Ambrosia psilostachya (perennial ragweed)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- Biology and Ecology
- Air Temperature
- Rainfall Regime
- Soil Tolerances
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Vectors
- Plant Trade
- Impact Summary
- Social Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Ambrosia psilostachya DC.
Preferred Common Name
- perennial ragweed
Other Scientific Names
- Ambrosia californica Rydb.
- Ambrosia coronopifolia Torr. & A. Gray
- Ambrosia cumanensis auct. non Kunth
- Ambrosia glandulosa Scheele
- Ambrosia hispida Torr.
- Ambrosia lindheimeriana Scheele
- Ambrosia maritima L.
- Ambrosia psilostachya var. coronopifolia Torr. & A. Gray
- Ambrosia rugelii Rydb.
International Common Names
- English: western ragweed
- Spanish: artemisa perenne
- French: l'herbe á poux vivace
- Russian: ambrosia mnogoletnyaya
Local Common Names
- Germany: Ausdauernde Ambrosie; Stauden- Ambrosie
- Poland: ambrozji zachodnie
- USA: cuman ragweed
- AMBCU (Ambrosia cumanensis)
- AMBMA (Ambrosia maritima)
- AMBPC (Ambrosia psilostachya var. coronopifolia)
- AMBPS (Ambrosia psilostachya)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Asterales
- Family: Asteraceae
- Genus: Ambrosia
- Species: Ambrosia psilostachya
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
DescriptionTop of page
Plant TypeTop of page
DistributionTop of page
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 12 May 2022
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|India||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|Israel||Absent, Formerly present|
|Austria||Present||Introduced||First reported: <1900|
|Czechia||Present||Introduced||1999||As: Ambrosia coronopifolia|
|Denmark||Present, Transient under eradication|
|Romania||Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)|
|-Central Russia||Present, Localized|
|-Southern Russia||Present, Localized||Introduced||Invasive|
|-British Columbia||Present, Localized||Introduced||1885||Invasive|
|-Newfoundland and Labrador||Present|
|United States||Present, Widespread||Native|
|-Arizona||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Britton and Brown (1936)|
|-Colorado||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Britton and Brown (1936)|
|-Connecticut||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Britton and Brown (1936)|
|-District of Columbia||Present|
|-Illinois||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Britton and Brown (1936)|
|-Indiana||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Britton and Brown (1936)|
|-Iowa||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Britton and Brown (1936)|
|-Kansas||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Britton and Brown (1936)|
|-Maine||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Britton and Brown (1936)|
|-Massachusetts||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Britton and Brown (1936)|
|-Michigan||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Britton and Brown (1936)|
|-Minnesota||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Britton and Brown (1936)|
|-Missouri||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Britton and Brown (1936)|
|-Montana||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Britton and Brown (1936)|
|-Nebraska||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Britton and Brown (1936)|
|-Nevada||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Britton and Brown (1936)|
|-New Hampshire||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Britton and Brown (1936)|
|-New Mexico||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Britton and Brown (1936)|
|-New York||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Britton and Brown (1936)|
|-North Dakota||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Britton and Brown (1936)|
|-Oklahoma||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Britton and Brown (1936)|
|-South Dakota||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Britton and Brown (1936)|
|-Texas||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Britton and Brown (1936)|
|-Utah||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Britton and Brown (1936)|
|-Wisconsin||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Britton and Brown (1936)|
|-New South Wales||Present||Introduced||Invasive|
|-Queensland||Present||Introduced||Original citation: Auld and Medd (1987)|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
HabitatTop of page
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial||Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Disturbed areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Rail / roadsides||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Urban / peri-urban areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Present, no further details|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural grasslands||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Riverbanks||Present, no further details|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
Growth StagesTop of page
Biology and EcologyTop of page
The chromosome number of 2n=72 for A. psilostachya was reported from Ontario, Canada and Michigan, USA (Mulligan, 1957; Wagner and Beals, 1958). However, Payne et al. (1964) reported chromosome counts for A. psilostachya of 2n=36, 54 and 72, whereas Miller et al (1968) found different populations of A. psilostachya were all diploid (n=18, 2n=36). Payne (1970) reported no correlation between ploidy levels and morphological expressions of A. psilostachya. The hybrid Ambrosia artemisiifolia x A. psilostachya (A. intergradiens Wagner) has been found in USA (Wagner and Beals, 1958). This hybrid often formed clonal populations that persisted for many years but it is not known whether viable seeds are produced in these patches. Somatic chromosome counts from three localities of this hybrid were 2n=54.
