent, few occurrencesNativeBush, 1966; Foote et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-MassachusettsPresent, few occurrencesNativeHarris, 1989; Foote et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-MichiganWidespreadNativeBush, 1966; Foote et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-MississippiPresent, few occurrencesNativeBush, 1966; Foote et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-NebraskaAbsent, reported but not confirmedEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-New HampshireAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-New JerseyPresent, few occurrencesNativeBush, 1966; Foote et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-New MexicoPresentNativeEPPO, 2014
-New YorkWidespreadNativeFoote et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-North CarolinaAbsent, reported but not confirmedHarris, 1989; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-OhioPresent, few occurrencesNativeBush, 1966; Foote et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-PennsylvaniaPresent, few occurrencesNativeBush, 1966; Foote et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-South CarolinaAbsent, reported but not confirmedHarris, 1989; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-TennesseePresent, few occurrencesNativeBush, 1966; Foote et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-TexasPresent, few occurrencesNativeFoote et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-VermontAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-VirginiaPresent, few occurrencesNativeHarris, 1989; Foote et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-West VirginiaAbsent, reported but not confirmedHarris, 1989; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-WisconsinPresent, few occurrencesNativeProkopy, 1977; Foote et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015

Europe

AustriaPresent, few occurrencesEgartner et al., 2010; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
BelgiumPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
CroatiaPresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
Czech RepublicPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2015
FranceTransient: actionable, under eradicationEPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
GermanyRestricted distributionIntroduced1999 Invasive Merz & Niehaus, 2001; Lampe et al., 2005; Vogt et al., 2007; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015Species has been detected in nearly all cherry-growing regions of Germany.
HungaryPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced2006 Invasive EPPO, 2007a; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015Detected in sour cherry orchards.
ItalyAbsent, reported but not confirmedCABI/EPPO, 2015
NetherlandsRestricted distributionNPPO of the Netherlands, 2013; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
SloveniaPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced2007 Invasive EPPO, 2007b; Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Food, MAFF; IPPC, 2007; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015Eastern part of Slovenia, sour cherry orchards.
SwitzerlandRestricted distributionIntroducedBoller and Mani, 1994; Boller, 2000; Daniel and Wyss, 2007; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
UKAbsent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014

Oceania

New ZealandAbsent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014

History of Introduction and Spread

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In Germany it is not known when R. cingulata was introduced. It may be connected with the introduction of its native host Prunus serotina in Europe in the early seventeenth century.

Risk of Introduction

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R. cingulata is an important quarantine pest for temperate regions. For example, the EPPO A2 list includes R. cingulata.

Habitat

Top of page Areas with suitable hosts and climate.

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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R. cingulata attacks cherries (Prunus species). It is a pest of P. cerasus and P. avium (Bush, 1966), and P. serotina is the main native host (Foote et al., 1993).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage

Symptoms

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Attacked fruit will be pitted by oviposition punctures, around which some discoloration usually occurs. Infested fruits appear normal until the maggot is nearly full-grown, at which time sunken spots appear. Maggots and their frass inside the cherry render the fruit unsalable. Infested fruits are more susceptible to fungi. The third larval instar forms one to three holes (about 1 mm in diameter) through the skin of the cherry, before it leaves it for pupation in the soil (Frick et al., 1954).

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / extensive mould
Fruit / gummosis
Fruit / internal feeding
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / lesions: scab or pitting
Fruit / obvious exit hole
Fruit / odour
Fruit / ooze

