Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- Biology and Ecology
- Air Temperature
- Soil Tolerances
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Impact Summary
- Economic Impact
- Environmental Impact
- Social Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Ambrosia trifida L.
Preferred Common Name
- giant ragweed
Other Scientific Names
- Ambrosia aptera DC.
- Ambrosia integrifolia Muhl. ex Willd.
- Ambrosia trifida f. integrifolia (Muhl. ex Willd.) Fernald
- Ambrosia trifida f. trifida
- Ambrosia trifida subsp. trifida
- Ambrosia trifida var. aptera (DC.) Kuntze
- Ambrosia trifida var. heterophylla Kuntze
- Ambrosia trifida var. integrifolia (Muhl. ex Willd.) Torr. & A.Gray
- Ambrosia trifida var. polyploidea J.Rousseau
- Ambrosia trifida var. texana Scheele
- Ambrosia trifida var. trifida
International Common Names
- English: blood ragweed; buffalo-weed; crownweed; great ragweed; horseweed
- Spanish: Artemisa grande
- French: ambroisie trifide; grande herbe à poux
- Chinese: san lie ye tun cao
Local Common Names
- Czech Republic: ambrozie trojklaná
- Estonia: kolmehõlmane ambroosia
- Finland: sormituoksukki
- Germany: Dreilappentraubenkraut; Dreilappige Ambrosie; Dreilappiges Traubenkraut; Dreispaltige Ambrosie
- Japan: kuwamodoki; oobutakusa
- Latvia: trisdaivu ambrozija
- Lithuania: triskiaute ambrozija
- Netherlands: driedeelige Ambrosia
- Norway: hesteambrosia
- Poland: ambrozja trójdzielna
- Slovakia: ambrózia trojzárezová
- Slovenia: trikrpata žvrklja
- Sweden: hästambrosia; tall Ambrosia
- USA: bitterweed; buffalo weed; horse-cane; horse-weed; kinghead; tall ragweed
- AMBTR (Ambrosia trifida)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
A. trifida is an annual herb native to temperate North America which is now present in a number of countries in Europe and Asia. The primary means of spread of A. trifida occurs accidentally as a contaminant of seed or agricultural equipment. This species readily colonises disturbed areas and is often one of the first plants to emerge in early spring. As a result it has an initial competitive advantage and can therefore behave as a dominant species throughout the entire growing season. A. trifida is a particular problem for cultivated agricultural and horticultural crops where it can significantly decrease yields. Like many species of Ambrosia, A. trifida produces pollen which is allergenic and can induce allergic rhinitis, fever, or dermatitis. A. trifida is extremely competitive and can also decrease native biodiversity. A. trifida is a declared noxious weed in its native range in California, Delaware, Illinois and New Jersey, USA and is also a quarantine weed in Poland and Russia.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Asterales
- Family: Asteraceae
- Genus: Ambrosia
- Species: Ambrosia trifida
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
A. trifida was described by Linnaeus (1753: 988) as one of the four listed Ambrosia species (the other three species are: A. artemisiifolia L., A. elatior L., and A. maritima L.). The lectotype was designated by Reveal in Jarvis and Turland (1998: 351) on a specimen preserved at LINN (The Linnean Society, 2016)
According to USDA-NRCS (2016) two subspecies exist; A. trifida var. texana (Texan great ragweed) and A. trifida var. trifida (great ragweed). These subspecies have different distrubtions within North America, with A. trifida var. trifida being present in most states.
DescriptionTop of page
A. trifida is an annual herb (therophyte), (30-)150-400 cm tall. Stems erect, branched or not. Leaves opposite, with blades rounded, deltate or elliptic [40-150(-250)×(10-)30-70(-200) mm], palmately 2-5-lobed, lobes with margins toothed, sparsely pubescent and glandular-dotted on both faces, petioled [petiole (10-)25-30(-70) mm long]. Flowers arranged in capitula, the male capitula forming a terminal leafless spike-like or raceme-like inflorescences at the end of the branches, the female capitula clustered at the base of the male inflorescences (pistillate flowers are tubular and without pappi); anthers yellow; ovary inferior with one ovule. Fruit (achene) pyramidal, (5-)6-12 mm long, brown to gray, glaborus or slightly pubescent, with 4-5 usually distal spines.