Physiology and Phenology
A. psilostachya survives and spreads primarily by spreading rootstocks. The growth of the shoots begins in May (Bassett and Crompton, 1975; Moskalenko, 2001). Vermeire and Gillen (2000) found that survival of A. psilostachya shoots from June to September was greater in mixed prairie (81%) than in tallgrass prairie (63%) and was greater in ungrazed (76%) than grazed plots (68%). A. psilostachya shoots weighed less per unit height in tallgrass prairie, and shoots in ungrazed plots were taller than shoots in grazed plots but weighed less per unit height. These differences in shoot morphology are consistent with increased competition for light in tallgrass prairie and in ungrazed sites. The frequency of A. psilostachya increased on grazed areas (Berg et al., 1997). A. psilostachya can grow from rhizomes 5 cm long. Under glasshouse conditions shoot regeneration from 2-5 cm soil depth was better than from 10-15 cm deep but plants which emerged from the deeper soil layer had the highest shoot and root fresh weights (Miziniak and Praczyk, 2002). Warming increased A. psilostachya stems by 88% when not clipped and 46% when clipped. Clipping increased ragweed stems by 75 and 36% in the control and warmed plots, respectively. Dry mass per A. psilostachya stem in the warmed plots was 38% greater than that in the control plots. Although warming caused no difference in pollen production per stem, total pollen production increased by 84% because there were more A. psilostachya stems (Wan et al., 2002). Flowering occurs in July, and mature seeds form at the end of August or early September (Bassett and Crompton, 1975; Moskalenko, 2001). Seeds contained an average of 13% crude protein and 21% fat (Peoples et al., 1994).
Through its spreading rootstocks, an area can be readily colonized by one or a few original plants despite the small seed set. The reproductive strategy appears similar in all habitats. In the first year, the individual plant does not appear to produce additional shoots from its root system. In the second year, new shoots emerge from the creeping rootstocks thus establishing a clone which can cover about 2 m² (Wagner and Beals, 1958). A. psilostachya is primarily anemophilous (wind-pollinated). It does shed large quantities of air-borne pollen that causes hay fever symptoms (Wodehouse, 1971; Bassett and Crompton, 1975). The plant produces one seed per flowering head. Wagner and Beals (1958) counted a total of 118 flowering heads on one plant from which only 66 fruits developed to maturity. Since reproduction takes place largely by vegetative means, seed production in this plant is of secondary importance to its survival and spread. Seeds have no germination at maturity and usually require winter stratification before germination. The optimal temperatures for seed germination are 18-22°C (Moskalenko, 2001). Seeds are able to germinate both in darkness and light, but light seems to promote germination. Seeds on the soil surface lose their viability after four years, but those in deeper soil layers keep their viability for longer (Beres, 2003).
Allard (1943) states that all Ambrosia spp. are most common between latitudes 45° and 30° in both the northern and southern hemispheres. A. psilostachya prefers well-drained sandy or gravely soils. In Michigan, USA the species forms large clones by proliferation from underground parts in disturbed habitats such as along roadsides and railways and especially around populated areas (Wagner and Beals, 1958). In southern Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Canada, A. psilostachya is often found growing in sandy alkaline regions in open habitats (Bassett and Crompton, 1975). A. psilostachya preferentially colonizes non-saline soil over saline soil and clones with the strongest preference for non-saline soil are those least able to grow when restricted to saline conditions. In clonal plant species, non-random associations of genotypes with specific environments may thus reflect habitat selection by plants as well as selective mortality imposed by different habitat patches (Murray and Mishkin, 1985). Salzman and Parker (1985) in laboratory conditions found that paired stems of A. psilostachya clones from natural saline basins survived and grew in salt water, yet dry weight gain of these plants was only 34% of that of plants grown with tap water.