Biology and Ecology

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Most Rhagoletis species have a similar biology, as detailed by Christenson and Foote (1960) and by Frick et al. (1954) for R. cinguluta: eggs are laid below the skin of the host fruit and hatch after 3-7 days; the larvae usually feed for 2-5 weeks; pupariation is in the soil under the host plant and this is the normal overwintering stage; adults may live for up to 40 days under field conditions. In Pennsylvania, adults emerge in June (Jubb and Cox, 1974). The flight period varies in dependence with the habitat (Teixeira et al., 2007).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Adult flight and the transport of infected fruits are the major means of movement and dispersal to previously uninfected areas. In general, Rhagoletis species are not known to fly more than a short distance. In international trade, the major means of dispersal to previously uninfested areas is the transport of fruits containing live larvae. There is also a risk from the transport of puparia in soil or packaging with plants which have already fruited.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
ForestryVia its host plant P. serotina Yes Yes
Garden waste disposalInfested fruits Yes
Hedges and windbreaksCan serve as a reservoir from which dispersal can occur Yes
HitchhikerInfested fruits, pupae in transportation units Yes Yes
HorticultureInfested fruits, can serve as a reservoir from which dispersal can occur Yes Yes
Ornamental purposesHost plants as ornamentals Yes
People sharing resourcesInfested fruits, pupae in transportation units Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsFruit in case or handbag. Yes
ConsumablesLarvae in fruits might be overlooked when infestation level is low Yes Yes
Containers and packaging - non-woodLarvae might be overlooked when infestation level is low Yes Yes
Containers and packaging - woodOf fruit cargo. Yes
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesInfested fruits Yes
Land vehiclesLorries, aeroplanes and perhaps ships, with fruit cargo. Yes
MailFruit in post. Yes
Soil, sand and gravelRisk of puparia in soil. Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) eggs; larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging liable to carry the pest in trade/transportTimber typeUsed as packing
Non-wood Plastic transport boxes for fruit Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative

Impact

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R. cingulata is an important pest of cherries in eastern North America. In Europe, where it is found in cherry growing regions, it attacks late cherry varities, often tart cherries.

Economic Impact

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R. cingulata is a severe pest of cherries. In Europe, due to its 3 to 4 week later appearance compared to the European species R. cerasi, late cherry varieties are attacked. To date, these are mainly tart cherries, e.g. the economically important variety “Schattenmorellen”. This is of importance as the native species (R. cerasi) is not an important pest of these sour cherries. If the planting of other late cherry varieties is increased, e.g. economic important sweet varities to prolong the cherry season, these are also in danger of being infested. In Germany, R. cingulata has been detected in nearly all cherry growing regions (Baden-Württemberg, Brandenburg, Bavaria, Hesse, Hamburg, Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia). Higher population densities are observed in areas with extensive cherry growing and with reservoirs such as abandoned orchards, hedges and unmanaged areas including host plants. To date infestation levels in sour cherries have reached 20 to 30% (Vogt, 2007; Vogt et al., 2007, 2010). In all regions where R. cingulata has been observed, chemical control is now recommended. The occurrence of R. cingulata has also recently been reported from further countries: Slovenia and Hungary, no further details are available as yet as monitoring has only just started.

Environmental Impact

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It is unlikely that the species has an impact on habitats or biodiversity. It only competes with the European species R. cerasi, and has a slightly alternative phenology emerging 3 to 4 weeks later. The resources used by both species are abundant.

Social Impact

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Since the occurrence of R. cingulata it has become necessary to treat sour cherry varities with insecticides. Expansions of infestations might lead to the giving up of extensive cherry growing, especially when managed as a sideline, as well as the cutting down of trees in gardens.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Detection and Inspection

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Traps have been developed which capture both sexes, based on visual, or visual plus odour, attraction. They are coated in sticky material and are usually either flat-surfaced and coloured fluorescent yellow to elicit a supernormal foliage response (see Reissig, 1976), or spherical and dark-coloured to represent a fruit (see Prokopy, 1977); traps which combine both foliage and fruit attraction can also be used. The odour comes from protein hydrolysate or other substances emitting ammonia, such as ammonium acetate. See Boller and Prokopy (1976), Economopoulos (1989) and Liburd et al. (2001) for a discussion of these traps and Pelz-Stelinski et al. (2006a) for positioning of the traps. Burditt (1988) has evaluated different traps for catching R. indifferens in British Columbia, Canada.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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R. cingulata is most likely to be confused with R. indifferens (see Morphology Section). The adults of R. cingulata are also very similar to, and not always separable from, those of two species associated with Oleaceae, namely R. chionanthi and R. osmanthi (see Foote et al., 1993, for details).

