Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Raffaelea quercivora
(Japanese oak wilt)

Masuya H, 2018. Raffaelea quercivora (Japanese oak wilt). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.46687.20210198941

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Datasheet

Raffaelea quercivora (Japanese oak wilt)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Documented Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Raffaelea quercivora
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Japanese oak wilt
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Raffaelea quercivora, together with ambrosia beetle Platypus quercivorus as a vector, is the causal agent of Japanese oak wilt. P. quercivorus occurs from south to east Asia, including Japan, and is associated with trees...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Raffaelea quercivora (Japanese oak wilt); symptoms, on Quercus crispula [Quercus mongolica] attacked by the beetle vector, Platypus quercivorus.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionRaffaelea quercivora (Japanese oak wilt); symptoms, on Quercus crispula [Quercus mongolica] attacked by the beetle vector, Platypus quercivorus.
Copyright©Hayato Masuya
Raffaelea quercivora (Japanese oak wilt); symptoms, on Quercus crispula [Quercus mongolica] attacked by the beetle vector, Platypus quercivorus.
SymptomsRaffaelea quercivora (Japanese oak wilt); symptoms, on Quercus crispula [Quercus mongolica] attacked by the beetle vector, Platypus quercivorus.©Hayato Masuya
Raffaelea quercivora (Japanese oak wilt); the beetle vector, Platypus quercivorus. (a) Male. (b) Female.
TitleVector
CaptionRaffaelea quercivora (Japanese oak wilt); the beetle vector, Platypus quercivorus. (a) Male. (b) Female.
Copyright©Hayato Masuya
Raffaelea quercivora (Japanese oak wilt); the beetle vector, Platypus quercivorus. (a) Male. (b) Female.
VectorRaffaelea quercivora (Japanese oak wilt); the beetle vector, Platypus quercivorus. (a) Male. (b) Female.©Hayato Masuya
Raffaelea quercivora (Japanese oak wilt); conidiophore.
TitleConidiophore
CaptionRaffaelea quercivora (Japanese oak wilt); conidiophore.
Copyright©Hayato Masuya
Raffaelea quercivora (Japanese oak wilt); conidiophore.
ConidiophoreRaffaelea quercivora (Japanese oak wilt); conidiophore.©Hayato Masuya
Raffaelea quercivora (Japanese oak wilt); culture plates, showing a 2-week-old colony of R. quercivora.
TitleCulture plates
CaptionRaffaelea quercivora (Japanese oak wilt); culture plates, showing a 2-week-old colony of R. quercivora.
Copyright©Hayato Masuya
Raffaelea quercivora (Japanese oak wilt); culture plates, showing a 2-week-old colony of R. quercivora.
Culture platesRaffaelea quercivora (Japanese oak wilt); culture plates, showing a 2-week-old colony of R. quercivora.©Hayato Masuya

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Raffaelea quercivora Kubono & Shin. Ito

Preferred Common Name

  • Japanese oak wilt

EPPO code

  • RAFFQU (Raffaelea quercivora)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Raffaelea quercivora, together with ambrosia beetle Platypus quercivorus as a vector, is the causal agent of Japanese oak wilt. P. quercivorus occurs from south to east Asia, including Japan, and is associated with trees in the Fagaceae family. R. quercivora is considered native to Japan, Taiwan, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam. In Japan, Quercus serrata and Q. crispula [Q. mongolica] are particularly susceptible to Japanese oak wilt, with high rates of mortality. Although there have been reports of the co-occurrence of R. quercivora and P. quercivorus outside of Japan, tree mortality caused by this species complex has never been recorded in these cases. R. quercivora is not on an alert list or listed as a regulated pest in any part of its native range. Although R. quercivora/P. quercivorus are not considered invasive, if they were introduced into susceptible oak forests, possibly via international transport of wood products, there is potential for them to cause extensive tree mortality in other geographic regions.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Sordariomycetidae
  •                         Order: Ophiostomatales
  •                             Family: Ophiostomataceae
  •                                 Genus: Raffaelea
  •                                     Species: Raffaelea quercivora

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The anamorphic genus Raffaelea was created in 1965 to accommodate the ambrosia fungus associated with the beetle Platypus cylindricus [Platypus cylindrus]. Since that time, more than 20 species of Raffaelea have been described (Jones and Blackwell, 1998; Harrington et al., 2010; de Beer et al., 2013; Musvuugwa et al., 2015; Simmons et al., 2016).

Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the genus Raffaelea, in the family Ophiostomataceae, is polyphyletic and separate from Raffaelea sensu stricto, which includes type species, R. ambrosiae, and others (de Beer et al., 2013). Among members of this genus, the teleomorph (perfect stage) has been found only in R. vaginata (Musvuugwa et al., 2015). R. quercivora was described by Kubuno and Ito (2002) from Quercus serrata and Quercus crispula [Quercus mongolica] in Japan, which were attacked by the ambrosia beetle Platypus quercivorus. Together with several other Raffaelea-like species, R. quercivora is not phylogenetically included in Raffaelea sensu stricto and taxonomic revision, along with other genera in the Ophiostomataceae, is required (de Beer et al., 2013). At present, R. quercivora remains an accepted taxon.

Description

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R. quercivora grows rapidly on potato dextrose agar at 20-25°C, reaching 80 mm in diameter in 5 days. Aerial mycelium is abundant and arranged in fascicles resembling coremia. Colonies are at first white, turning pale olive to brown-olive after 2 weeks. Conidiophores, produced on sporodochia or separately, are macronematous, mononematous, simple or branched, hyaline and 16.5-22.5 x 0.9-1.5 µm. Condiogenous cells are polyblastic, sympodial, indeterminate and discrete or integrated, with a series of flat, scarcely protruding scars situated toward the apex. Conidia are short-clavate, borne in acropetal order, hyaline, aseptate, obovoid to pyriform, formed in droplets and 3.1-4.7 x 2.0-2.4 µm (Kubono and Ito, 2002; Ito et al., undated).

Distribution

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R. quercivora is present in Taiwan, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam (Kusumoto et al., 2013) and may be present in India (Bengal) and Papua New Guinea; it is associated with the ambrosia beetle P. quercivorus (Wood and Bright, 1992; Beaver and Hsien-Tzung Shih, 2003).

In Japan, R. quercivora is present from the island of Iriomote Jima to northern Honshu, and has been implicated as a cause of Japanese oak wilt (Hamaguchi and Goto, 2003; Ito and Yamada, 1998). However, damaged areas are restricted in Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu islands in Japan (Forest Agency, 2018). Recently Japanese oak wilt also occurred at Fukaura, Aomori prefecture, close to Shirakami-Sanchi, a UNESCO world heritage site (https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/663) in northern Japan.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021

Risk of Introduction

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The introduction of R. quercivora and its vector P. quercivorus into oak forests of Europe and/or North America could result in extensive tree mortality provided that the fungus is pathogenic to trees indigenous to these regions.

Transport of wood products or the use of crating, pallets or dunnage made from oak or other host trees in international trade could result in the intercontinental spread of R. quercivora and all life stages of its associated ambrosia beetle, P. quercivorus. Localized spread of newly established infestations could be facilitated via the transport of logs and firewood.

Habitat

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R. quercivora occurs in mature oaks that have been attacked by the ambrosia beetle P. quercivorus. On southern islands of Japan, the fungus, associated with P. quercivorus, occurs in natural forest stands without causing mortality, however it causes mass mortality in natural and/or secondary forests in Kyushu, Shikoku and Honshu islands (Kamata et al., 2002).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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The hosts from which R. quercivora has been identified are Quercus serrata and Q. crispula [Q. mongolica] (Kubuno and Ito, 2002).