Plant TypeTop of page
DistributionTop of page
A. trifida is found primarily in temperate areas around the world and is native to eastern North America; it is found throughout much of the USA and southern Canada. In Canada, this weed ranges from Nova Scotia westward to the Northwest Territory. Within the USA, it is most common in the mid-Atlantic states and the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|South Korea||Present, Widespread|
|Serbia and Montenegro||Present||Introduced|
|Ukraine||Absent, Formerly present|
|-Alberta||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-British Columbia||Present||Native||May be extant|
|-Manitoba||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-New Brunswick||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Nova Scotia||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Ontario||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Prince Edward Island||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Quebec||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Saskatchewan||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Alabama||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Arizona||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. texana and Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Arkansas||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-California||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Colorado||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Connecticut||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Delaware||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-District of Columbia||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida and Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Florida||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Georgia||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Idaho||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. texana and Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Illinois||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Indiana||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Iowa||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Kansas||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. texana and Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Kentucky||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Louisiana||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. texana and Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Maine||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Maryland||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Michigan||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Minnesota||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Mississippi||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. texana and Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Missouri||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. texana and Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Montana||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Nebraska||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-New Hampshire||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-New Jersey||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-New Mexico||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. texana and Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-New York||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-North Carolina||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-North Dakota||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Ohio||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Oklahoma||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. texana and Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Oregon||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. texana and Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Pennsylvania||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-South Carolina||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-South Dakota||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Tennessee||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Texas||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. texana and Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Utah||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Vermont||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Virginia||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Washington||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-West Virginia||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Wisconsin||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
|-Wyoming||Present||Native||Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
A. trifida is a neophyte which was introduced in Europe after the discovery of America. Detailed studies on the history of introduction however are not present. EPPO (2014) reports the year 1829 as the first date of introduction into Europe (Belgium), while concerning China, Qin et al. (2014) stated that this species was first introduced in 1935.
IntroductionsTop of page
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
Further spread of A. trifida is highly likely, due to the risks of accidental movement seeds with agricultural equipment (locally) and as a contaminant of crop seeds. A. trifida is considered a noxious weed in many areas due to its intrusive nature and is a quarantine weed in Poland and Russia.
HabitatTop of page
A. trifida is most prevelant in disturbed sites such as, damp soils, wastelands, uncultivated and cultivated lands (field crops), garden, ditches, roadsides, field margins, constructions sites, etc. (Uva et al., 1997). It may also be found colonising riverbanks, pastures and grasslands (Abul-Fatih and Bazzaz, 1979; Megyeri, 2011). A. trifida is common in flood plains and rare in low rainfall areas.
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial||Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production)||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Present, no further details|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Disturbed areas||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Disturbed areas||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Rail / roadsides||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Rail / roadsides||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Urban / peri-urban areas||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Urban / peri-urban areas||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural grasslands||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural grasslands||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Riverbanks||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Riverbanks||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Wetlands||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Freshwater||Rivers / streams||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Freshwater||Rivers / streams||Principal habitat||Natural|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
A. trifida is a weed of cultivated agronomic and horticultural crops such as species of Sorghum, Glycine max (soybean), Helianthus annuus (sunflower), Phaseolus spp (beans), Zea mays (maize), species of Triticum (wheat) and Gossypium hirsutum (cotton) (EPPO, 2014). It is extremely competitive and is especially difficult to control in many broadleaved crops. Experiments carried out by Baysinger and Sims (1991) in Missouri, USA, found that over two years dense populations of A. trifida reduced soybean seed yields by about 50%. A 55% reduction in corn yields in Michigan have also been recorded (Michigan State University, 2016).