This plant is a major forb species in mixed and tallgrass prairies (Vermeire and Gillen, 2000). Tallgrass prairie includes as representative species; Andropogon gerardii, Schizachyrium scoparium, Panicum virgatum, Sorghastrum nutans, Sporobolus asper, Dichanthelium [Panicum] oligosanthes, Ambrosia psilostachya and Psoralea tenuiflora (Gillen and McNew, 1987). In Texas, A. psilostachya is found in association with Croton spp., Setaria spp., Paspalum spp. and Panicum spp. (Baker and Guthery, 1990). Major species on sandhill rangeland in Oklahoma included Andropogon hallii, Schizachyrium scoparium, Sporobolus cryptandrus, Panicum virgatum, Calamovilfa gigantea, Bouteloua gracilis, Ambrosia psilostachya, Eriogonum annuum and Artemisia filifolia (Baker and Powell, 1979).
The seeds of A. psilostachya are an important food item for bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) in prairie (Vermeire and Gillen, 2000). This plant is forb of particularly high quality for deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) nutrition (Soltero-Gardea, 1991; Soltero-Gardea et al., 1994).
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Absolute minimum temperature (ºC)||-42|
|Mean annual temperature (ºC)||4||12|
|Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC)||15||31|
|Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC)||-15||-4|
RainfallTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit||Description|
|Mean annual rainfall||335||750||mm; lower/upper limits|
Rainfall RegimeTop of page
Soil TolerancesTop of page
Special soil tolerances
Natural enemiesTop of page
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
A. psilostachya spreads primarily by rootstocks and secondary by seeds. Seeds of A. psilostachya are spread by wind and water from mother plants. In spring they transfer by water in ditches, canals and rivers (Moskalenko, 2001).
Vector Transmission (Biotic)
Seeds of A. psilostachya are eaten by bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) and whole plants and eaten by deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) (Soltero-Gardea, 1991; Soltero-Gardea et al., 1994; Vermeire and Gillen, 2000). It is assumed that these seeds retain viability though this is not proven.
Tillage may be the cause of movement because A. psilostachya can grow from rhizomes (Miziniak and Praczyk, 2002).
The fruits of A psilostachya were found by Russian quarantine observations on imported wheat grain from Canada (Moskalenko, 2001), and this is possibly the greatest threat for further long-distance introduction.
It is unlikely to have been intentionally introduced.
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Fruits (inc. pods)||weeds/seeds|
|Growing medium accompanying plants||weeds/roots|
|True seeds (inc. grain)||weeds/seeds|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
ImpactTop of page
Social ImpactTop of page
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Invasive in its native range
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
- Highly mobile locally
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Negatively impacts human health
- Negatively impacts tourism
- Reduced amenity values
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Difficult/costly to control
UsesTop of page
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Mechanical damage of rhizome buds slightly influenced the regrowth of ragweed (Miziniak and Praczyk, 2002).
For chemical control of A. psilostachya, aerially applied 2,4-D was as effective and more consistent than fenoprop and dichlorprop, with late April and early May the optimum time for spraying (Elwell and McMurphy, 1973). Picloram, dicamba and 2,4-D provided effective control of A. psilostachya in pastures when applied for 2 successive years (Hoffman, 1972; McCarty and Scifres, 1972). Dahl et al. (1989) found that triclopyr and dicamba + 2,4-D were ineffective, but picloram + 2,4-D and dicamba gave adequate control of A. psilostachya. Picloram is recommended for control of A. psilostachya in Mauritius (McIntyre, 1985). Atrazine applied in April also reduced the density of A. psilostachya (Baker, 1979; Rice and Stritzke, 1985; 1986; 1989; Gillen et al., 1987).