Assuming that R. quercivora is universally associated with its ambrosia beetle vector P. quercivorus, the following trees are also hosts: Ilex chinensis [I. purpurea], Castanopsis cuspidata, Pasania edulis [Lithocarpus edulis], Pasania glabra [Lithocarpus glaber], Quercus acuta, Q. acutissima, Q. gilva, Q. myrsinifolia, Q. phillyraeoides, Q. salicina, Q. sessilifolia, Lindera erythrocarpa, Prunus spp. and Cryptomeria japonica (Wood and Bright, 1992; Bright and Skidmore, 2002). Kobayashi and Ueda (2005) suggests that there are over 50 tree species (from approximately 32 genera and 20 families) on which this beetle has been reported to occur.

In Japan, Japanese oak wilt caused by R. quercivora/P. quercivorus is restricted to the following species: Q. serrata, Q. crispula [Q. mongolica], Q. acuta, Q. acutissima, Q. glauca, Q. myrsinifolia, Q. phillyraeoides, Q. salicina, Q. variabilis, Castanea crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii and Pasania edulis [Lithocarpus edulis] (Kobayashi and Ueda, 2005). Of these species, mass mortality is a particular problem for Q. serrata and Q. crispula [Q. mongolica] (Nishigaki et al., 1998). 

Other species affected to a lesser extent include: Fagus crenataQ. aliena, Q. dentata, Q. gilva, Q. hondae, Q. sessilifolia, Castanopsis cuspidata var. sieboldii [Castanopsis sieboldii] and Pasania edulis [Lithocarpus edulis] (Kobayasi and Ueda, 2005). Multiple inoculation treatments on seedlings of Q. rubra, a non-native species to Japan, indicated that this species is also susceptible to the pathogen (Torii et al., 2012).

Symptoms

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The most conspicuous early symptom of infection by R. quercivora is associated with its insect vector P. quercivorus, and consists of copious amounts of splinter-like, white boring dust near the base of infested oaks. Examination of the wood will reveal brood galleries of P. quercivorus and a brown discolouration in the sapwood surrounding the galleries. Fungal hyphae can be found in the vessels near the beetle galleries. In late summer, the foliage of oaks, to which this fungus is pathogenic, wilts and infected trees die (Kuroda and Yamada, 1996).

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / internal discoloration
Stems / internal feeding
Stems / mycelium present
Stems / necrosis
Stems / visible frass
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Biology and Ecology

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The genus Raffaelea consists of a number of species that have a symbiotic relationship with ambrosia beetles of the genera Platypus and Xyleborus (Jones and Blackwell, 1998). The hyphae and possibly spores of Raffaelea species provide food for the larvae of the beetles as they develop in individual galleries in the wood of host trees, and the beetles vector the fungi from tree to tree. In western North America, the ambrosia fungus associated with Platypus wilsoni on Pseudotsuga menziesii is Raffaelea canadensis (Batra, 1967Furniss and Carolin, 1977). Raffaelea lauricola is associated with Xyleborus glabratus, and affects Persea borbonia and Lauraceae species (Harrington et al., 2008). In Argentina, Raffaelea santoroi is associated with Platypus mutatus (Guerrero, 1966Giménez and Etiennot, 2003). In Europe, Raffaelea ambrosiae is associated with the oak ambrosia beetle Platypus cylindricus [Platypus cylindrus] (Babuder and Pohleven, 1995). In Korea, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae is associated with Platypus koryoensis and has been isolated from dead oak trees e.g. Quercus crispula [Quercus mongolica] (Kim et al., 2009).

Relatively little is known about the biology of R. quercivora. However, it is one of the ambrosia fungi that is pathogenic to host trees (Ito et al., 1998). The fungus is found in the sapwood (xylem). In host trees to which this fungus is reportedly pathogenic, tylosis formation in the vicinity of the hyphae results in vessel dysfunction. The fungal hyphae invade the living ray parenchyma cells from the vessel lumen. As a protective reaction, the ray cells exude a yellow substance into the vessels, but this appears to be ineffective against fungal activity, probably because the fungus disperses along the beetle's gallery before enough of this material can accumulate. This affects the flow of sap in the vascular system of host trees, and results in wilting and tree mortality (Kuroda, 2001). Takahashi et al. (2010) demonstrated that vessel dysfunction is confined to areas of hyphal distribution, which tended to be limited to a small area near an inoculation site. This suggests that a mass attack by the beetle vector, which results in the spread of R. quercivora hyphae from many galleries, is required to cause systemic symptoms (Takahashi et al., 2010).

