Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Raphanus raphanistrum
(wild radish)



Raphanus raphanistrum (wild radish)


  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Raphanus raphanistrum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • wild radish
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

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TitleFlowering plant
Flowering plant©AgrEvo
White form.
TitleFlowering plant
CaptionWhite form.
White form.
Flowering plantWhite form.©AgrEvo


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Raphanus raphanistrum

Preferred Common Name

  • wild radish

Other Scientific Names

  • Raphanus landra Moretti ex DC.
  • Raphanus segetum Clav.

International Common Names

  • English: charlock; jointed charlock; jointed radish; runch; white charlock; wild turnip
  • Spanish: jaramago blanco; oruga silvestre; rabanillo; rabaniza comun; rabano silvestre
  • French: radis ravenelle; radis sauvage; ravenelle
  • Arabic: fugl barri
  • Portuguese: labresto; saramago

Local Common Names

  • South America: rabano
  • Algeria: abou vel bou-quir; lebsan
  • Argentina: rabizon
  • Belgium: knopherik
  • Brazil: nabica; nabo
  • Colombia: rabano morado; rabon mostaza
  • Denmark: kiddike
  • Egypt: figl
  • Finland: peltoretikka
  • Germany: Ackerrettich; Hederich; Wilder Rettich
  • Hungary: repcsenyretek
  • Iraq: fijaila; fujul
  • Israel: tznon matzui
  • Italy: rafanistro; ramolaccio selvatico; rapastrello; ravastrello
  • Japan: hamadaikon
  • Lebanon: aysh wa gubn; fijjaylah
  • Madagascar: radia
  • Mexico: flor de nabo; jaramado; nabillo; nebo cimarron; nebo silvestre; taramao
  • Morocco: bahamon
  • Norway: akerreddik
  • Paraguay: rabinito salvaje
  • Peru: rabano cimarron; rabano silvestre
  • Poland: lopucha poina; rzodkiew swirzepa
  • Saudi Arabia: aysh wa gubn
  • South Africa: ramenas; wildemostert
  • Sweden: akerrattika
  • Tunisia: abou vel bou-toum; ravelle
  • Turkey: esek turpu
  • Uruguay: mostacilla; rabano silvestre

EPPO code

  • RAPRA (Raphanus raphanistrum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Capparidales
  •                         Family: Brassicaceae
  •                             Genus: Raphanus
  •                                 Species: Raphanus raphanistrum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Raphanus raphanistrum is the universally accepted name for this common and widespread annual weed. The genus name is derived from the Latin, raphanis, a vegetable grown from antiquity, the species name is from the Greek, ra, which means quickly and phainomai, to appear, and refers to the rapid growth of this weed. Flora Europaea (Chater, 1981) distinguishes between a number of subspecies: susp. raphanistrum, subsp. microcarpus (Lange) Thell. and subsp. landra (Moretti ex DC.) are all weeds of cultivated land, while subsp. rostratus (DC.) Thell. and subsp. maritimus (Sm.) Thell. are found on sea shores and sandy coasts.


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R. raphanistrum may behave as an annual, winter annual or biennial and has a large basal rosette of leaves. The fibrous root system is very extensive to a depth of 20 cm, spreading horizontally to 80 cm in all directions. Stems are erect or spreading (striate to angled in South Africa), much branched, 30 to 100 cm (to 200 cm in Australia), with short, stiff hairs especially at the base. Leaves are alternate, rough, lower deeply lobed with much enlarged terminal segment, upper narrower, entire to slight indentations, 8 to 20 cm long. The flowers have a perianth with four free segments in long terminal, corymbose racemes, petals pale yellow, rarely white, purple veins (occasionally petals reported to be pinkish or purplish, may be straw coloured in Scotland, UK), 1 to 2 cm across, pedicels, 1 to 2 cm. The fruit is a fleshy pod, spongy, long, narrow, cylindrical, 5 to 10 mm in diameter, 2 to 7 cm long, terminating in a 1-2 cm pointed beak, longitudinally ribbed, indehiscent, 2 to 10 seeds, constricted but without septum between seeds, lower pods often small and seedless, sections with seed break apart at constriction when mature. The seeds are globular, ovoid, reddish to orange-brown (dark brown in South Africa), 2 to 4 mm in diameter, covered with fine network of veins with shallow interspaces.