Prevention and Control

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Control

Upon detection, fallen and infected fruit should be removed and destroyed. This aspect is very important, but normally rarely executed as it costs time and money.

Chemical control

Cherry fruit fly control has relied for many years on the use of broad-spectrum insecticides. Boller and Prokopy (1976) note already that systemic organophosphates, such as dimethoate, are highly effective against most species, killing eggs, larvae and adults. Belanger et al. (1985) discussed the use of pyrethroids, but these were only of use when pest activity was low. Use of soil insecticides to kill puparia has been considered by AliNiazee (1974) and Boller and Prokopy (1976) referred to experiments with juvenile hormone analogues applied to the soil. However, regarding ecotoxicological aspects soil applications should not be considered anymore. Advanced IPM systems have been implemented in some areas, for example, Michigan (Edson et al., 1998). Broad-spectrum insecticides are still in use (Rothwell et al., 2006), but due to the re-evaluation processes underway for pesticides in the USA, Canada and Europe these most probably will disappear. In Germany, dimethoate has no registration any more for cherry fruit fly control since 2005 and its use has only been allowed by special permit since then. Studies with newer insecticides, e.g. neonicotinids or acetamiprid (Fried, 2003; Galli, 2003), and others are ongoing. In the USA, particle film (Kaolin clay) is another option for cherry fruit fly control.

As a new and environmentally friendly measure, progress has been made with bait sprays (food bait mixed with low quantities of insecticides) containing spinosad as an insecticide (e.g. Yee and Chapmann, 2005; Pelz-Stelinski et al., 2006b; Yee and Alston, 2006; Köppler et al., 2008). Bait sprays can be applied as spot treatments on the trees. In comparison with cover sprays, the amount of insecticide used is drastically reduced with bait sprays. Constraints in their effectiveness are high population densities and rainfall, because bait sprays up to now are not rainfast. Furthermore, infestation sources, i.e. untreated host trees, should not be in the vicinity in order to avoid immigration of fertile females.

Biological control

Investigations in biocontrol using entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) have shown that maggots of Rhagoletis species are highly susceptible (Yee and Lacey, 2003; Köppler et al., 2005). However, high efficacies could not be achieved under practical conditions with one to several applications of a commercially available product based on Steinernema feltiae (application rate 250.000 to 500.000 EPN/m²) (Herz et al., 2007a,b; 2008). The reasons are manyfold: pupation occurs too quickly (when larvae enter the soil; larval dropping to the soil occurs over a long period (2-4 weeks)); survival of nematodes in the soil is short (frequent and cost intensive applications of EPN would be necessary); and soil conditions are often unfavourable (too dry and too warm, for optimum nematode survival and infectivity). Even with repeated irrigation in field investigations carried out by Herz et al. (2007a,b, 2008), efficacies were far from sufficient.

Entomopathogenic fungi as biocontrol agents have been tested against Rhagoletis species in Europe and the USA (Yee and Lacey, 2005; Daniel and Wyss, 2008; Ladurner et al., 2008). A product based on Beauveria bassiana is registered in Italy for control of the European cherry fruit fly, R. cerasi. Field experiments have resulted in significant reductions of fruit infestation, but efficacies varied (Daniel and Wyss, 2008; Ladurner et al., 2008). This may be due to varying climatic conditions, which have a high impact on myco-pesticides.

Phytosanitary Measures

Consignments of cherries (Prunus avium, P. cerasus) and of P. salicina from countries where R. cingulata or R. indifferens occur should be inspected for symptoms of infestation and those suspected should be cut open in order to look for larvae. The European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) recommends that such fruits should come from an area where R. cingulata and R. indifferens do not occur, or from a place of production found free from these pests by regular inspection for 3 months before harvest. Fruits may also be treated, but specific treatment schedules have mostly not been developed for Rhagoletis species, since there is no need for them in North America. Irradiation has been successfully tested as a quarantine treatment against R. indifferens (Burditt and Hungate, 1988).