Zygogramma suturalis (F.) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) was introduced from North America for the biological control of Ambrosia spp. and released in several countries, including Russia in 1978 (Reznik et al., 1994), Yugoslavia in 1984 (Igrc, 1987), Croatia in 1985 (Igrc et al., 1995) and China in 1997 and 1998 (Wan and Wang, 1989; 1990). The larvae and adults of the Z. suturalis were able to feed and develop on A. artemisiifolia and A. psilostachya in the natural environment (Kovalev et al., 1983; Kovalev and Vecherin, 1986; Reznik and Kovalev, 1989). However, 10 years after it was introduced into Russia, Z. suturalis was only moderately successful as a biological control agent due to low population establishment (Reznik et al., 1994) and poor movement (Reznik et al., 1990). The second natural enemy of Ambrosia spp., Zigogramma disrupta (Rogers) was introduced into the former USSR from Texas, USA in 1981 for the biological control of A. artemisiifolia and A. psilostachya (Kovalev et al., 1983), with the adults and larvae feeding on the uppermost foliage of the plant (Piper, 1978). The western biotype of Tarachidia candefacta (Hb.) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) was introduced from California, USA into the former USSR in 1967 for the biological control of Ambrosia spp. (Nayanov, 1973; Gilstrap and Goeden, 1974; Kovalev, 1989) and was found to have acclimatized in Krasnodar region, Southern Russia (Shurov, 1998).
ReferencesTop of page
Allard HA, 1943. The North American ragweeds and their occurrence in other parts of the world. Science, 98:292-294.
Anon., 1970. Handbook on Quarantine and other Noxious Pests. Moscow, Russia: Kolos.
Auld B; Medd R, 1992. Weeds. An illustrated botanical guide to the weeds of Australia. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press.
Baker DL; Guthery FS, 1990. Effects of continuous grazing on habitat and density of ground-foraging birds in south Texas. Journal of Range Management, 43(1):2-5.
Baker RL; Powell J, 1979. Western Oklahoma sandhill prairie yield and crude protein response to atrazine, nitrogen, and 2,4-D during drought. Arid lands plant resources: proceedings of the international arid lands conference on plant resources, Texas Tech University (J. R. Goodin and D. K. Northington, editors). Texas Tech University, International Center for Arid and Semi-Arid Land Studies (ICASALS). Lubbock, Texas USA, 564-573
Bassett IJ; Terasmae J, 1962. Ragweeds, Ambrosia species, in Canada and their history in postglacial time. Canadian Journal of Botany, 40:141-150.
Beres I, 2003. Distribution, importance and biology of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.). Novenyvedelem, 39(7):293-302.
Berg WA; Bradford JA; Sims PL, 1997. Long-term soil nitrogen and vegetation change on sandhill rangeland. Journal of Range Management, 50(5):482-486.
Britton NL; Brown A, 1970. An illustrated flora of the northern United States and Canada, Vol. III, edition. New York, USA: Dover Publications, Inc.
Culver CA; Malina JJ; Talbert RL, 1988. Probable anaphylactoid reaction to a pyrethrin pediculocide shampoo. Clinical-Pharmacology, 7 (11): 846-849.
Eardley CM, 1944. Control of perennial ragweed (Ambrosia psilostachya). Journal of Department Agricultural South Australia, 47:430-434.
Elakovich SD; Fuller G; Nes WD, 1987. Sesquiterpenes as phytoalexins and allelopathic agents. Ecology and Metabolism of Plant Lipids. ACS Symposium Series No. 325, 93-108.
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Ghosh B; Rafnar T; Perry MP; Bassolino-Klimas D; Metzler WJ; Klapper DG; Marsh DG, 1994. Immunologic and molecular characterization of Amb p V allergens from Ambrosia psilostachya (Western Ragweed) pollen. Journal of Immunology (Baltimore), 152(6):2882-2889; 38 ref.
Gillen RL; McNew RW, 1987. Seasonal growth rates of tallgrass prairie after clipping. Journal of Range Management, 40(4):342-345.
Goeden RD; Ricker DW, 1985. The life history of Ophraella notulata (F.) on western ragweed, Ambrosia psilostachya De Candolle, in southern California (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 61(1):32-37
Hoffman GO, 1972. Control of perennial weeds on rangelands with fall application of herbicides. Proceedings 25th Annual Meeting Southern Weed Science Society, 318-319.