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R. raphanistrum, probably European in origin, occurs as a weed on all continents, but is absent from tropical Western Africa and South and East Asia (Holm et al., 1997).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes


AlgeriaPresentOriginal citation: USDA (1998)
KenyaPresent, Widespread
LibyaPresentOriginal citation: USDA (1998)
MozambiquePresent, Widespread
South AfricaPresent, Widespread
TunisiaPresent, Widespread


AfghanistanPresent, Widespread
ArmeniaPresentOriginal citation: USDA (1998)
AzerbaijanPresentOriginal citation: USDA et al., 1998
GeorgiaPresentOriginal citation: USDA et al., 1998
IsraelPresent, Widespread
SyriaPresentOriginal citation: USDA (1998)


BelgiumPresent, Widespread
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentOriginal citation: Chater and (1981)
CyprusPresentOriginal citation: USDA (1998)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent
FinlandPresent, Widespread
GermanyPresent, Widespread
HungaryPresent, Widespread
ItalyPresent, Widespread
LuxembourgPresentOriginal citation: Chater and (1981)
MoldovaPresentOriginal citation: USDA (1998)
PolandPresent, Widespread
PortugalPresent, Widespread
RussiaPresent, Widespread
SloveniaPresentOriginal citation: Chater and (1981)
SpainPresent, Widespread
-Balearic IslandsPresentOriginal citation: Chater and (1981)
-Canary IslandsPresent
SwedenPresent, Widespread
United KingdomPresent, Widespread

North America

MexicoPresent, Widespread
United StatesPresent
-New HampshirePresent
-New JerseyPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-Rhode IslandPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-West VirginiaPresent


AustraliaPresent, Widespread
-New South WalesPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
New ZealandPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent, Widespread
BrazilPresent, Widespread
-Distrito FederalPresent
-Espirito SantoPresent
-Mato Grosso do SulPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-Rio de JaneiroPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Santa CatarinaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ColombiaPresent, Widespread
PeruPresent, Widespread


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Various studies and observations to establish the habitat and soil preferences of R. raphanistrum have been contradictory. Records from the UK around the turn of the 20th century suggested that it preferred chalk and sandy soils, often being the dominant species on chalk. In Germany, Vogel (1926) classified it as an indicator of acid soils. In France, LeFevre (1956) suggested the link between wild radish and soil pH was a weak one and concluded that it was only a modest indicator of a requirement for lime. Today, in both the UK and the USA, R. raphanistrum occurs in crops on a wide variety of soil types.

Habitat List

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Hosts/Species Affected

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R. raphanistrum is a major weed of cereals, especially wheat, and particularly winter-sown wheat (Holm et al., 1997). It is also common in a number of vegetable crops, legumes, vineyards, horticultural crops, pastures and fodder crops. It is likely to occur in any crop within its geographical range.

Biology and Ecology

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R. raphanistrum is an annual, or rarely biennial species which reproduces solely by seed. It is a prolific seed producer. In field studies in Australia, seed yields reached 17,275 seeds/m² (Reeves et al., 1981), and accumulated seed banks reached levels of 45,000 seeds/m² at some sites. Seed production by individual plants is density dependent, with increasing population densities of R. raphanistrum resulting in reduced production per plant, but an overall increase per unit area.

Seed populations in the soil exhibit protracted germination and Reeves et al. (1981) estimated that in a single season one half of the seeds in the soil germinated. In Australia, germination usually occurs after autumn rains, but 'flushes' of germination occur throughout the year after rain. In the UK, the peak period of germination is in March and April, but seedlings continue to appear until late autumn (Roberts and Boddrell, 1983). Piggin et al. (1978) concluded that this sporadic germination may be the result of the gradual, but continuous breakdown of buried seed pods which have an inhibitory effect on seed germination.

In laboratory germination tests, R. raphanistrum has been shown to germinate over a range of temperatures, but was most responsive to fluctuating temperatures. Mekenian and Willensen (1975) in the USA, showed that the after-ripening requirement was completed in less than 6 months and that germination was generally greater in the dark. Cheam (1984, 1986) found that seeds from southern Australia had a greater level of initial primary dormancy than those from northern Australia, and Steinbauer and Frank (1954) recommended treating fresh seeds with potassium nitrate to break primary dormancy. In Germany, Lauer (1953) found that the minimum temperature for germination was 5°C, the maximum 35°C, with an optimum of 20°C.