The vector of R. quercivora in Japan is P. quercivorus, an ambrosia beetle indigenous to Indonesia, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam (and possibly also India and Papua New Guinea). It is known to attack tree species of the Fagaceae, especially oaks, other broadleaf species and one conifer (Wood and Bright, 1982; Beaver and Hsien-Tzung Shih, 2003). A genetic study of the Japanese population of P. quercivorus showed that the geographic structuring of this beetle was due to co-evolution with host trees and concluded that it is native to Japan (Shoda-Kagaya et al., 2010). R. quercivora has also been reported to be associated with the beetle outside of Japan (Kusumoto et al., 2013), however, the R. quercivora/P. quercivorus complex has never been reported to cause mortality of hosts outside of Japan. In 1998, the ascomycete fungus Ophiostoma longicollum was described from Q. crispula [Q. mongolica] infested by P. quercivorus (Masuya et al., 1998).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

In general, Raffaelea species have wet and sticky spores, which cannot disperse by wind. However, these characteristics are well suited to dispersal by vector beetles.

Vector Transmission (biotic)

R. quercivora depends on P. quercivorus for its dispersal. Its conidia are thought to attach to the body surface and mycangia of P. quercivorus (Endoh et al., 2011). It is possible that other beetles may accidentally vector the fungus, but there are currently no reports of this.

Accidental Introduction

Host trees such as Quercus spp. are often used as bed logs for Shiitake mushroom production in Japan. Although there is no formal report about accidental transmission of R. quercivora by bed logs, in several localities in Japan, the beetle-infesting logs were suspected to have been introduced from damaged areas (Nakamura, 2016).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
ForestryPredicted but not confirmed Yes Yes
HitchhikerPredicted but not confirmed Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Host and vector organismsVectored by the ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus Yes Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Growing medium accompanying plants fungi/fruiting bodies; fungi/hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fungi/fruiting bodies; fungi/hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Wood fungi/fruiting bodies; fungi/hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging liable to carry the pest in trade/transportTimber typeUsed as packing
Solid wood packing material with bark Oak Yes
Solid wood packing material without bark Oak Yes
Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Negative
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Negative

Impact: Economic

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The economic impact of R. quercivora is primarily on the use of host trees. Host trees such as Quercus spp. are often used for fuel and bed logs for Shiitake mushrooms in Japan, thus loss of Quercus directly relates to the production of Shiitake mushrooms. In addition, disease eradication and forest management including felling, chemical treatment etc., are costly to municipal governments.

Impact: Environmental

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Mortality of deciduous oaks has been known in Japan since the 1930s. Since the 1980s, the rate of mortality has increased and recently oaks have died at a rate of more than 200,000 per year in the western coastal areas of Honshu, Japan (Kaneko, 1995; EPPO, 2019). Susceptible oaks are the deciduous species Q. serrata and Q. crispula [Q. mongolica]. Mortality of Q. crispula [Q. mongolica] is reported at approximately 40%. Other trees of the family Fagaceae present in the area, for example, Quercus acutissima, Q. acuta, Q. phillyraeoides and Castanopsis cuspidata var. sieboldii [Castanopsis sieboldii] are sometimes affected by the fungus, but show low levels of mortality (Ito and Yamada, 1998).

Extensive tree mortality in oak forests dominated by Q. crispula [Q. mongolica] and Q. serrata in Japan, caused by R. quercivora/P. quercivorus could result in major environmental impacts such as loss of biodiversity, changes in species composition of forests, reduced acorn crops and resultant adverse impacts on wildlife species that depend on these crops as a food source. Q. crispula [Q. mongolica] and Q. serrata often become canopy trees and where they die, the forest canopy is affected many years. Saito et al. (2016) showed that destruction of the canopy layer by Japanese oak wilt caused changes to plant and insect diversity, and led to a change in bird species composition.