Igrc J; DeLoach CG; Zlof V, 1995. Release and establishment of Zygogramma suturalis F. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Croatia for control of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.). Biological Control, 5:203-208.
Karnkowski W, 2001. Can the weeds be recognized as quarantine pests? - Polish experiences with Ambrosia spp. Zbornik predavanj in referatov 5. Slovensko Posvetovanje o Varstvu Rastlin, C^hacek~atez^hacek~ ob Savi, Slovenija, 6. marec-8. marec 2001, 396-402; 21 ref.
Kovalev OV; Reznik SYa; Cherkashin VN, 1983. Characteristics of methods of using leaf-beetles of the genus Zygogramma Chevr. (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) in the biological control of ragweeds (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., A. psilostachya D.C.). Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 62(2):402-408
Kovalev OV; Vecherin VV, 1986. Description of a new wave process in populations, with reference to the introduction and spread of the ambrosia leaf beetle Zygogramma suturalis F. (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae). Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 65(1):21-38
Lawalrée A, 1947. Les Ambrosia adventices en Europe occidentale. Bull. Jard. Bot. Etat Bruxelles, 18:305-315.
Lorenzi HJ; Jeffery LS, 1987. Weeds of the United States and their Control. New York, USA:Van Norstrand Reinhold Co.
McCarty MK; Scifres CJ, 1972. Herbicidal control of western ragweed in Nebraska pastures. Journal of Range Management, 25(4):290-292.
Miller HE; Mabry TJ; Turner BL and Payne WW, 1968. Infraspecific variation of sequiterpene lactones in Ambrosia psilostachya (Compositae). American Journal of Botany, 55:316-324.
Moskalenko GP, 2001. Quarantine Weeds for Russia. Moscow, Russia: Plant Quarantine Inspectorate.
Mulligan GA, 1957. Chromosome numbers of Canadian weeds. Canadian Journal of Botany, 35:779-789.
Murray EA; Mishkin M, 1985. Habitat selection in a clonal plant. Science (USA), 228(4699):603-604.
Payne WW, 1970. Preliminary reports on the flora of Wisconsin. LXII. Compositae-composite family. 6. The genus Ambrosia-the ragweeds. Transact. Wisconsin Acad. Sci, 58:353-371.
Payne WW; Raven PH and Kyhos DW, 1964. Chromosome numbers in Compositae. American Journal of Botany, 51:419-424.
Peoples AD; Lochmiller RL, Leslie DM Jr. , Engle DM, 1994. Production and nutritional quality of western ragweed seed in response to fertilization. Journal of Range Management, 47(6):467-469.
Reznik SY; Belokobyl' skii SA; Lobanov AL, 1994. Weed and herbivourous insect popoulation densities at the broad spatial scale: Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. and Zygogramma suturalis F. (Col., Chrysomelidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 118:1-9.
Reznik SYa; Belokobyl'skii SA; Lobanov AL, 1990. Effect of agroecosystem stability on the population density of the ambrosia leaf beetle Zygogramma suturalis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae). Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 69(10):54-59
Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney, 2003. Australia's Virtual Herbarium. Sydney, Australia: Royal Botanic Gardens. http://plantnet.rbgsyd.gov.au/cgi-bin/avh/avh.cgi.
Rydberg PA, 1965. Flora of the prairies and plains of Central North America. New York and London: Hafner publisching Company.
Salzman AG; Parker MA, 1985. Neighbors ameliorate local salinity stress for a rhizomatous plant in a heterogeneous environment. Oecologia, 65(2):273-277.
Shurov VI, 1998. Acclimation of the American ragweed cutworm. Zashchita I Karantin Rastenii, 12:31-32.
Soltero-Gardea S, 1991. Phytomass dynamics and deer and cattle nutrition under different grazing practices in the Texas Coastal Bend. Dissertation Abstracts International. B, Sciences and Engineering, 52(5): 2379B. Abstract of Thesis. USA: Texas Tech University.
Soltero-Gardea S; Ortega IM; Bryant FC, 1994. Nutrient content of important deer forage plants in the Texas coastal bend. Texas Journal of Science, 46(2):133-142.
Spencer ER, 1957. Just Weeds. New York, USA: Charles Scribner's Sons.
