Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Raphanus raphanistrum
(wild radish)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Raphanus raphanistrum (wild radish)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 08 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Raphanus raphanistrum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • wild radish
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleFlowering plant
Caption
CopyrightAgrEvo
Flowering plantAgrEvo
White form.
TitleFlowering plant
CaptionWhite form.
CopyrightAgrEvo
White form.
Flowering plantWhite form.AgrEvo
TitleSeedling
Caption
CopyrightAgrEvo
SeedlingAgrEvo

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Raphanus raphanistrum

Preferred Common Name

  • wild radish

Other Scientific Names

  • Raphanus landra Moretti ex DC.
  • Raphanus segetum Clav.

International Common Names

  • English: charlock; jointed charlock; jointed radish; runch; white charlock; wild turnip
  • Spanish: jaramago blanco; oruga silvestre; rabanillo; rabaniza comun; rabano silvestre
  • French: radis ravenelle; radis sauvage; ravenelle
  • Arabic: fugl barri
  • Portuguese: labresto; saramago

Local Common Names

  • : rabano
  • Algeria: abou vel bou-quir; lebsan
  • Argentina: rabizon
  • Belgium: knopherik
  • Brazil: nabica; nabo
  • Colombia: rabano morado; rabon mostaza
  • Denmark: kiddike
  • Egypt: figl
  • Finland: peltoretikka
  • Germany: Ackerrettich; Hederich; Wilder Rettich
  • Hungary: repcsenyretek
  • Iraq: fijaila; fujul
  • Israel: tznon matzui
  • Italy: rafanistro; ramolaccio selvatico; rapastrello; ravastrello
  • Japan: hamadaikon
  • Lebanon: aysh wa gubn; fijjaylah
  • Madagascar: radia
  • Mexico: flor de nabo; jaramado; nabillo; nebo cimarron; nebo silvestre; taramao
  • Morocco: bahamon
  • Norway: akerreddik
  • Paraguay: rabinito salvaje
  • Peru: rabano cimarron; rabano silvestre
  • Poland: lopucha poina; rzodkiew swirzepa
  • Saudi Arabia: aysh wa gubn
  • South Africa: ramenas; wildemostert
  • Sweden: akerrattika
  • Tunisia: abou vel bou-toum; ravelle
  • Turkey: esek turpu
  • Uruguay: mostacilla; rabano silvestre

EPPO code

  • RAPRA (Raphanus raphanistrum)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Capparidales
  •                         Family: Brassicaceae
  •                             Genus: Raphanus
  •                                 Species: Raphanus raphanistrum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Raphanus raphanistrum is the universally accepted name for this common and widespread annual weed. The genus name is derived from the Latin, raphanis, a vegetable grown from antiquity, the species name is from the Greek, ra, which means quickly and phainomai, to appear, and refers to the rapid growth of this weed. Flora Europaea (Chater, 1981) distinguishes between a number of subspecies: susp. raphanistrum, subsp. microcarpus (Lange) Thell. and subsp. landra (Moretti ex DC.) are all weeds of cultivated land, while subsp. rostratus (DC.) Thell. and subsp. maritimus (Sm.) Thell. are found on sea shores and sandy coasts.

Description

Top of page R. raphanistrum may behave as an annual, winter annual or biennial and has a large basal rosette of leaves. The fibrous root system is very extensive to a depth of 20 cm, spreading horizontally to 80 cm in all directions. Stems are erect or spreading (striate to angled in South Africa), much branched, 30 to 100 cm (to 200 cm in Australia), with short, stiff hairs especially at the base. Leaves are alternate, rough, lower deeply lobed with much enlarged terminal segment, upper narrower, entire to slight indentations, 8 to 20 cm long. The flowers have a perianth with four free segments in long terminal, corymbose racemes, petals pale yellow, rarely white, purple veins (occasionally petals reported to be pinkish or purplish, may be straw coloured in Scotland, UK), 1 to 2 cm across, pedicels, 1 to 2 cm. The fruit is a fleshy pod, spongy, long, narrow, cylindrical, 5 to 10 mm in diameter, 2 to 7 cm long, terminating in a 1-2 cm pointed beak, longitudinally ribbed, indehiscent, 2 to 10 seeds, constricted but without septum between seeds, lower pods often small and seedless, sections with seed break apart at constriction when mature. The seeds are globular, ovoid, reddish to orange-brown (dark brown in South Africa), 2 to 4 mm in diameter, covered with fine network of veins with shallow interspaces.

