Invasive Species Compendium

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Combretum indicum
(Rangoon creeper)

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Datasheet

Combretum indicum (Rangoon creeper)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 13 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Combretum indicum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Rangoon creeper
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. indicum is a deciduous climbing plant native to Asia and possibly tropical Africa where it is abundant, but the species is widely cultivated in the Neotropics (Acevedo-Rodr...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Combretum indicum (L.) DeFilipps

Preferred Common Name

  • Rangoon creeper

Other Scientific Names

  • Quisqualis glabra Burm. f.
  • Quisqualis indica L.
  • Quisqualis indica var. oxypetala Kurz
  • Quisqualis indica var. villosa (Roxb.) C.B. Clarke
  • Quisqualis pubescens Burm. f.
  • Quisqualis villosa Roxb.

International Common Names

  • English: Burma creeper; Chinese honeysuckle; quisqualis; rangoon-creeper
  • Spanish: quiscual; Santa Cecilia
  • Chinese: shi jun zi

Local Common Names

  • Cambodia: dong preah phnom; vor romiet nhi
  • Cuba: picuala; piscuala
  • Germany: Fadenröhre; Fadenröhre, Indische; indischer Sonderling; Rangun-Schlinger
  • Indonesia: andor simarbonang-bonang; bidani
  • Indonesia/Java: cekluk
  • Indonesia/Sumatra: udani
  • Laos: dok ung; khua hung; sa mang
  • Malaysia: akar dani; selimpas
  • Malaysia/Peninsular Malaysia: udani
  • Myanmar: dawe-hmaing-nwe; mawk-nang-nang
  • Nauru: drunken sailor
  • Nicaragua: Santa Cecilia
  • Panama: karate del humano
  • Papua New Guinea: womboy
  • Philippines: balitadham; bonor; kasunbal; niog-niogan; pinion; piñones; tagarau; tagulo; talolong; talulong; talulung; tanglong; tangolo; tangolon; tangulo; tartaraok; tartarau; taungon; totoraok
  • Portugal: arbusto-milagroso
  • Puerto Rico: cocuisa; corazon de hombre; cuiscualis
  • Sweden: druckne sjömannen
  • Thailand: cha mang; lep mue naang; thai-mong
  • Tonga: kaloni kakala
  • Vietnam: daay giun; quar giun; suwr quaan

EPPO code

  • QISIN (Quisqualis indica)

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. indicum is a deciduous climbing plant native to Asia and possibly tropical Africa where it is abundant, but the species is widely cultivated in the Neotropics (Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2005; USDA-ARS, 2015). It is a “rampant grower” (Brown and Knox, 2013) and is listed in the Global Compendium of Weeds as “agricultural weed, cultivation escape, environmental weed, garden thug, naturalised, sleeper weed, weed” (Randall, 2012). It is reported to be invasive in Cuba (Oviedo-Prieto et al., 2012) as well as the Seychelles, Australia, and New Caledonia (PIER, 2015), is included in the Taiwan Invasive Species Database (2015), and is a persistent weed in Puerto Rico (Liogier and Martorell, 2000). It has been widely cultivated as an ornamental for its aromatic flowers, as a hedge climber, and for use in traditional medicine, resulting in the species’ widespread distribution to all tropical regions of the world.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Myrtales
  •                         Family: Combretaceae
  •                             Genus: Combretum
  •                                 Species: Combretum indicum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The genus Quisqualis, first described by Linneaus in 1762, was maintained as separate from fellow Combretaceae genus member Combretum by Hooker (1867), Lawson (1871), and Brandis (1898) based on several traits including the shape of its hypanthium. In 1931, Exell proposed to distinguish between the two by whether the style is adnate to the upper hypanthium (Quisqualis) or not (Combretum). Some tropical African specimens of Combretum, however, were subsequently discovered to have very shortly adnate styles to the upper hypanthium, which caused taxonomic confusion according to Exell’s definition, so Exell and Stace (1964) redefined Quisqualis based on both adnation of the style to the hypanthium and the non-exertion of stamens from the flower. Jongkind (1990) reduced Quisqualis into the synonymy of Combretum on the grounds that the “the characters used by Exell and Stace in 1964 are not sufficient to separate the two genera” with Combretum taking priority, and that “the necessary new combinations will be made in a forthcoming publication”. Following Jongkind’s concept, DeFilipps transferred Q. indica into Combretum in 1998, preceding Jongkind’s own combination published in 1999. Consequentially, the currently accepted name for Quisqualis indica L. is Combretum indicum (L.) DeFilipps, a notion followed here.