The longevity of R. raphanistrum seed is increased by burial in the soil (Piggin et al., 1978). Kurth (1967) in Germany, reported that seeds could remain viable for between 15 and 20 years in the soil. In the UK, Chancellor (1986) reported a mean annual decline of 30% of the seed bank, corresponding to a half-life of 2 years.

Seed may be dispersed by a number of agents and is frequently a contaminant of commercial grain seed stocks. Seed may also be spread in irrigation water and is able to pass unharmed through the gut of many animals including birds and cattle (Holm et al., 1997).

Notes on Natural Enemies

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No host specific natural enemies for this weed have been found, and any natural enemies would probably be pests of related crops.


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R. raphanistrum has been reported as a weed of 45 crops in 65 countries (Holm et al., 1997) and is classified as a serious weed in nine countries and a principal weed in a further fourteen (Holm et al., 1991). In Germany, Otto and Hilbig (1987) reported decreases in the extent of many weeds, amongst them R. raphanistrum. These results are in contrast, however, to those of Klaassen (1995) who suggested that a five-fold increase in the area of rape in Germany in the preceding 10 years had lead to an increase in cruciferous weeds, including wild radish. In a study in the UK, Wilson and Cussans (1983) demonstrated that R. raphanistrum was one of the most competitive weed species against barley. In Florida, USA, complete control of wild radish throughout the growing season increased winter wheat yields by 39% (O'Byrne et al., 1986).

R. raphanistrum is an alternative host for a range of crop pests and pathogens. These include; the melon pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis (Zakeri and Banihashemi, 1996), beet western yellows luteovirus (Chod et al., 1997), the sugarbeet nematode Heterodera schachtii (Gleiss and Bachthaler, 1988), cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (Dikova, 1989), Pieris rapae (Garcia, 1988) and Nezara viridula (Jones and Sullivan, 1982).

Ingestion of R. raphanistrum by sheep and cattle may taint milk and if bread wheat becomes contaminated with large quantities of R. raphanistrum seed, 'bread poisoning' may result (Holm et al., 1997).


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In Mexico, leaves of R. raphanistrum may be eaten by humans during food shortages (Holm et al., 1997). It may have some value in biological control programmes because of its ability to attract natural enemies of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (Cheam and Code, 1995).

Uses List

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Human food and beverage

  • Emergency (famine) food


  • Pesticide
  • Poisonous to mammals

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.


The protracted period over which germination of R. raphanistrum may occur makes its complete eradication from crops difficult and necessitates careful consideration of the optimum time for cultural and chemical control measures. Early treatments are usually the most successful in grain crops, but allow late germinating weeds to set seed and contaminate the harvest. Later treatments result in greater competition from R. raphanistrum leading to reduced yields (Holm et al., 1997). When infestations are severe, more than one annual control treatment may be necessary.

Cultural Control

Cultural control practices must normally be combined with chemical treatments to ensure effective control of this weed. In trials in Victoria, Australia, the emergence of R. raphanistrum was greatest on direct-drilled plots, least on those moldboard ploughed to a depth of 15 cm and intermediate where the soil was scarified to a depth of 3 cm (Donaldson and Code, 1981). Whilst moldboard ploughing is able, due to the depth of burial of seeds, to significantly reduce emergence of R. raphanistrum, it does dictate that subsequent cultivations should be shallow to avoid the return of viable seed to the surface. In further trials in Victoria, Code and Donaldson (1996) showed that moldboard ploughing followed by cultivation to 80 mm or direct drilling could reduce wild radish populations to levels below the economic threshold for spraying. Due to the increased rate of loss of viability of seeds at the soil surface, direct drilling will lead to a rapid exhaustion of the soil seed bank where chemical control is able to prevent reseeding of establishing plants.

Soil solarization may provide effective control of R. raphanistrum (Rubin and Benjamin, 1983; Cartia, 1985).

Chemical Control

Cereals - R. raphanistrum is very sensitive to the standard 2,4-D and MCPA, bu ta range of herbnicides are also used. In field trials in winter wheat in Belarus, isoproturon gave 100% control (Soroka et al., 1995). In Georgia, USA, early season applications of bromoxynil and thimeturon [thifensulfuron] controlled R. raphanistrum in winter wheat. Metribuzin, 2,4-D dimethylamine and MCPA applied late season were equally effective (Schroeder, 1989). Bentazone applied post-emergence gave fair to good control (Nichols et al., 1983). In South Africa, triasulfuron provided 89-100% control in wheat and barley (van Biljon et al., 1988). In Victoria, Australia, bromoxynil + MCPA applied 6 weeks after sowing gave 95% control, metribuzin + methabenzthiazuron gave 88% control and dicamba + MCPA-amine gave 70% control (Code and Reeves, 1981).