Distribution

Top of page R. raphanistrum, probably European in origin, occurs as a weed on all continents, but is absent from tropical Western Africa and South and East Asia (Holm et al., 1997).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanWidespreadHolm et al., 1991
ArmeniaPresentUSDA, 1998
AzerbaijanPresentUSDA et al., 1998
ChinaPresentHolm et al., 1991
Georgia (Republic of)PresentUSDA et al., 1998
IranPresentHolm et al., 1991; USDA, 1998
IraqPresentHolm et al., 1991; USDA, 1998
IsraelWidespreadHolm et al., 1991; USDA, 1998
JapanPresentHolm et al., 1997
JordanPresentHolm et al., 1991; USDA, 1998
LebanonPresentHolm et al., 1991; USDA, 1998
SyriaPresentUSDA, 1998
TurkeyPresentHolm et al., 1991; USDA, 1998

Africa

AlgeriaPresentUSDA, 1998
EgyptPresentHolm et al., 1991; USDA, 1998
EthiopiaPresentHolm et al., 1991
KenyaWidespreadJonsell, 1982; Holm et al., 1991
LibyaPresentUSDA, 1998
MoroccoPresentHolm et al., 1991
MozambiqueWidespreadHolm et al., 1991
South AfricaWidespreadWells et al., 1986; Holm et al., 1991
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentChater and, 1981; USDA, 1998
TunisiaWidespreadHolm et al., 1991; USDA, 1998
ZimbabwePresentHolm et al., 1991

North America

CanadaPresentHolm et al., 1991
MexicoWidespreadHolm et al., 1991
USAPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Holm et al., 1991
-AlabamaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-CaliforniaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-ConnecticutPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-DelawarePresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-FloridaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-GeorgiaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-IllinoisPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-IndianaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-KentuckyPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-MarylandPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-MassachusettsPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-MichiganPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-MinnesotaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-New HampshirePresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-New JerseyPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-New YorkPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-North CarolinaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-OhioPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-PennsylvaniaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-Rhode IslandPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-South CarolinaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-TennesseePresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-VermontPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-VirginiaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-West VirginiaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-WisconsinPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987

Central America and Caribbean

HondurasPresentHolm et al., 1991

South America

ArgentinaWidespreadHolm et al., 1991
BoliviaPresentHolm et al., 1997
BrazilWidespreadLorenzi, 1982; Holm et al., 1991
-Espirito SantoPresentLorenzi, 1982
-GoiasPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Minas GeraisPresentLorenzi, 1982
-ParanaPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Rio de JaneiroPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Rio Grande do SulPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Santa CatarinaPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Sao PauloPresentLorenzi, 1982
ChilePresentHolm et al., 1991
ColombiaWidespreadHolm et al., 1991
EcuadorPresentHolm et al., 1997
ParaguayPresentHolm et al., 1997
PeruWidespreadHolm et al., 1991
UruguayPresentHolm et al., 1991

