Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Amaranthus cruentus
(red amaranth)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Amaranthus cruentus (red amaranth)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 29 March 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Amaranthus cruentus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • red amaranth
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Amaranthus cruentus is an annual herbaceous plant originating from Central America and cultivated since ancient times for its grain. Introduced to many countries, it is now widespread and naturalized in many parts of the world. A. cru...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Amaranthus cruentus (redshank); Invasive habit - “Velvet Curtains” cultivar. Hockenheimer Rheinbogen, Germany. September 2012.
TitleInvasive habit
CaptionAmaranthus cruentus (redshank); Invasive habit - “Velvet Curtains” cultivar. Hockenheimer Rheinbogen, Germany. September 2012.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by AnRo0002/via Wikimedia Commons - CC0
Amaranthus cruentus (redshank); Invasive habit - “Velvet Curtains” cultivar. Hockenheimer Rheinbogen, Germany. September 2012.
Invasive habitAmaranthus cruentus (redshank); Invasive habit - “Velvet Curtains” cultivar. Hockenheimer Rheinbogen, Germany. September 2012.Public Domain - Released by AnRo0002/via Wikimedia Commons - CC0
Amaranthus cruentus (redshank); “Kinnauri Dhankar” cultivar. Jardin des Plantes, Toulouse, France. September 2016.
TitleCultivar
CaptionAmaranthus cruentus (redshank); “Kinnauri Dhankar” cultivar. Jardin des Plantes, Toulouse, France. September 2016.
Copyright©Krzysztof Golik/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Amaranthus cruentus (redshank); “Kinnauri Dhankar” cultivar. Jardin des Plantes, Toulouse, France. September 2016.
CultivarAmaranthus cruentus (redshank); “Kinnauri Dhankar” cultivar. Jardin des Plantes, Toulouse, France. September 2016.©Krzysztof Golik/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Amaranthus cruentus (redshank); Flowering habit. India. December 2009.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionAmaranthus cruentus (redshank); Flowering habit. India. December 2009.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Amaranthus cruentus (redshank); Flowering habit. India. December 2009.
Flowering habitAmaranthus cruentus (redshank); Flowering habit. India. December 2009.©Dinesh Valke/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Amaranthus cruentus (redshank); Flowering habit. India. December 2009.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionAmaranthus cruentus (redshank); Flowering habit. India. December 2009.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Amaranthus cruentus (redshank); Flowering habit. India. December 2009.
Flowering habitAmaranthus cruentus (redshank); Flowering habit. India. December 2009.©Dinesh Valke/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Amaranthus cruentus (redshank); Invasive habit. Hockenheimer Rheinbogen, Germany. September 2012.
TitleInvasive habit
CaptionAmaranthus cruentus (redshank); Invasive habit. Hockenheimer Rheinbogen, Germany. September 2012.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by AnRo0002/via Wikimedia Commons - CC0
Amaranthus cruentus (redshank); Invasive habit. Hockenheimer Rheinbogen, Germany. September 2012.
Invasive habitAmaranthus cruentus (redshank); Invasive habit. Hockenheimer Rheinbogen, Germany. September 2012.Public Domain - Released by AnRo0002/via Wikimedia Commons - CC0
Amaranthus cruentus (redshank); Inflorescence. Szczecin, Poland. August 2019.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionAmaranthus cruentus (redshank); Inflorescence. Szczecin, Poland. August 2019.
Copyright©Salicyna/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Amaranthus cruentus (redshank); Inflorescence. Szczecin, Poland. August 2019.
InflorescenceAmaranthus cruentus (redshank); Inflorescence. Szczecin, Poland. August 2019.©Salicyna/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Amaranthus cruentus (redshank); Seedlings. Botanical Garden of Szeged, Hungary. May 2018.
TitleSeedlings
CaptionAmaranthus cruentus (redshank); Seedlings. Botanical Garden of Szeged, Hungary. May 2018.
Copyright©Krzysztof Ziarnek/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Amaranthus cruentus (redshank); Seedlings. Botanical Garden of Szeged, Hungary. May 2018.
SeedlingsAmaranthus cruentus (redshank); Seedlings. Botanical Garden of Szeged, Hungary. May 2018.©Krzysztof Ziarnek/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Amaranthus cruentus (redshank); Seeds. January 2013.
TitleSeeds
CaptionAmaranthus cruentus (redshank); Seeds. January 2013.
Copyright©Michael Dachler(Planteur)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Amaranthus cruentus (redshank); Seeds. January 2013.
SeedsAmaranthus cruentus (redshank); Seeds. January 2013.©Michael Dachler(Planteur)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
A. cruentus: 1, branch with axils; 2, leaf; 3, inflorescence; 4, glomerule; 5, male flower (one tepal removed); 6, female flower with dehiscing cap; 7, seed.

Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', Vols 1-20 (1989-2000), by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
TitleA. cruentus - line drawing
CaptionA. cruentus: 1, branch with axils; 2, leaf; 3, inflorescence; 4, glomerule; 5, male flower (one tepal removed); 6, female flower with dehiscing cap; 7, seed. Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', Vols 1-20 (1989-2000), by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
Copyright©PROSEA Foundation
A. cruentus: 1, branch with axils; 2, leaf; 3, inflorescence; 4, glomerule; 5, male flower (one tepal removed); 6, female flower with dehiscing cap; 7, seed.

Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', Vols 1-20 (1989-2000), by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
A. cruentus - line drawingA. cruentus: 1, branch with axils; 2, leaf; 3, inflorescence; 4, glomerule; 5, male flower (one tepal removed); 6, female flower with dehiscing cap; 7, seed. Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', Vols 1-20 (1989-2000), by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. ©PROSEA Foundation

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Amaranthus cruentus L.

Preferred Common Name

  • red amaranth

Other Scientific Names

  • Amaranthus hybridus subsp. cruentus (L.) Thell.
  • Amaranthus hybridus var. cruentus (L.) Moq.
  • Amaranthus hybridus var. patulus (Bertol.) Thell.
  • Amaranthus paniculatus L.
  • Amaranthus sanguineus L.

International Common Names

  • English: African spinach; Mexican grain amaranth
  • Spanish: amaranto; cola de zorro
  • French: amarante; amarante étalée; brède de Malabar
  • Chinese: lao ya gu
  • Portuguese: bredo; caruru-branco

Local Common Names

  • Australia: redshank
  • Cuba: bledo francés; globo de oro; moco de pavo
  • Czech Republic: laskavec červenoklasý
  • Denmark: rød amarant
  • Dominican Republic: bledo; zépina
  • Estonia: pööris-rebashein
  • Finland: puppurarevonhäntä
  • France: queue de renard
  • Germany: Ausgebreiteter Amarant; Ausgebreiteter Fuchsschwanz; Rispen- Amarant; Rispenfuchsschwanz
  • Haiti: épanard
  • Hungary: sárga disznóparéj
  • Italy: amaranto cruento
  • Japan: hosoaogeito
  • Latvia: skarainais amarants
  • Lithuania: raibasis burnotis
  • Netherlands: graanamarant
  • Poland: szarłat krwisty
  • Puerto Rico: gusano
  • Spain: achita
  • Sweden: blodamarant
  • UK: Indian spinach
  • USA: blood amaranth; caterpillar amaranth; purple amaranth

EPPO code

  • AMACR (Amaranthus cruentus)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

Amaranthus cruentus is an annual herbaceous plant originating from Central America and cultivated since ancient times for its grain. Introduced to many countries, it is now widespread and naturalized in many parts of the world. A. cruentus is listed as invasive in China, Israel and Italy, with evidence of impact. Although also reported as invasive in New Caledonia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea and the Philippines, no further information is provided on its impact in these countries. This species is also described as a casual alien, an escape from cultivation and agricultural weed; it is listed in the Global Compendium of Weeds.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Caryophyllales
  •                         Family: Amaranthaceae
  •                             Genus: Amaranthus
  •                                 Species: Amaranthus cruentus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

The genus Amaranthus includes about 60 species (Stevens, 2020) that are spread worldwide in the temperate, subtropical and tropical areas. The genus has three species that are important for grain production (pseudocereals): A. caudatus, A. hypochondriacus and A. cruentus (Marin et al., 2011).