Lupins - in Western Australia, control of R. raphanistrum in lupins was obtained with a post-emergence application of simazine applied 2 to 5 weeks after sowing (Gilbey, 1990). Good control has also been demonstrated with post-emergence application of diflufenican (Buerger, 1986) and linuron (Porter et al., 1988).

Soyabeans - in soybean fields infested with wild radish in Romania, imazethapyr applied post-emergence at the leaf rosette phase gave best control (Chirita et al., 1993). In France, 100% control was achieved with oxadiazon (Regnault, 1986).

Other recommendations include thiazopyr + oxyfluorfen in perennial crops (Warner and Holmdal, 1995), triflusulfuron in sugarbeet (Simonteit, 1992) and atrazine in maize (Marcondes and Kashiwakura, undated). Lorenzi (1984) and Mamarot and Rodriguez (1997) provide suggestions for use of herbicides and herbicide mixtures in a wide range of crops in Brazil and France respectively. Lorenzi indicates resistance to EPTC and trifluralin, and only moderate susceptibility to butylate, vernolate, butachlor, cyanazine, simazine, pendimethalin and oryzalin.


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Biljon JJ van; Hugo KJ; Iwanzik W, 1988. Triasulfuron: a new broadleaf herbicide in wheat and barley. Applied Plant Science, 2(2):49-52.

Buerger P, 1986. Diflufenican for radish control. Proceedings of the 4th International Lupin Conference, Gera Idton, Western Australia. South Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture, 321

Cartia G, 1985. Solar heating of the soil for the control of soil pests and perennial weeds. Colture Protette, 14(3):37-42; [4 pl. (2 col.)]; 23 ref.

Chancellor RJ, 1986. Decline of arable weed seeds during 20 years in soil under grass and the periodicity of seedling emergence after cultivation. Journal of Applied Ecology, 23(2):631-637.

Chater AO, 1981. 107. Raphanus L. In: Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA, eds. Flora Europaea, Vol. 1. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Cheam AH, 1984. Coat-imposed dormancy controlling germination in wild radish and fiddle dock seeds. In: Madin RW, ed. Proceedings of the seventh Australian weeds conference. Perth, Australia: Weed Society of Western Australia, 184-190

Cheam AH, 1986. Seed production and seed dormancy in wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) and some possibilities for improving control. Weed Research, 26(6):405-413

Cheam AH; Code GR, 1995. The biology of Australian weeds. 24. Raphanus raphanistrum L. Plant Protection Quarterly, 10(1):2-13.

Chirita N; Dinu C; Chirita D, 1993. Contributions to the study of the weed control of annual weeds in soybean crop. Probleme de Agrofitotehnie Teoretica si Aplicata, 15(2):121-131

Chod J; Chodovß D; Jokes M, 1997. Host and indicator plants of beet western yellows virus. Listy Cukrovarnicke^acute~ a R^hacek~epar^hacek~ske^acute~, 113(5):129-130; 4 ref.

Code GR; Donaldson TW, 1996. Effect of cultivation, sowing methods and herbicides on wild radish populations in wheat crops. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 36(4):437-442; 12 ref.

Code GR; Reeves TG, 1981. Chemical control of wild radish in wheat. Proceedings of the Sixth Australian Weeds Conference, 1981. Volume 1:59-63

Dikova B, 1989. Wild-growing hosts of the cucumber mosaic virus. Rasteniev'dni Nauki, 26(7):57-64

Donaldson TW; Code GR, 1981. Chemical control of wild radish in wheat. Proceedings of the sixth Australian Weeds Conference, 1:59-63.

Edgecombe WS, 1970. Weeds of Lebanon. Beirut, Lebanon: American University of Beirut.