Description

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The following description comes from Acevedo-Rodriquez (2005):

Twining liana, attaining 6 m in length. Stem much branched from the base; branches cylindrical, somewhat compressed in the area of the nodes, glabrous or puberulous, usually with the pith hollow; adult stems deciduous, with 3 persistent spines at the nodes. Leaves opposite or subopposite; blades 6-17.5 × 2.2-7 cm, elliptical, oblong, or lanceolate, chartaceous, the apex acuminate, the base rounded, the margins entire; upper surface glabrous, with a prominent midvein; lower surface ferruginous-tomentulose or puberulous, with prominent venation; petioles 5-12 mm long. Flowers sessile or subsessile, in terminal spikes or racemes on short lateral branches. Hypanthium green, tubular, 4-6.5 mm long, pubescent; sepals green, triangular, ca. 2 mm long; petals 5, oblong or oblanceolate, 1-1.5 cm long, pink, turning red when mature; stamens exserted, the filaments unequal; disc absent; style exserted. Fruit elliptical in outline, angular, with 5 narrow wings, ca. 3 cm long.

Distribution

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C. indicum is considered native to southern Asia and possibly tropical Africa, where USDA-ARS (2015) list it as native. It has since been widely cultivated for medicinal and ornamental uses in all tropical regions of the world. It was not listed in the Wagner et al. (2015) work on Hawaii, although it is known to be present (Staples et al., 2000; Randall, 2012), which may suggest the species is not yet considered a priority weed species there.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015
CambodiaPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015
ChinaPresentNativeHanelt et al., 2001; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
-FujianPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015
-GuangdongPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015
-GuizhouPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015
-HainanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015
-HunanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015
-JiangxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015
-SichuanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015
-YunnanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015
-ZhejiangPresent only in captivity/cultivationFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)Present only in captivity/cultivationNativePIER, 2015
IndiaPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015
IndonesiaPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
JapanPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012; PIER, 2015
LaosPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015
MalaysiaPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015
MyanmarPresentKress et al., 2003; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015Ayeyarwady, Mandalay, Yangon
NepalPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015
PakistanPresent only in captivity/cultivationFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; Flora of Pakistan, 2015
PhilippinesPresent Natural Merrill, 1923; Quisumbing, 1951; USDA-ARS, 2015
SingaporePresentIntroducedChong et al., 2009; USDA-ARS, 2015‘casual’
Sri LankaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
TaiwanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015
ThailandPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015
VietnamPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015

Africa

AngolaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
BeninPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
Côte d'IvoirePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
GhanaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
MaliPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
NigeriaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
SeychellesPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015
Sierra LeonePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
TanzaniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
TogoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015

North America

BermudaPresentIntroducedBritton, 1918‘grown on walls for ornament’
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroducedBrown and Knox, 2013
-HawaiiStaples et al., 2000; Randall, 2012

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
BarbadosPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
BelizePresentIntroducedRandall, 2012‘naturalised’
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012
DominicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana, 2015
GrenadaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
MartiniquePresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
NicaraguaPresentFlora Mesoamericana, 2015; Flora of Nicaragua, 2015
PanamaPresentFlora Mesoamericana, 2015; Panama Checklist, 2015
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012Naturalized along roadsides
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. John