Tutin TG; Heywood VH; Burges NA; Moore DM; Valentine DH; Walters SM, Webb DA (et al. editors), 1976. Flora Europaea. Volume 4. Plantaginaceae to Compositae (and Rubiaceae). Cambridge, UK: University Press, xxix + 505 + 5pp + 5 maps.
USDA-ARS, 2003. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx
USDA-NRCS, 2002. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, USA. http://plants.usda.gov.
Vermeire LT; Gillen RL, 2000. Western ragweed effects on herbaceous standing crop in Great Plains grasslands. Journal of Range Management, 53(3):335-341.
Wagner WH; Beals TF, 1958. Perennial ragweed (Ambrosia) in Michigan, with the description of a new, intermediate taxon. Rhodora, 60:177-204.
Wan FH; Wang R, 1989. Biology of Zygogramma suturalis (F.) (Col.: Chrysomelidae), an introduced biological control agent of common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 5(2):71-75
Wan FH; Wang R, 1990. A cage study on the control effects of Ambrosia artemisiifolia by the introduced biological control agent, Zygogramma suturalis (Col.: Chrysomelidae). Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 6(1):8-12
Wan SQ; Yuan T; Bowdish S; Wallace L; Russell SD; Luo YQ, 2002. Response of an allergenic species, Ambrosia psilostachya (Asteraceae), to experimental warming and clipping: implications for public health. American Journal of Botany, 89(11):1843-1846; 37 ref.
Wodenhouse RP, 1971. Hayfever Plants. Edition 2. New York, USA: Hafner Publ. Co.
Bassett IJ, Terasmae J, 1962. Ragweeds, Ambrosia species, in Canada and their history in postglacial time. In: Canadian Journal of Botany, 40 141-150.
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Karnkowski W, 2001. Can the weeds be recognized as quarantine pests? - Polish experiences with Ambrosia spp. In: Zbornik predavanj in referatov 5. Slovensko Posvetovanje o Varstvu Rastlin, Čatež ob Savi, Slovenija, 6. marec-8. marec 2001. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Društvo za varstvo rastlin Slovenije. 396-402.
Moskalenko GP, 2001. Quarantine Weeds for Russia., Moscow, Russia: Plant Quarantine Inspectorate.
Prasad T V R, Rao R R, Sanjay M T, Sharma R A, 2013. Ambrosia psilostachya DC (Asteraceae) - a new record but a potential threat to Indian flora. Current Science, 104 (3), 294-296. http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci
Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney, 2003. Australia's Virtual Herbarium., Sydney, Australia: Royal Botanic Gardens. http://plantnet.rbgsyd.gov.au/cgi-bin/avh/avh.cgi
Rydberg PA, 1965. Flora of the prairies and plains of Central North America., New York; London, Hafner publisching Company.
Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435
Tokasi S, Monfared E K, Yaghoubi B, Oveisi M, Sasanfar H, Mashhadi H R, Müller-Scharer H, 2017. First report of Ambrosia psilostachya from Iran: an invasive plant species establishing in coastal area of Gilan province (N Iran). Rostaniha. 18 (2), 222-226. http://rostaniha.areo.ir/article_116006_1eadb97ff629576f3514036c88521ee6.pdf
Tutin T G, Heywood V H, Burges N A, Moore D M, Valentine D H, Walters S M, Webb D A (et al Editors), 1976. Flora Europaea. Vol. 4. Plantaginaceae to Compositae (and Rubiaceae). In: Flora Europaea. Vol. 4. Plantaginaceae to Compositae (and Rubiaceae). [Tutin, T. G.; Heywood, V. H.; Burges, N. A.; Moore, D. M.; Valentine, D. H.; Walters, S. M.; Webb, D. A. : Flora Europaea. Vol. 3. Diapensiaceae to Myoporaceae.], [ed. by et al]. Cambridge, UK: University Press. xxix + 505 + 5pp. +.
USDA-ARS, 2003. Hedychium flavescens. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database, Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl
USDA-NRCS, 2002. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov
Distribution MapsTop of page
Select a dataset
CABI Summary Records
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/