Garcia EF, 1988. Spring and summer hosts for Pieris rapae in southern Spain with special attention to Capparis spinosa. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 48(2):173-178

Gilbey DJ, 1990. Simazine top up for controlling wild radish, Raphanus raphanistrum L., doublegee, Emex australis Steinh., and other weeds in lupins. Proceedings of the 9th Australian Weeds Conference, 78-81

Gleiss W; Bachthaler G, 1988. The significance of weeds as host plants of the sugar-beet nematode Heterodera schachtii Schmitt in weed control according to thresholds. Angewandte Botanik, 62(3-4):193-201

Holm L; Doll J; Holm E; Pancho J; Herberger J, 1997. World Weeds. Natural Histories and Distribution. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1991. A Geographic Atlas of World Weeds. Malabar, Florida, USA: Krieger Publishing Company.

Jones WA; Sullivan MJ, 1982. Role of host plants in population dynamics of stink bug pests of soybean in South Carolina. Environmental Entomology, 11(4):867-875

Jonsell B, 1982. Cruciferae. In: Polhill RM, ed. Flora of Tropical East Africa. Rotterdam, Netherlands: AA Balkema.

Klaassen H, 1995. Shift in the weed flora of rape? PSP Pflanzenschutz Praxis, No. 3:20-22

Kurth H, 1967. The germination behaviour of weeds. SYS Reporter, 3:6-11.

Lauer E, 1953. Uber die Keimtemperatur von Ackerunkrautern und deren einfluss auf die zusammensetzung von Unkrautgesellschaften. Flora Oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung, 140:551-595.

LeFevre P, 1956. Influence de milieu et des conditions d'exploration sur la developpement des plantes adventices. Effet particulier du pH et l'etat calcique. Annales Agronomiques, 7:299-347.

Lorenzi H, 1982. Weeds of Brazil, terrestrial and aquatic, parasitic, poisonous and medicinal. (Plantas daninhas de Brasil, terrestres, aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais.) Nova Odessa, Brazil: H. Lorenzi, 425 pp.

Lorenzi H, 1984. Manual de Identificacao e Controle de Plantas Danhinas. Odessa, Brazil: H. Lorenzi.

Lorenzi HJ; Jeffery LS(Editors), 1987. Weeds of the United States and their control. New York, USA; Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Ltd., 355 pp.

Mamarot J; Rodriguez A, 1997. Sensibilité des Mauvaises Herbes aux Herbicides. 4th edition. Paris, France: Association de Coordination Technique Agricole.

Marcondes DAS; Kashiwakura Y, unda. Herbicide evaluations for weed control in maize (Zea mays L.). Abstracts of the XIV Brazilian congress on herbicides and herbaceous weeds (SBHED) and the VI congress of the Latin American Weed Association (ALAM), Campinas, 1982. Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 117

Mekenian MR; Willemsen RW, 1975. Germination characteristics of Raphanus raphanistrum. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 102(5):243-252

Nichols RL; Miller JD; Wells HD, 1983. Evaluation of bentazon and 2,4-DB in winter wheat and clovers. Proceedings, Southern Weed Science Society, 36th annual meeting., 106-117; 19 ref.

O'Byrne DJ; Currey WL; Brecke BJ, 1986. Wild radish control and competition in winter wheat. Proceedings, Southern Weed Science Society, 39th annual meeting, 103

Otto HW; Hilbig W, 1987. Changes in the segetal flora of Oberlausitz by soil improvement measures in agriculture. Abhandlungen und Berichte des Naturkundemuseums Gorlitz, 60(1):43-47

Piggin CM; Reeves TG; Brooke HD; Code GR, 1978. Germination of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.). Proceedings of the First Conference of the Council of Australian Weed Science Societies., 233-240

Porter GA; Clapham WM; Leach SS, 1988. Potential herbicides for use in sweet white lupin. Proceedings, 42nd annual meeting of the Northeastern Weed Science Society, 37

Reeves TG; Code GR; Piggin CM, 1981. Seed production and longevity, seasonal emergence and phenology of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.). Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 21(112):524-530

Regnault Y, 1986. Weed control in soyabeans. Informations Techniques, CETIOM, No.94, supplement:166-169

Roberts HA; Boddrell JE, 1983. Seed survival and periodicity of seedling emergence in eight species of Cruciferae. Annals of Applied Biology, 103(2):301-309

Rubin B; Benjamin A, 1983. Solar heating of the soil: effect on weed control and on soil-incorporated herbicides. Weed Science, 31(6):819-825

Schroeder J, 1989. Wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) control in soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). Weed Science, 37(1):112-116

Simonteit T, 1992. DPX-66037 - first experiences with the control of weeds in beet. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzzenkrankheiten unf Pfalnzenschutz, 1992, Sonderheft 13, presented at the 16th German conference on weed biology and control, Stuttgart-Hohenheim, Germany, 615-617.