Impact: Social

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Dead trees tend to fall within 4-5 years and there is a risk of damage caused by fallen trees on infrastructure (Saito and Shibata, 2012).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Host damage
  • Infrastructure damage
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Negatively impacts cultural/traditional practices
  • Negatively impacts forestry
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Pathogenic

Detection and Inspection

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Japanese oak wilt can be determined by the presence of ambrosia beetle galleries on lumber, crating, pallets and dunnage made from oak and the brown discolouration caused by R. quercivora. Infestations in standing trees can be detected by the presence of white boring dust near the root collar and late summer tree mortality.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

As this was the first known instance of an ambrosia fungus suspected as a pathogen, control methods had not previously been needed for this group of fungi.

The ambrosia beetles of the genus Platypus, which vector Raffaelea species, can cause structural damage to trees and logs and loss of timber quality; some management approaches have therefore been developed for this group of insects. Contact insecticide sprays have been applied to the bark of high value trees to prevent attack. Systemic insecticides can be applied to the soil or bark of infested trees. Attacks in harvested logs can be prevented by the timely removal of logs from forested areas and rapid processing or debarking at the sawmill (Cibrián Tovar et al., 1995).

Pest management methods designed to reduce rates of oak mortality, caused by the combination of P. quercivorus and its associated fungus R. quercivora, are being developed in Japan. Studies have indicated that both P. quercivorus and R. quercivora can be controlled by injection of metam-ammonium into holes bored in the stems of host trees (Weng PuJin et al., 2000). To reduce the density of the beetles, mass-accumulated oak-log traps were developed to capture them (Saito, 2016) and it has also been shown that clear-coloured multi-funnel traps can effectively capture the beetles and seem to significantly reduce tree mortality (Kobayashi, 2017).

References

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Babuder G, Pohleven F, 1995. Fungal succession in the tunnels of ambrosia beetles in oak wood (Quercus sp.). Zbornik Gozdarstva in Lesarstva, Ljubljana, No. 47:241-254

BATRA, L. R., 1967. Ambrosia fungi: a taxonomic revision and nutritional studies of some species. Mycologia, 59(6), 976-1017. doi: 10.2307/3757271

Beaver, R. A., Shih HsienTzung, 2003. Checklist of Platypodidae (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) from Taiwan. Plant Protection Bulletin (Taipei), 45(1), 75-90.

Bright DE, Skidmore RE, 2002. A catalogue of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), Supplement 2 (1995-1999). Ottawa, Canada: NRC Research Press, 523 pp

CABI/EPPO, 2008. Raffaelea quercivora. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, April (Edition 1). Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 1026

Cibrián Tovar D, Méndez Montiel JT, Campos Bolaños R, Yates III HO, Flores Lara JE, 1995. Forest Insects of Mexico. Chapingo, México: Universidad Autonoma Chapingo. Subsecretaria Forestal y de Fauna Silvestre de la Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulicos, México. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, USA. Natural Resources Canada, Canada. North American Forestry Commission, FAO, Publication 6

De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ, 2013. The Ophiostomatoid Fungi: expanding frontiers CBS Biodiversity Series, 12 [ed. by Seifert KA, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ]. Utrecht, The Netherlands: CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre.

Endoh, R., Suzuki, M., Okada, G., Takeuchi, Y., Futai, K., 2011. Fungus symbionts colonizing the galleries of the ambrosia beetle Platypus quercivorus. Microbial Ecology, 62(1), 106-120. http://www.springerlink.com/content/n7x1210m42815l31/fulltext.html doi: 10.1007/s00248-011-9838-3

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

EPPO, 2019. Raffaelea quercivora. https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/RAFFQU

Forest Research, 2018. Damage quantity of forest pests in 2017. http://www.rinya.maff.go.jp/j/hogo/higai/attach/pdf/naragare-3.pdf

Furniss RL, Carolin VM, 1977. Western Forest Insects. Miscellaneous Publication No. 1339. Washington DC, USA: US Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

Giménez, R. A., Etiennot, A. E., 2003. Host range of Platypus mutatus (Chapuis, 1865) (Coleoptera: Platypodidae). Entomotropica, 18(2), 89-94.