Europe

AlbaniaPresentChater and, 1981; USDA, 1998
AustriaPresentChater and, 1981; USDA, 1998
BelarusPresentTutin et al.,1981; USDA, 1998
BelgiumWidespreadChater and, 1981; Holm et al., 1991; USDA, 1998
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentChater and, 1981
BulgariaPresentChater and, 1981; Holm et al., 1991; USDA, 1998
CroatiaPresentChater,1981
CyprusPresentUSDA, 1998
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentHolm et al., 1991; USDA, 1998
DenmarkPresentHolm et al., 1991; USDA, 1998
EstoniaPresentChater and, 1981; USDA, 1998
FinlandWidespreadChater and, 1981; Holm et al., 1991; USDA, 1998
FrancePresentChater and, 1981; Holm et al., 1991; USDA, 1998
-CorsicaPresentChater and, 1981; USDA, 1998
GermanyWidespreadChater and, 1981; Holm et al., 1991; USDA, 1998
GreecePresentChater and, 1981; Holm et al., 1991; USDA, 1998
HungaryWidespreadChater,1981; Holm et al., 1991; USDA, 1998
IcelandPresentChater and, 1981; Holm et al., 1991
IrelandPresentChater and, 1981; USDA, 1998
ItalyWidespreadUSDA et al.,; Chater and, 1981; Holm et al., 1991
LatviaPresentChater and, 1981; USDA, 1998
LithuaniaPresentChater and, 1981; USDA, 1998
LuxembourgPresentChater and, 1981
MoldovaPresentUSDA, 1998
NetherlandsPresentChatert, 1981; Holm et al., 1991; USDA, 1998
NorwayPresentChater and, 1981; Holm et al., 1991; USDA, 1998
PolandWidespreadChater and, 1981; Holm et al., 1991; USDA, 1998
PortugalWidespreadChater and, 1981; Holm et al., 1991; USDA, 1998
-AzoresPresentChater and, 1981; USDA, 1998
RomaniaPresentChater and, 1981; USDA, 1998
Russian FederationWidespreadChater and, 1981; Holm et al., 1991; USDA, 1998
SlovakiaPresentChater and, 1981; Holm et al., 1991
SloveniaPresentChater and, 1981
SpainWidespreadChater and, 1981; Holm et al., 1991
-Balearic IslandsPresentChater and, 1981
SwedenWidespreadChater and, 1981; Holm et al., 1991; USDA, 1998
SwitzerlandPresentTutin et al., 1981; USDA, 1998
UKWidespreadChater and, 1981; Holm et al., 1991; USDA, 1998
UkrainePresentTutin et al., 1981; USDA, 1998
Yugoslavia (former)PresentChater and, 1981; Holm et al., 1991; USDA, 1998

Oceania

AustraliaWidespreadHolm et al., 1991
-New South WalesPresentHolm et al., 1997
-QueenslandPresentHolm et al., 1997
-South AustraliaPresentHolm et al., 1997
-TasmaniaPresentHolm et al., 1991
-Western AustraliaPresentHolm et al., 1997
New ZealandPresentHolm et al., 1991

Habitat

Top of page Various studies and observations to establish the habitat and soil preferences of R. raphanistrum have been contradictory. Records from the UK around the turn of the 20th century suggested that it preferred chalk and sandy soils, often being the dominant species on chalk. In Germany, Vogel (1926) classified it as an indicator of acid soils. In France, LeFevre (1956) suggested the link between wild radish and soil pH was a weak one and concluded that it was only a modest indicator of a requirement for lime. Today, in both the UK and the USA, R. raphanistrum occurs in crops on a wide variety of soil types.

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page R. raphanistrum is a major weed of cereals, especially wheat, and particularly winter-sown wheat (Holm et al., 1997). It is also common in a number of vegetable crops, legumes, vineyards, horticultural crops, pastures and fodder crops. It is likely to occur in any crop within its geographical range.

Biology and Ecology

Top of page R. raphanistrum is an annual, or rarely biennial species which reproduces solely by seed. It is a prolific seed producer. In field studies in Australia, seed yields reached 17,275 seeds/m² (Reeves et al., 1981), and accumulated seed banks reached levels of 45,000 seeds/m² at some sites. Seed production by individual plants is density dependent, with increasing population densities of R. raphanistrum resulting in reduced production per plant, but an overall increase per unit area.