South America

EcuadorPresent only in captivity/cultivationVascular Plants of Ecuador, 2015Cultivated shrub
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012; PIER, 2015
GuyanaPresentDeFilipps, 1992Grown as an ornamental
PeruPresent only in captivity/cultivationPeru Checklist, 2015Loreto
SurinamePresentDeFilipps, 1992Grown as an ornamental

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012‘Environmental weed’
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentIntroduced Invasive Randall, 2012; PIER, 2015‘persisting and weedy’
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012‘agricultural weed, naturalised’
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedWestern Australian Herbarium, 2015
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2015Cultivated
FijiPresentIntroducedPIER, 2015Cultivated
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2015; Wagner and Lorence, 2015Cultivated
GuamPresentWagner et al., 2014
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2015Cultivated
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroducedWagner et al., 2014; PIER, 2015
NauruWagner et al., 2014; PIER, 2015
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015Cultivated
NiuePresentIntroducedPIER, 2015Cultivated
PalauPresentIntroducedPIER, 2015Cultivated
Papua New GuineaPresentDeFilipps, 1992; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; PIER, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015
SamoaPresentPIER, 2015
TongaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2015Cultivated. ‘occasional about dwellings’
Wallis and Futuna IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2015Cultivated

History of Introduction and Spread

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C. indicum is considered indigenous to southern Asia and possibly to parts of tropical Africa, but it has been widely cultivated in tropical regions around the world as a flowering ornamental and hedge plant, often naturalizing around inhabited areas.

Date of introduction to the West Indies is uncertain but likely to have occurred in the last century. It was not included in Macfadyen’s 1837 work on Jamaica, nor was it listed in Bello’s 1881-1883 work on Puerto Rico. It was, however, reportedly cultivated in Bermuda by 1918, where it was “grown on walls for ornament” (Britton, 1918). Although it was not listed in the Bahamas by Britton and Millspaugh (1920), it was reportedly “planted for ornament about houses in Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands” by 1930, as it was included in the sixth volume (1925-1930) of Britton and Wilson’s work on the islands. The species has since escaped cultivation and naturalized in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Liogier and Martorell, 2000; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012).

Habitat

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C. indicum is commonly cultivated in homes and gardens, and has been known to naturalize around inhabited areas. In China, the species is known to occur in a wide range of habitats: rainforests, low woods, thickets, hedges, mountains, dry hillsides, riversides, roadsides, and wasteland (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015). In the Philippines and Papua New Guinea the species can be found growing along primary forest margins and in secondary forest and woodlands, alongside riverbanks, and is persisting and weedy around old settlements (Quisumbing, 1951; PIER, 2015). In Australia it reportedly grows along creeks and on rocky foreshore (Western Australian Herbarium, 2015). It is known to be grown in the plains of Pakistan (Flora of Pakistan, 2015), and has been reported growing on the beach and the roadside in Ecuador (Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2015). It was also found growing in disturbed areas of the Amazonian region in Peru (Peru Checklist, 2015). According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain the species is reportedly a facultative upland plant (usually occurs in non-wetlands, but may occur in wetlands) but in the Caribbean it almost never occurs in wetlands (USDA-NRCS, 2015).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Wetlands Present, no further details Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

C. indicum has a chromosome number of 2n = 22, 24, 26 (Aguilar, 1999).

Environmental Requirements

C. indicum is widely cultivated in tropical regions around the world, preferring tropical rainforest climates but also capable of growing in warm temperate climates. It can tolerate a range of soils from medium to heavy and prefers well-drained soils but can withstand cold spells (Aguilar, 1999; FAO EcoCrop, 2015). It has low tolerance for salinity and while it can tolerate partial shade, it prefers full sunlight (Brown and Knox, 2013). Once established it is fairly drought tolerant, and while not generally considered cold tolerant, established plants can survive occasional frost. The species is known to be a rampant grower with thorny stems and needs space and strong support such as fencing or wood poles, but outside of cultivation it can be found creating dense thickets (Merrill, 1923; Quisumbing, 1951; Brown and Knox, 2013).