Plants of host species transported with roots from countries where R. cingulata or R. indifferens occur should be free from soil, or the soil should be treated against puparia, and should not carry fruits. Such plants may indeed be prohibited importation.


 

References

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AliNiazee MT, 1974. The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae). 1. Distribution of the diapausing pupae in the soil. Canadian Entomologist, 106(9):909-912

Belanger A; Bostanian NJ; Rivard I, 1985. Apple maggot (Diptera: Trypetidae) control with insecticides and their residues in and on apples. Journal of Economic Entomology, 78(2):463-466.

Boller E, 2000. [English title not available]. (Situationsbericht über die nordamerikanische Fruchtfliegenarten in der Schweiz (Diptera: Tephritidae).) Situationsbericht über die nordamerikanische Fruchtfliegenarten in der Schweiz (Diptera: Tephritidae). Wein- und Gartenbau: Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Obst-, 5 pp.

Boller E; Mani E, 1994. Two North American Rhagoletis species in Europe. IOBC wprs Bull, 17(6):83.

Boller EF; Prokopy RJ, 1976. Bionomics and management of Rhagoletis. In: Smith RF, Mittler TE, Smith CN, ed. Annual review of entomology. Volume 21. Annual Reviews Inc. Palo Alto, California, USA, 223-246.

Burditt AK Jr, 1988. Western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): efficacy of homemade and commercial traps. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia, No. 85:53-57

Burditt AK Jr; Hungate FP, 1988. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for cherries infested by western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 81(3):859-862

Bush GL, 1966. The taxonomy, cytology and evolution of the genus Rhagoletis in North America (Diptera: Tephritidae). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 134:431-526.

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

CABI/EPPO, 2015. Rhagoletis cingulata. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No.June. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 159 (3rd revision).

Carroll LE; Norrbom AL; Dallwitz MJ; Thompson FC, 2004. Pest fruit flies of the world - larvae. http://delta-intkey

Carroll LE; White IM; Freidberg A; Norrbom AL; Dallwitz MJ; Thompson FC, 2002. Pest fruit flies of the world. Version: 15th July 2005. Pest fruit flies of the world. Version: 15th July 2005. unpaginated. http://delta-intkey.com

Christenson LD; Foote RH, 1960. Biology of fruit flies. Annual Review of Entomology, 5:171-192.

CIE, 1990. Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew). Distribution Maps of Pests, Series A, No. 159, rev. ed. London, UK: CAB International Institute of Entomology.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
EPPO A2 listhttp://www.eppo.org/QUARANTINE/listA2.htm
L.E. Carroll, I.M. White, A. Freidberg, A.L. Norrbom, M.J. Dallwitz, and F.C. Thompson. 2002 onwardshttp://delta-intkey.com
Michigan State University Extension; Fruit IPM Fact Sheethttp://web1.msue.msu.edu/vanburen/fcfly.htm
Michigan State University Integrated Pest Management Resourceshttp://www.ipm.msu.edu/stonefruit/cherryandblackcherryfruitflies.htm

Organizations

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Germany: Julius Kuehn Institute, Institute for Plant Protection in Fruit Crops and Viticulture Schwabenheimer Straße 101, D- 69221 Dossenheim

USA: Systematic Entomology Lab., USDA, c/o National Museum of Natural History, MRC-168 P.O. Box 37012, Washington, DC 20013-7012

Contributors

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29/02/2008 Updated by:

Heidrun Vogt, Julius Kuehn Institute, Institute for Plant Protection in Fruit Crops and Viticulture, Schwabenheimer Str. 101, D-69221 Dossenheim, Germany

Distribution Maps

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