Seed populations in the soil exhibit protracted germination and Reeves et al. (1981) estimated that in a single season one half of the seeds in the soil germinated. In Australia, germination usually occurs after autumn rains, but 'flushes' of germination occur throughout the year after rain. In the UK, the peak period of germination is in March and April, but seedlings continue to appear until late autumn (Roberts and Boddrell, 1983). Piggin et al. (1978) concluded that this sporadic germination may be the result of the gradual, but continuous breakdown of buried seed pods which have an inhibitory effect on seed germination.

In laboratory germination tests, R. raphanistrum has been shown to germinate over a range of temperatures, but was most responsive to fluctuating temperatures. Mekenian and Willensen (1975) in the USA, showed that the after-ripening requirement was completed in less than 6 months and that germination was generally greater in the dark. Cheam (1984, 1986) found that seeds from southern Australia had a greater level of initial primary dormancy than those from northern Australia, and Steinbauer and Frank (1954) recommended treating fresh seeds with potassium nitrate to break primary dormancy. In Germany, Lauer (1953) found that the minimum temperature for germination was 5°C, the maximum 35°C, with an optimum of 20°C.

The longevity of R. raphanistrum seed is increased by burial in the soil (Piggin et al., 1978). Kurth (1967) in Germany, reported that seeds could remain viable for between 15 and 20 years in the soil. In the UK, Chancellor (1986) reported a mean annual decline of 30% of the seed bank, corresponding to a half-life of 2 years.

Seed may be dispersed by a number of agents and is frequently a contaminant of commercial grain seed stocks. Seed may also be spread in irrigation water and is able to pass unharmed through the gut of many animals including birds and cattle (Holm et al., 1997).

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page No host specific natural enemies for this weed have been found, and any natural enemies would probably be pests of related crops.

Impact

Top of page R. raphanistrum has been reported as a weed of 45 crops in 65 countries (Holm et al., 1997) and is classified as a serious weed in nine countries and a principal weed in a further fourteen (Holm et al., 1991). In Germany, Otto and Hilbig (1987) reported decreases in the extent of many weeds, amongst them R. raphanistrum. These results are in contrast, however, to those of Klaassen (1995) who suggested that a five-fold increase in the area of rape in Germany in the preceding 10 years had lead to an increase in cruciferous weeds, including wild radish. In a study in the UK, Wilson and Cussans (1983) demonstrated that R. raphanistrum was one of the most competitive weed species against barley. In Florida, USA, complete control of wild radish throughout the growing season increased winter wheat yields by 39% (O'Byrne et al., 1986).

R. raphanistrum is an alternative host for a range of crop pests and pathogens. These include; the melon pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis (Zakeri and Banihashemi, 1996), beet western yellows luteovirus (Chod et al., 1997), the sugarbeet nematode Heterodera schachtii (Gleiss and Bachthaler, 1988), cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (Dikova, 1989), Pieris rapae (Garcia, 1988) and Nezara viridula (Jones and Sullivan, 1982).

Ingestion of R. raphanistrum by sheep and cattle may taint milk and if bread wheat becomes contaminated with large quantities of R. raphanistrum seed, 'bread poisoning' may result (Holm et al., 1997).

Uses

Top of page In Mexico, leaves of R. raphanistrum may be eaten by humans during food shortages (Holm et al., 1997). It may have some value in biological control programmes because of its ability to attract natural enemies of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (Cheam and Code, 1995).

Uses List

Top of page

Human food and beverage

  • Emergency (famine) food

Materials

  • Pesticide
  • Poisonous to mammals

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Prevention and Control

Top of page Introduction

The protracted period over which germination of R. raphanistrum may occur makes its complete eradication from crops difficult and necessitates careful consideration of the optimum time for cultural and chemical control measures. Early treatments are usually the most successful in grain crops, but allow late germinating weeds to set seed and contaminate the harvest. Later treatments result in greater competition from R. raphanistrum leading to reduced yields (Holm et al., 1997). When infestations are severe, more than one annual control treatment may be necessary.