The species generally occurs at low elevations near sea level; in Sri Lanka, for example, it has been found growing at elevations up to 100 m (PIER, 2015), in Panama, around 320 m (Panama Checklist, 2015), and around 500 m in Peru (Peru Checklist, 2015). In China, it is found in a wide range of habitats from mountains to low rainforests and wastelands, anywhere between elevations of 0-1500 m (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015).

Physiology and Phenology

C. indicum is a vigorous climber, and grows with stems twining to the left. The flowers, which open at dusk, are initially white but gradually turn red during the next day (Aguilar, 1999). Flowers are short-lived, lasting just three days and with most nectar present on the morning of the first day. At night the white flowers are visited by hawk moths, during the day the pink and red flowers are visited by a wide range of pollinators such as solitary bees, honey bees, flies and sunbirds (Aguilar, 1999).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Seeds of C. indicum can be dispersed by water (Staples et al., 2000), as the species is commonly found outside of cultivation on beaches, coastal areas, and on riverbanks (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; PIER, 2015; Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2015).

Accidental Introduction

Accidental introduction of this species is known to occur. It is capable of spreading by both seed and root suckers, and has been known to escape from cultivation (Staples et al., 2000; Randall, 2012; PIER, 2015).

Intentional Introduction

The species has been intentionally introduced by humans to tropical regions around the world for ornamental purposes (Britton, 1918; Britton and Wilson, 1925; Liogier and Martorell, 2000), and has been cultivated for use in agroforestry and traditional medicine (Aguilar, 1999; PIER, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015). Plant parts have also been commercially spread for use in traditional medicine; the species’ fruits are usually sold in small drug shops and Chinese pharmacies throughout Malesia, and as of 1999, most of the fruits on sale in Malaysia and Thailand were imported from China (Aguilar, 1999).

Environmental Impact

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C. indicum is a fast grower, is capable of forming thorny thickets, can grow in a wide range of habitats and conditions, and is known to escape from cultivation and naturalize in non-native environments. It is not widely listed as invasive and the extent of its potential environmental damage requires further evaluation. 

Social Impact

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Outside of cultivation, increased populations of C. indicum could positively impact livelihoods of communities, particularly rural communities who rely on local resources for medicines. On the other hand, however, quisqualic acid is also known to have detrimental health effects if taken in large doses and increased populations of the species could thus a pose negative impact to human health.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts human health
Impact mechanisms
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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C. indicum is most commonly grown as an ornamental, as its flowers are showy and turn pink with age, as in Pakistan and the Philippines (Quisumbing, 1951; Flora of Pakistan, 2015). In Mesoamerica the species is cultivated for use as a hedge plant, and is possibly naturalized near inhabited areas (Flora Mesoamericana, 2015). In Indonesia, young shoots of the species are eaten, either raw or steamed, while in West Africa, the long, flexible stems are known to be used to make baskets, fish weir and fish traps (Aguilar, 1999). It is also used as a source of quisqualic acid (USDA-ARS, 2015), an agonist of the AMPA, kainate, and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, which is used in neuroscience to selectively destroy neurons in the brain or spinal cord.

In tropical Africa and southeast Asia, the species is cultivated as a popular leafy vegetable, and for medicine (Hanelt et al., 2001). The species is used as a tea for various illnesses in Panama (Panama Checklist, 2015), and the dried fruits, “shijunzi” are listed in the official Chinese pharmacopoeia. Aguilar (1999) provides further details of its medicinal usefulness, with uses including stopping diarrhea, treatment of parasitic skin infections, use for pain relief, and treatment of rheumatism.