Guerrero RT, 1966. A new species of inperfect fungus associated with the coleoptera Platypus sulcatus Chapius. (Una nueva especie de hongo inperfecto asociado con el coleoptero Platypus sulcatus Chapius). Revista de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, 5(3), 97-103.

Hamaguchi K, Goto H, 2003. Molecular phylogenic relationships among populations of the ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus, the vector insect of Japanese oak disease. Display Presentation D0321, Entomological Society of America, National Meeting, Cincinnati, Ohio, 28 October 2003

Harrington, T. C., Achayeva, D. N., Praedrich, S. W., 2010. New combinations in Raffaelea, Ambrosiella, and Hyalorhinocladiella, and four new species from the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus. Mycotaxon, 111, 337-361. http://www.mycotaxon.com

Harrington, T. C., Fraedrich, S. W., Aghayeva, D. N., 2008. Raffaelea lauricola, a new ambrosia beetle symbiont and pathogen on the Lauraceae. Mycotaxon, 104, 399-404. http://www.mycotaxon.com

Ito, S., Murata, M., Kubono, T., Yamada, T., Pathogenicity of Raffaelea quercivora associated with mass mortality of facaceous trees in Japan. In: Poster presentation, MIE University, Kamihamcho, Japan . Kamihamcho, Japan: MIE University.http://www.forestresearch.co.nz/PDF/11.20Itoetal.pdf

Ito, S., Yamada, T., 1998. Distribution and spread of the mass mortality of oak [Quercus spp.] trees in Japan. Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society, 80(3), 229-232.

Jones KG, Blackwell M, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of ambrosial species in the genus Raffaelea based on 18S rDNA sequences. Mycological Research, 102(6):661-665

Kamata, N., Esaki, K., Kato, K., Igeta, Y., Wada, K., 2002. Potential impact of global warming on deciduous oak dieback caused by ambrosia fungus Raffaelea sp. carried by ambrosia beetle Platypus quercivorus (Coleoptera: Platypodidae) in Japan. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 92(2), 119-126.

Kaneko S, 1995. Mass death of oaks in Japan. Paper presented at the IUFRO XX World Congress, 6-12 August 1995, Tampere, Finland

Kim KyungHee, Choi YoungJoon, Seo SangTae, Shin HyeonDong, 2009. Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae sp. nov. associated with Platypus koryoensis on oak in Korea. Mycotaxon, 110, 189-197. http://www.mycotaxon.com

Kinuura, H., Kobayashi, M., 2006. Death of Quercus crispula by inoculation with adult Platypus quercivorus (Coleoptera: Platypodidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 41(1), 123-128. doi: 10.1303/aez.2006.123

Kobayashi M, 2017. Success example of the prevention of Japanese oak wilt disease using Kashinag trap [in Japanese]. [128th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Forest Society, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, 26-29 March 2017]

Kobayashi, M., Ueda, A., 2005. Wilt disease of Fagaceae trees caused by Platypus quercivorus (Murayama) (Coleoptera: Platypodidae) and the associated fungus: aim is to clarify the damage factor. Journal of the Japanese Forest Society, 87(5), 435-450.

Kubono T, Ito S, 2002. Raffaelea quercivora sp. nov. associated with mass mortality of Japanese oak, and the ambrosia beetle (Platypus quercivorus). Mycoscience, 43(3):255-260

Kuroda K, 2001. Responses of Quercus sapwood to infection with the pathogenic fungus of a new wilt disease vectored by the ambrosia beetle Platypus quercivorus. Journal of Wood Science, 47(6):425-429

Kuroda K, Yamada T, 1996. Discoloration of sapwood and blockage of xylem sap ascent in the trunks of wilting Quercus spp. following attack by Platypus quercivorus. Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society, 78(1):84-88; [With English figures and tables]