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
Growth StagesTop of page
Biology and EcologyTop of page
A. trifida is a taxon with 2n = 24, 48 (Strother, 2006). A hybrid was described with A. artemisiifolia (A. × helenae Rouleau) (Strother, 2006). Hybrids were found to have somatic chromosome numbers ranging from 2n = 27 to 2n = 33 (Bassett and Crompton, 1982).
Each A. trifida plant can produce up to 10,300 seeds, while in soybeans and corn crops one plant can produce 1900-5500 seeds (Michigan State University, 2016). Pollination is mainly performed by wind, the pollen being small (20-30 µm), tricolporate, sphaerical, with 60-65 spines (Bassett and Crompton 1982). It has been estimated that one plant can produce 10 million pollen grains per day and one billion pollen grains during its lifetime (Johnson et al., 2007). The stigmas protrude and are receptive prior to the shedding of pollen in the male flowers (Bassett and Crompton, 1982).
Physiology and Phenology
In the native range in the USA, seeds generally begin to mature in mid-August (Uva et al., 1997). Most seeds fall near the parent plant, but some can disperse long distances with water, animals, and human activities. Most germination in the field occurs early to mid-spring and at soil depths to 16 cm, optimal 2 cm (Bassett and Crompton, 1982). Germination rarely occurs on the soil surface. Seedlings emerge in mid to late spring. Seedlings emerging from shallow depths are most likely to survive as they compete with other species for light. Mature seeds are usually dormant and require a cold, moist period to germinate. Seeds can germinate in a wide range of temperatures (8-41°C), but with an optimum range of 10-24°C (Abul-Fatih and Bazzaz, 1979).
Detailed study on seed germination of A. trifida by Abul-Fatih (1977) found that A. trifida usually produced seeds of various sizes. Large seed was able to germinate under relatively cold temperatures, a wide range of moisture regimes and soil depths. Small seed, which have smaller energy reserves, must germinate and establish rapidly during favourable periods if the seedling is to survive longer than other competing summer annuals.
A. trifida plants produce new stems and inflorescences when cut in late July and August.
A. trifida occurs in a wide range of rainfall zones, but generally prefers moister soil with a summer rainfall regime. Mean monthly temperatures can range from 5°C to 30°C and it is fairly indifferent to soil types.
ClimateTop of page
|BS - Steppe climate||Preferred||> 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation|
|BW - Desert climate||Preferred||< 430mm annual precipitation|
|Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year|
|Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers|
|Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter||Preferred||Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)|
|Df - Continental climate, wet all year||Preferred||Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)|
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Absolute minimum temperature (ºC)||-20|
|Mean annual temperature (ºC)||5||20|
|Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC)||15||30|
|Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC)||-10||2|
RainfallTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit||Description|
|Dry season duration||0||7||number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall|
|Mean annual rainfall||400||2500||mm; lower/upper limits|
Soil TolerancesTop of page
- seasonally waterlogged
- seasonally waterlogged
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Entyloma compositarum||Pathogen||Leaves||not specific|
|Euaresta bella||Herbivore||Inflorescence||not specific||Released in Russia|
|Euaresta festiva||Herbivore||Inflorescence||not specific||Released in Russia|
|Protomyces gravidus||Pathogen||Stems||not specific|
|Pseudomonas syringae pv. tagetis||Pathogen||Leaves/Stems||not specific|
|Puccinia xanthi f.sp. ambrosid-trifidae||Pathogen||Leaves||to species|
|Zygogramma suturalis||Herbivore||Leaves||not specific|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Leaf-spot diseases (Cercospora spp.) are common in the field in the USA, but rarely have significant impact on the competitiveness of A. trifida plants. In Louisiana, A. trifida is noted as a host of Papaipema nebris (Alvarado et al., 1989) and stem galls are caused by Protomyces gravidus (Holcomb, 1995).