Although C. indicum has been commercially sold for use in traditional medicine (fruits are usually sold in small drug shops and Chinese pharmacies throughout Malesia), it does not appear that the species has been developed for large-scale production due to the known toxic side effects of quisqualic acid which include vomiting, nausea, hiccoughs and even possibly unconsciousness (Aguilar, 1999).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

The species can regenerate by root suckers, so mechanical control is likely to be less effective than chemical or biological control methods. More information is needed.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2005. Vines and climbing plants of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 51:483 pp.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Aguilar NO, 1999. Quisqualis L. Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) No. 12(1): Medicinal and poisonous plants 1:421-424. http://proseanet.org/prosea/e-prosea_detail.php?frt=&id=397

Bello D, 1883. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Segunda parte. Monoclamídeas.) Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, 12:103-130.

Bello Espinosa D, 1881. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Primera parte.) Anal. Soc. Española de Hist. Nat, 10:231-304.

Brandis D, 1898. Combretaceae. (Combretaceae.) In: Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 3 [ed. by Engler, A. \Prantl, K.]. 106-130.

Britton NL, 1918. Flora of Bermuda. New York, USA: Charles Scribner's Sons. 585 pp.

Britton NL; Millspaugh CF, 1920. The Bahama Flora. New York, USA: NL Britton & CF Millspaugh.

Britton NL; Wilson P, 1925. Botany of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico & Virgin Islands, Volume 6

Brown SB; Knox GW, 2013. Flowering vines for Florida. Gainesville, FL, USA: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. [Circular 860.] http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/MG/MG09700.pdf

Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

DeFilipps RA, 1992. Ornamental garden plants of the Guianas: An historical perspective of selected garden plants from Guyana, Surinam and French Guiana. Washington, D.C., USA: Smithsonian Institution, 363 pp. http://botany.si.edu/BDG/ornamental/index.html

Exell AW, 1931. The genera of Combretaceae. Journal of Botany, 69:113-128.

Exell AW; Stace CA, 1964. A re-organization of the genus Quisqualis (Combretaceae). Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana, sér. 2, 38:139-143.

FAO EcoCrop, 2015. Quisqualis indica. Eco-Crop Online Database. Land and Water Development Division, Food and Agricultural Organization of the UN (FAO). http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/dataSheet?id=9149

Flora Mesoamericana, 2015. Flora Mesoamericana. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/fm

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Nicaragua, 2015. Flora of Nicaragua, Tropicos website. St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/FN

Flora of Pakistan, 2015. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website. USA: St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Hanelt P; Buttner R; Mansfeld R, 2001. Mansfeld's Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops (except Ornamentals). Berlin, Germany: Springer.

Hooker JD, 1867. Combretaceae. In: Genera plantarum 1 [ed. by Bentham, G. \Hooker, J. D.]. London, UK: Reeve, 683-690.

Jongkind CCH, 1990. Delimitation of Quisqualis versus Combretum. Bulletin of the Museum of Natural History B, Adansonia, 12:275-280. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/48796#page/290/mode/1up

Jordaan M; Wyk AEvan; Maurin O, 2011. Generic status of Quisqualis (Combretaceae), with notes on the taxonomy and distribution of Q. parviflora. Bothalia, 41(1):161-169.

Kress WJ; Defilipps RA; Farr E; Kyi DYY, 2003. A checklist of the trees, shrubs, herbs, and climbers of Myanmar. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 45:1-590.

Lawson MA, 1871. Combretaceae. In: Flora of tropical Africa 2 [ed. by Oliver, D.]. London, UK: Reeve, 413-436.

Liogier HA; Martorell LF, 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, 2nd edition revised. San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico, 382 pp.

MacFadyen J, 1837. The flora of Jamaica: A description of the plants of that island. London, UK: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green & Longman, 351 pp.

Merrill ED, 1923. An Enumeration of Philippine Flowering Plants. Vol. 2. Manila, Philippines: Bureau of printing. http://www.forgottenbooks.org/books/An_Enumeration_of_Philippine_Flowering_Plants_v2_1000888542

Oviedo Prieto R; Herrera Oliver P; Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

Panama Checklist, 2015. Panama Checklist, Tropicos website. St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/PAC

Peru Checklist, 2015. The Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PEC

PIER, 2015. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

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Contributors

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16/3/2015 Original text by:

Marianne Jennifer Datiles, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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