Kusumoto, D., Masuya, H., Hirao, T., Goto, H., Hamaguchi, K., Chou WenI, Suasa-ard, W., Buranapanichpan, S., Uraichuen, S., Kern-asa, O., Sanguansub, S., Panmongkol, A., Thu Pham Quang, Kahono, S., Julistiono, H., Kamata, N., 2014. Discoloration induced by Raffaelea quercivora isolates in Quercus serrata logs and its relation to phylogeny: a comparison among isolates with and without the Japanese oak wilt incidence including outside of Japan. Journal of Forest Research, 19(4), 404-410. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10310-013-0420-3 doi: 10.1007/s10310-013-0420-3

Masuya H, Kaneko S, Yamaoka Y, 1998. A new Ophiostoma species isolated from Japanese oak infested by Platypus quercivorus. Mycoscience, 39(3):347-350

Matsuda, Y., Kimura, K., Ito, S., 2010. Genetic characterization of Raffaelea quercivora isolates collected from areas of oak wilt in Japan. Mycoscience, 51(4), 310-316. doi: 10.1007/s10267-010-0040-0

Murata, M., Yamada, T., Matsuda, Y., Ito, S., 2007. Discoloured and non-conductive sapwood among six Fagaceae species inoculated with Raffaelea quercivora. Forest Pathology, 37(2), 73-79. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0329.2007.00480.x

Musvuugwa T, de Beer ZW, Duong TA, Dreyer LL, Oberlander KC, Roets F, 2015. New species of Ophiostomatales from Scoltinae and Platypodinae beetles in the Cape Floristic Region, including the discovery of the sexual state of Raffaelea. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek: Journal of Microbiology, 108(4), 933-950.

Nakamura K, 2016. Oak wilt spreading in the Sanriku District, Iwate Prefecture. Tree and Forest Health, 20, 118-119.

Nishigaki S, Inoue M, Nishimura N, 1998. The relationship between the number of boring by Platypus quercivorus and the wood of water content in the mass mortality of oak trees. Applied Forest Science, 7, 117-120.

Saito S, 2016. Management of Japanese oak wilt by mass-accumulated oak-log traps. Japan: University of Niigata. http://dspace.lib.niigata-u.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/10191/45124/2/h28fak167.pdf

Saito S, Yagihashi T, Takahashi A, Ueno M, Shibata M, Nakashizuka T, 2016. Possibility of regeneration and ripple effect to biotic community after mass mortality of oak trees. Tohoku Journal of Forest Science, 21, 60-65.

Saito, S., Shibata, M., 2012. The forest structure and tree death rate of forest stands damaged by Japanese oak wilt in Yamagata Prefecture. Journal of the Japanese Forest Society, 94(5), 223-228. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jjfs/94/5/94_223/_article doi: 10.4005/jjfs.94.223

Seo MinYoung, Matsuda, Y., Nakashima, C., Ito, S., 2012. Taxonomic reevaluation of Raffaelea quercivora isolates collected from mass mortality of oak trees in Japan. Mycoscience, 53(3), 211-219. doi: 10.1007/s10267-011-0154-z

Shoda-Kagaya, E., Saito, S., Okada, M., Nozaki, A., Nunokawa, K., Tsuda, Y., 2010. Genetic structure of the oak wilt vector beetle Platypus quercivorus: inferences toward the process of damaged area expansion. BMC Ecology, 10(21), (15 October 2010). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6785/10/21

Simmons, D. R., Beer, Z. W. de, Huang YinTse, Bateman, C., Campbell, A. S., Dreaden, T. J., Li You, Ploetz, R. C., Black, A., Li HouFeng, Chen ChiYu, Wingfield, M. J., Hulcr, J., 2016. New Raffaelea species (Ophiostomatales) from the USA and Taiwan associated with ambrosia beetles and plant hosts. IMA Fungus, 7(2), 265-273. http://www.imafungus.org/Issue/72/16.pdf

Takahashi, Y., Matsushita, N., Hogetsu, T., 2010. Spatial distribution of Raffaelea quercivora in xylem of naturally infested and inoculated oak trees. Phytopathology, 100(8), 747-755. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-100-8-0747

Torii M, Matsushita T, Matsuda Y, Ito S, 2012. Death of a foreign oak species by inoculation with Raffaelea quercivora. Journal of tree health, 16(3), 119-122.