A number of other natural enemies have been identified as A. trifida is the subject of a biological control programme. Potential agents include Euaresta bella, E. festiva (Batra, 1979), Zygogramma suturalis (Xie et al., 2000) and the pathogens Puccinia xanthii f.sp. ambrosid-trifidae and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tagetis (Batra, 1981).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
A. trifida produces a large number of seeds which are dispersed by flood waters and with the wind.
Seeds of A. trifida may accidentally be introduced into new areas with seeds or on cultivation and harvesting equipment.
Pathway CausesTop of page
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
Economic ImpactTop of page
A. trifida is a weed of cultivated agronomic and horticultural crops and as such it will compete for space and nutrients resulting in a decrease in crop yield (Xie et al., 2000). It is a particular problem in corn and soybean where 50% yield losses have been recorded (Weaver, 2003; Regnier et al., 2016). In addition, increased economic costs may result for the increased application of herbicides.
A positive impact may be seen with a noted decrease in the numbers of plant-parasitic nematodes found in soybean fields where A. trifida is present (Wang et al., 1998).
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impact on Biodiversity
A. trifida can behave as a dominant species throughout the entire growing season. It is often one of the first plants to emerge in early spring and as a result has an initial competitive advantage. It competes for resources (space, nutrients, light, water, etc.) with native species and as a result it may cause a decrease in biodiversity.
Social ImpactTop of page
A. trifida produces pollens which have morphological characteristics which result in it being an aeroallergen causing rhinitis, fever, or dermatitis (D’Amato et al., 2007). The impact of this, compared to similar and more widespread Ambrosia species such as A. artemisiifolia, is much lower.
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Invasive in its native range
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Abundant in its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Is a habitat generalist
- Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
- Pioneering in disturbed areas
- Tolerant of shade
- Highly mobile locally
- Fast growing
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Increases vulnerability to invasions
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Negatively impacts human health
- Negatively impacts animal health
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Threat to/ loss of native species
- Causes allergic responses
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Induces hypersensitivity
- Rapid growth
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Difficult/costly to control
UsesTop of page
A. trifida has little utility. The leaves have medicinal traditions that include its uses as an astringent, emetic, and febrifuge and it may be grown as an ornamental, but is not widely used for that purpose because of its unattractive flowers and rough, robust vegetative growth.
Uses ListTop of page
- Essential oils
- Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
A. trifida can be easily distinguished from the other annual species belonging to the genus Ambrosia by the leaves which are palmate, while in the other related taxa (A. bidentata, A. acanthicarpa, and A. artemisiifolia) the blades are pinnate. The flowering heads and fruit of A. artemisiifolia are similar but smaller than those of A. trifida. The leaves of A. artemisiifolia are usually twice divided and not 3-5 lobed, and the overall plant size is generally much smaller.
When a large number of the leaves of A. trifida are unlobed, it can appear similar to Xanthium strumarium or Helianthus annuus; however, the leaves of these species are mostly alternate, whereas those of A. trifida are opposite.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Tillage is effective for control of seedlings of A. trifida because of their early emergence in relation to many other summer annual weeds (tillage is less effective in populations where plants are larger). Under moist soil conditions, plants may be 'transplanted' and begin growing in another area. Hand-pulling can be effective for seedlings, especially in gardens and other small plots. Repeated mowing will effectively reduce seed production but will not eliminate A. trifida. If allowed to approach maturity it pays to hand-pull the weed, because the stout, woody stalks dull and break the blades of mowers and harvesters, and clog threshing machines. Control of A. trifida using electrical discharges proved to be good to excellent (Rasmusson et al., 1980).