Cultural Control

Cultural control practices must normally be combined with chemical treatments to ensure effective control of this weed. In trials in Victoria, Australia, the emergence of R. raphanistrum was greatest on direct-drilled plots, least on those moldboard ploughed to a depth of 15 cm and intermediate where the soil was scarified to a depth of 3 cm (Donaldson and Code, 1981). Whilst moldboard ploughing is able, due to the depth of burial of seeds, to significantly reduce emergence of R. raphanistrum, it does dictate that subsequent cultivations should be shallow to avoid the return of viable seed to the surface. In further trials in Victoria, Code and Donaldson (1996) showed that moldboard ploughing followed by cultivation to 80 mm or direct drilling could reduce wild radish populations to levels below the economic threshold for spraying. Due to the increased rate of loss of viability of seeds at the soil surface, direct drilling will lead to a rapid exhaustion of the soil seed bank where chemical control is able to prevent reseeding of establishing plants.

Soil solarization may provide effective control of R. raphanistrum (Rubin and Benjamin, 1983; Cartia, 1985).

Chemical Control

Cereals - R. raphanistrum is very sensitive to the standard 2,4-D and MCPA, bu ta range of herbnicides are also used. In field trials in winter wheat in Belarus, isoproturon gave 100% control (Soroka et al., 1995). In Georgia, USA, early season applications of bromoxynil and thimeturon [thifensulfuron] controlled R. raphanistrum in winter wheat. Metribuzin, 2,4-D dimethylamine and MCPA applied late season were equally effective (Schroeder, 1989). Bentazone applied post-emergence gave fair to good control (Nichols et al., 1983). In South Africa, triasulfuron provided 89-100% control in wheat and barley (van Biljon et al., 1988). In Victoria, Australia, bromoxynil + MCPA applied 6 weeks after sowing gave 95% control, metribuzin + methabenzthiazuron gave 88% control and dicamba + MCPA-amine gave 70% control (Code and Reeves, 1981).

Lupins - in Western Australia, control of R. raphanistrum in lupins was obtained with a post-emergence application of simazine applied 2 to 5 weeks after sowing (Gilbey, 1990). Good control has also been demonstrated with post-emergence application of diflufenican (Buerger, 1986) and linuron (Porter et al., 1988).

Soyabeans - in soybean fields infested with wild radish in Romania, imazethapyr applied post-emergence at the leaf rosette phase gave best control (Chirita et al., 1993). In France, 100% control was achieved with oxadiazon (Regnault, 1986).

Other recommendations include thiazopyr + oxyfluorfen in perennial crops (Warner and Holmdal, 1995), triflusulfuron in sugarbeet (Simonteit, 1992) and atrazine in maize (Marcondes and Kashiwakura, undated). Lorenzi (1984) and Mamarot and Rodriguez (1997) provide suggestions for use of herbicides and herbicide mixtures in a wide range of crops in Brazil and France respectively. Lorenzi indicates resistance to EPTC and trifluralin, and only moderate susceptibility to butylate, vernolate, butachlor, cyanazine, simazine, pendimethalin and oryzalin.

References

Top of page

Biljon JJ van; Hugo KJ; Iwanzik W, 1988. Triasulfuron: a new broadleaf herbicide in wheat and barley. Applied Plant Science, 2(2):49-52.

Buerger P, 1986. Diflufenican for radish control. Proceedings of the 4th International Lupin Conference, Gera Idton, Western Australia. South Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture, 321

Cartia G, 1985. Solar heating of the soil for the control of soil pests and perennial weeds. Colture Protette, 14(3):37-42; [4 pl. (2 col.)]; 23 ref.

Chancellor RJ, 1986. Decline of arable weed seeds during 20 years in soil under grass and the periodicity of seedling emergence after cultivation. Journal of Applied Ecology, 23(2):631-637.

Chater AO, 1981. 107. Raphanus L. In: Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA, eds. Flora Europaea, Vol. 1. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Cheam AH, 1984. Coat-imposed dormancy controlling germination in wild radish and fiddle dock seeds. In: Madin RW, ed. Proceedings of the seventh Australian weeds conference. Perth, Australia: Weed Society of Western Australia, 184-190

Cheam AH, 1986. Seed production and seed dormancy in wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) and some possibilities for improving control. Weed Research, 26(6):405-413

Cheam AH; Code GR, 1995. The biology of Australian weeds. 24. Raphanus raphanistrum L. Plant Protection Quarterly, 10(1):2-13.