Soroka SV; Soroka LI; Andreev AS, 1995. Early spring application of Arelon in winter wheat crops. Zashchita Rastenii^breve~ (Moskva), No. 4:14.

Steinbauer G; Frank P, 1954. Primary dormancy and germination requirements of seeds of certain Cruciferae. In: Proceedings of the 48th Annual Meeting of the Association of Official Seed Analysts, 118-120.

USDA-ARS, 1999. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.

Vogel F, 1926. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Standortsanspruche von Ackerrettich (Raphanus raphanistrum) and Ackersenf (Sinapis arvensis). Bayerisches Landwirt Shaftliches Jahrbuch, 16(4/5):149-230.

Warner HL; Holmdal JA, 1995. Thiazopyr weed control in perennial crops. Brighton crop protection conference: weeds. Proceedings of an international conference, Brighton, UK, 20-23 November 1995., Vol. 3:943-946; 2 ref.

Wells MJ; Balsinhas AA; Joffe H; Engelbrecht VM; Harding G; Stirton CH, 1986. A catalogue of problem plants in South Africa. Memoirs of the botanical survey of South Africa No 53. Pretoria, South Africa: Botanical Research Institute.

Wilson B; Cussans G, 1983. The effects of weeds on yield and quality of winter cereals in the UK. In: Proceedings of the Brighton Crop Protection Conference - Weeds. Farnham, UK: British Crop Protection Council, 121-129.

Zakeri A; Banihashemi Z, 1996. The role of weeds in cultivated and virgin soils on activity and perpetuation of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis in Fars Province. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 32(1/2):22-25 (En), 28-39 (Pe); 30 ref.

Distribution References

Anon, 1987. Weeds of the United States and their control. New York, USA: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Ltd. 355 pp.

Boiteux L S, Fonseca M E N, Reis A, Costa A F, Fontes M G, González-Arcos M, 2016. Wild radish (Raphanus spp.) and garden rocket (Eruca sativa) as new Brassicaceae hosts of Tomato chlorosis virus in South America. Plant Disease. 100 (5), 1027. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-15-1069-PDN

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chater AO, 1981. Raphanus L. In: Flora Europaea, Vol. 1, [ed. by Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM Webb DA]. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Dąbkowska T, Sygulska P, 2013. Variations in weed flora and the degree of its transformation in ecological and extensive conventional cereal crops in selected habitats of the Beskid Wyspowy Mountains. Acta Agrobotanica. 66 (2), 123-136. DOI:10.5586/aa.2013.029

Díaz G A, Latorre B A, 2014. Infection caused by Phaeomoniella chlamydospora associated with esca-like symptoms in grapevine in Chile. Plant Disease. 98 (3), 351-360. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-12-1180-RE

Djébali N, Scott J K, Jourdan M, Souissi T, 2009. Fungi pathogenic on wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) in northern Tunisia as potential biocontrol agents. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 48 (2), 205-213.

Farzadfar S, Ahoonmanesh A, Mosahebi G H, Pourrahim R, Golnaraghi A R, 2007. Occurrence and distribution of Cauliflower mosaic virus on cruciferous plants in Iran. Plant Pathology Journal (Faisalabad). 6 (1), 22-29.

Gobatto D, Oliveira L A de, Franco D A de S, Velásquez N, Daròs J A, Eiras M, 2019. Surveys in the chrysanthemum production areas of Brazil and Colombia reveal that weeds are potential reservoirs of chrysanthemum stunt viroid. Viruses. 11 (4), 355. DOI:10.3390/v11040355

Groves R L, Walgenbach J F, Moyer J W, Kennedy G G, 2002. The role of weed hosts and tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca, in the epidemiology of tomato spotted wilt virus. Plant Disease. 86 (6), 573-582. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2002.86.6.573

Holm L G, Pancho J V, Herberger J P, Plucknett D L, 1991. A geographic atlas of world weeds. Malabar, Florida, USA: Krieger Publishing Co. 391 pp.

Holm L, Doll J, Holm E, Pancho J, Herberger J, 1997. World Weeds. Natural Histories and Distribution., New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Jonsell B, 1982. Cruciferae. In: Flora of tropical East Africa, [ed. by Polhill RM]. Rotterdam, Netherlands: A.A. Balkema. iv + 74 pp.

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