Weng PuJin, Luo WenJian, Wang YuanPing, 2000. Studies on causes of death of oak in Japan and its prevention and cure. Journal of Zhejiang Forestry Science and Technology, 20(6):46-49, 53

Wood SL, Bright DE, 1992. A catalog of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), Part 2: Taxonomic index. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs, 13: 1-1553

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, Undated. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

CABI, EPPO, 2008. Raffaelea quercivora. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CABI. Map 1026. DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20083091294

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

EPPO, 2021. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

Hamaguchi K, Goto H, 2003. Molecular phylogenic relationships among populations of the ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus, the vector insect of Japanese oak disease. In: Display Presentation D0321, Entomological Society of America, National Meeting, Cincinnati, Ohio, 28 October 2003,

Kinuura H, Kobayashi M, 2006. Death of Quercus crispula by inoculation with adult Platypus quercivorus (Coleoptera: Platypodidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology. 41 (1), 123-128. DOI:10.1303/aez.2006.123

Kubono T, Ito S, 2002. Raffaelea quercivora sp. nov. associated with mass mortality of Japanese oak, and the ambrosia beetle (Platypus quercivorus). Mycoscience. 43 (3), 255-260. DOI:10.1007/s102670200037

Kusumoto D, Masuya H, Hirao T, Goto H, Hamaguchi K, Chou WenI, Suasa-ard W, Buranapanichpan S, Uraichuen S, Kern-asa O, Sanguansub S, Panmongkol A, Thu Pham Quang, Kahono S, Julistiono H, Kamata N, 2014. Discoloration induced by Raffaelea quercivora isolates in Quercus serrata logs and its relation to phylogeny: a comparison among isolates with and without the Japanese oak wilt incidence including outside of Japan. Journal of Forest Research. 19 (4), 404-410. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10310-013-0420-3 DOI:10.1007/s10310-013-0420-3

Matsuda Y, Kimura K, Ito S, 2010. Genetic characterization of Raffaelea quercivora isolates collected from areas of oak wilt in Japan. Mycoscience. 51 (4), 310-316. DOI:10.1007/s10267-010-0040-0

Murata M, Yamada T, Matsuda Y, Ito S, 2007. Discoloured and non-conductive sapwood among six Fagaceae species inoculated with Raffaelea quercivora. Forest Pathology. 37 (2), 73-79. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0329.2007.00480.x

Seo MinYoung, Matsuda Y, Nakashima C, Ito S, 2012. Taxonomic reevaluation of Raffaelea quercivora isolates collected from mass mortality of oak trees in Japan. Mycoscience. 53 (3), 211-219. DOI:10.1007/s10267-011-0154-z

Simmons D R, Beer Z W de, Huang YinTse, Bateman C, Campbell A S, Dreaden T J, Li You, Ploetz R C, Black A, Li HouFeng, Chen ChiYu, Wingfield M J, Hulcr J, 2016. New Raffaelea species (Ophiostomatales) from the USA and Taiwan associated with ambrosia beetles and plant hosts. IMA Fungus. 7 (2), 265-273. http://www.imafungus.org/Issue/72/16.pdf

Takahashi Y, Matsushita N, Hogetsu T, 2010. Spatial distribution of Raffaelea quercivora in xylem of naturally infested and inoculated oak trees. Phytopathology. 100 (8), 747-755. DOI:10.1094/PHYTO-100-8-0747

Wood SL, Bright DE, 1992. A catalog of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), Part 2: Taxonomic index. In: Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs, 13 1-1553.

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12/09/18 Updated by:

Hayato Masuya, Department of Forest Microbiology, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukub, Ibaraki, Japan

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