Chirita N; Dinu C; Chirita D, 1993. Contributions to the study of the weed control of annual weeds in soybean crop. Probleme de Agrofitotehnie Teoretica si Aplicata, 15(2):121-131

Chod J; Chodovß D; Jokes M, 1997. Host and indicator plants of beet western yellows virus. Listy Cukrovarnicke^acute~ a R^hacek~epar^hacek~ske^acute~, 113(5):129-130; 4 ref.

Code GR; Donaldson TW, 1996. Effect of cultivation, sowing methods and herbicides on wild radish populations in wheat crops. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 36(4):437-442; 12 ref.

Code GR; Reeves TG, 1981. Chemical control of wild radish in wheat. Proceedings of the Sixth Australian Weeds Conference, 1981. Volume 1:59-63

Dikova B, 1989. Wild-growing hosts of the cucumber mosaic virus. Rasteniev'dni Nauki, 26(7):57-64

Donaldson TW; Code GR, 1981. Chemical control of wild radish in wheat. Proceedings of the sixth Australian Weeds Conference, 1:59-63.

Edgecombe WS, 1970. Weeds of Lebanon. Beirut, Lebanon: American University of Beirut.

Garcia EF, 1988. Spring and summer hosts for Pieris rapae in southern Spain with special attention to Capparis spinosa. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 48(2):173-178

Gilbey DJ, 1990. Simazine top up for controlling wild radish, Raphanus raphanistrum L., doublegee, Emex australis Steinh., and other weeds in lupins. Proceedings of the 9th Australian Weeds Conference, 78-81

Gleiss W; Bachthaler G, 1988. The significance of weeds as host plants of the sugar-beet nematode Heterodera schachtii Schmitt in weed control according to thresholds. Angewandte Botanik, 62(3-4):193-201

Holm L; Doll J; Holm E; Pancho J; Herberger J, 1997. World Weeds. Natural Histories and Distribution. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1991. A Geographic Atlas of World Weeds. Malabar, Florida, USA: Krieger Publishing Company.

Jones WA; Sullivan MJ, 1982. Role of host plants in population dynamics of stink bug pests of soybean in South Carolina. Environmental Entomology, 11(4):867-875

Jonsell B, 1982. Cruciferae. In: Polhill RM, ed. Flora of Tropical East Africa. Rotterdam, Netherlands: AA Balkema.

Klaassen H, 1995. Shift in the weed flora of rape? PSP Pflanzenschutz Praxis, No. 3:20-22

Kurth H, 1967. The germination behaviour of weeds. SYS Reporter, 3:6-11.

Lauer E, 1953. Uber die Keimtemperatur von Ackerunkrautern und deren einfluss auf die zusammensetzung von Unkrautgesellschaften. Flora Oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung, 140:551-595.

LeFevre P, 1956. Influence de milieu et des conditions d'exploration sur la developpement des plantes adventices. Effet particulier du pH et l'etat calcique. Annales Agronomiques, 7:299-347.

Lorenzi H, 1982. Weeds of Brazil, terrestrial and aquatic, parasitic, poisonous and medicinal. (Plantas daninhas de Brasil, terrestres, aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais.) Nova Odessa, Brazil: H. Lorenzi, 425 pp.

Lorenzi H, 1984. Manual de Identificacao e Controle de Plantas Danhinas. Odessa, Brazil: H. Lorenzi.

Lorenzi HJ; Jeffery LS(Editors), 1987. Weeds of the United States and their control. New York, USA; Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Ltd., 355 pp.

Mamarot J; Rodriguez A, 1997. Sensibilité des Mauvaises Herbes aux Herbicides. 4th edition. Paris, France: Association de Coordination Technique Agricole.