Surveys of potential biocontrol agents of A. trifida began in California in 1967 (Goeden, 1978). Euaresta bella and E. festiva have been released in Russia from 1976 (Batra, 1979) but are not now known to have established (Julien and Griffiths, 1998). Puccinia xanthii forma specialis ambrosid-trifidae was found to be species-specific and a potential biocontrol agent (Batra, 1981). Limited research has been made on biological control with Zygogramma suturalis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae); introduced into China from Canada and the former USSR (Xie et al., 2000). The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tagetis is the causal agent of a disease characterized by apical chlorosis on several members of Asteraceae, and this potential biological control continues to be researched.
Biocontrol programmes are in place for a closely related Ambrosia species. Introductions of biological control agents have been made against A. artemisiifolia in Australia, China, Georgia, Russia and Yugoslavia and against A. pilyostachya in Kazakhstan and Russia (Julien and Griffiths, 1998). No doubt some of the successfully introduced agents also attacked A. trifida if it was present, as most the majority are specific only to the genus.
Application of atrazine, chlorimuron, and imazaquin are effective pre-emergence herbicides for control of A. trifida. The post-emergence herbicides acifluorfen, bentazone, dicamba, glyphosate, imazethapyr and 2,4-D have been recommended (Weed Science Society of America, 2003).
Glyphosate will control plants up to six inches in height. Tank mixing 2,4-D with glyphosate is also useful in controling A. trifida. However, biotypes of A. trifida have been found to be resistant to ALS (acetolactate synthase)-inhibitor herbicides in the USA since 1998 (Weed Science Society of America, 2003).
Gaps in Knowledge/Research NeedsTop of page
Further research is required to investigate the molecular differences between native vs. alien populations of A. trifida. In addition to this detailed phytosociological studies on non-native areas in which A. trifida is naturalized/invasive could be conducted.
ReferencesTop of page
Abul Fatih HA; Bazzaz FA, 1979. The biology of Ambrosia trifida L. II. Germination, emergence, growth and survival. New Phytologist, 83(3):817-827.
Abul-Fatih HA, 1977. PhD Thesis. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 145 pp.
Allard HA, 1943. The North American ragweeds and their occurrence in other parts of the world. Science, 98:292-294.
Alvarado LJ; Hogg DB; Wedberg JL, 1989. Effects of corn and selected weed species on feeding behaviour of the stalk borer, Papaipema nebris (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Great Lakes Entomologist, 22(2):65-69; 7 ref.
Batra SWT, 1979. Reproductive behavior of Euaresta bella and E. festiva (Diptera: Tephritidae), potential agents for the biological control of adventive North American ragweeds (Ambrosia spp.) in Eurasia. Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 87(2):118-125.
Biodiversity CRTC, 2003. National CDB Reports - Russia. ANNEX 3. List of quarantined harmful animals, illness of plants and weeds of Russian Federation. Kazakhstan.
CJB, 2016. African Plant Database. Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville de Geneve, Geneva, Switzerland, and South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, South Africa. Geneva, Switzerland: CJB/SANBI. http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/africa/
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2016. Australia's Virtual Herbarium., Australia: Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria. http://avh.ala.org.au
DAISIE, 2016. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do
D'Amato G; Cecchi L; Bonini S; Nunes C; Annesi-Maesano I; Behrendt H; Liccardi G; Popov T; Cauwenberge Pvan, 2007. Allergenic pollen and pollen allergy in Europe. Allergy, 62(9):976-990. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/all
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Euro+Med, 2016. Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. http://www.emplantbase.org/home.html
Goeden RD, 1978. California as a source of natural enemies for the biological control of ragweeds. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds, Gainesville, 1976., 198
Jarvis CE; Turland NJ, 1998. Typification of Linnaean specific and varietal names in the Compositae (Asteraceae). Taxon, 47(2):347-370.
Johnson B; Loux M; Nordby D; Sprague C; Nice G; Westhoven A; Stachler J, 2007. Biology and management of giant ragweed. The Glyphosate, Weeds, and Crops Series. West Lafayette, USA.
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22/11/2016 Updated by:
Duilio Iamonico, University of Rome Sapienza, Rome, Italy
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