Marcondes DAS; Kashiwakura Y, unda. Herbicide evaluations for weed control in maize (Zea mays L.). Abstracts of the XIV Brazilian congress on herbicides and herbaceous weeds (SBHED) and the VI congress of the Latin American Weed Association (ALAM), Campinas, 1982. Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 117

Mekenian MR; Willemsen RW, 1975. Germination characteristics of Raphanus raphanistrum. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 102(5):243-252

Nichols RL; Miller JD; Wells HD, 1983. Evaluation of bentazon and 2,4-DB in winter wheat and clovers. Proceedings, Southern Weed Science Society, 36th annual meeting., 106-117; 19 ref.

O'Byrne DJ; Currey WL; Brecke BJ, 1986. Wild radish control and competition in winter wheat. Proceedings, Southern Weed Science Society, 39th annual meeting, 103

Otto HW; Hilbig W, 1987. Changes in the segetal flora of Oberlausitz by soil improvement measures in agriculture. Abhandlungen und Berichte des Naturkundemuseums Gorlitz, 60(1):43-47

Piggin CM; Reeves TG; Brooke HD; Code GR, 1978. Germination of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.). Proceedings of the First Conference of the Council of Australian Weed Science Societies., 233-240

Porter GA; Clapham WM; Leach SS, 1988. Potential herbicides for use in sweet white lupin. Proceedings, 42nd annual meeting of the Northeastern Weed Science Society, 37

Reeves TG; Code GR; Piggin CM, 1981. Seed production and longevity, seasonal emergence and phenology of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.). Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 21(112):524-530

Regnault Y, 1986. Weed control in soyabeans. Informations Techniques, CETIOM, No.94, supplement:166-169

Roberts HA; Boddrell JE, 1983. Seed survival and periodicity of seedling emergence in eight species of Cruciferae. Annals of Applied Biology, 103(2):301-309

Rubin B; Benjamin A, 1983. Solar heating of the soil: effect on weed control and on soil-incorporated herbicides. Weed Science, 31(6):819-825

Schroeder J, 1989. Wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) control in soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). Weed Science, 37(1):112-116

Simonteit T, 1992. DPX-66037 - first experiences with the control of weeds in beet. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzzenkrankheiten unf Pfalnzenschutz, 1992, Sonderheft 13, presented at the 16th German conference on weed biology and control, Stuttgart-Hohenheim, Germany, 615-617.

Soroka SV; Soroka LI; Andreev AS, 1995. Early spring application of Arelon in winter wheat crops. Zashchita Rastenii^breve~ (Moskva), No. 4:14.

Steinbauer G; Frank P, 1954. Primary dormancy and germination requirements of seeds of certain Cruciferae. In: Proceedings of the 48th Annual Meeting of the Association of Official Seed Analysts, 118-120.

USDA-ARS, 1999. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Vogel F, 1926. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Standortsanspruche von Ackerrettich (Raphanus raphanistrum) and Ackersenf (Sinapis arvensis). Bayerisches Landwirt Shaftliches Jahrbuch, 16(4/5):149-230.

Warner HL; Holmdal JA, 1995. Thiazopyr weed control in perennial crops. Brighton crop protection conference: weeds. Proceedings of an international conference, Brighton, UK, 20-23 November 1995., Vol. 3:943-946; 2 ref.

Wells MJ; Balsinhas AA; Joffe H; Engelbrecht VM; Harding G; Stirton CH, 1986. A catalogue of problem plants in South Africa. Memoirs of the botanical survey of South Africa No 53. Pretoria, South Africa: Botanical Research Institute.

Wilson B; Cussans G, 1983. The effects of weeds on yield and quality of winter cereals in the UK. In: Proceedings of the Brighton Crop Protection Conference - Weeds. Farnham, UK: British Crop Protection Council, 121-129.

Zakeri A; Banihashemi Z, 1996. The role of weeds in cultivated and virgin soils on activity and perpetuation of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis in Fars Province. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 32(1/2):22-25 (En), 28-39 (Pe); 30 ref.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map