Much of the difficulty in taxonomic discrimination of species within the group can be attributed to attempts at recognizing taxa based on pigmentation or growth forms, which are extremely variable within amaranths (Sauer, 1967). However, examination of floral parts can result in constant characters from which discontinuities can be used to define well-established taxa. In this sense, tepal (petals and sepals are combined in a single floral whorl) number and morphology are commonly used in taxonomic keys (Kole, 2011).

Description

Top of page

The following description is from Flora of Editorial Committee (2015):

Plants almost glabrous or slightly pubescent distally, especially when young. Stems erect, green or reddish purple, branched distally, 0.4-2 m. Leaves: petiole 1/2 as long as to ± equaling blade; blade rhombic-ovate or ovate to broadly lanceolate, 3-15(-20) × 1.5-10(-15) cm, occasionally larger in robust plants, base cuneate to broadly cuneate, margins entire, plane, apex acute or subobtuse to slightly emarginate, with mucro. Inflorescences terminal and axillary, erect, reflexed, or nodding, usually dark red, purple, or deep beet-red, less commonly almost green or greenish red, leafless at least distally, large and robust. Bracts narrowly spathulate, 2-3 mm, equaling or slightly longer than tepals, apex short-spinescent. Pistillate flowers: tepals 5, oblong to lanceolate, not clawed, equal or subequal, 1.5-3 mm, apex acute; style branches erect or slightly reflexed; stigmas 3. Staminate flowers at tips of inflorescences; tepals 5; stamens (4-)5. Utricles obovoid to elongate-obovoid, 2-2.5 mm, smooth or slightly rugose distally, dehiscence regularly circumscissile. Seeds usually white or ivory, with reddish or yellowish tint, sometimes dark brown to dark reddish brown, broadly lenticular to elliptic-lenticular, 1.2-1.6 mm diam., smooth or indistinctly punctate.

Plant Type

Top of page
Annual
Herbaceous
Seed / spore propagated

Distribution

Top of page

The following information is provided by Grubben (2004):

As early as 6000 years ago, A. cruentus was domesticated as a pseudocereal (grain amaranth) in Central America from the weed A. hybridus. Escaped plants from cultivation also occur in the wild. The vegetable form of A. cruentus was probably introduced in the tropics and subtropics of the Old World during colonial times. At present, A. cruentus is a widespread traditional vegetable in all countries of tropical Africa. It is the main leafy vegetable in Benin, Togo and Sierra Leone and very important in many lowland areas e.g. in southern Nigeria, DR Congo, Kenya and Tanzania. It is more popular in humid lowland than in highland or arid areas. It is also an important vegetable in many tropical areas outside Africa e.g. in India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and the Caribbean. The Bangladesh type has big fleshy stems, which are consumed with the leaves. A. cruentus is grown as a leaf vegetable throughout Southeast Asia, although to a lesser extent than A. tricolor. In Indonesia, it is grown in mountain areas, where the climate is too cold for the more common A. tricolor (Ebert et al., 2011). Grain amaranth, a cultivar group of A. cruentus with yellowish white or pale brown seed, is traditionally grown as a cereal crop in Latin America (e.g. Mexico, Guatemala, Ecuador, Colombia). Since colonial times, it has been successfully introduced as a pseudocereal in India and Nepal, in mountain areas as well as at lower elevations and it has become well established as a popular food plant. Thinnings of young seedlings of the grain crop are frequently used as a vegetable. Grain amaranth is produced commercially in hot and dry areas of the United States, Argentina and China. Apart from some try-outs in Zimbabwe, Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia, grain amaranth is not cultivated in Africa. Ornamental types of A. cruentus characterized by big bright-red inflorescences can be frequently found in tropical and subtropical countries.

Presumably native to Central America, A. cruentus is now widespread in tropical and subtropical regions of the world; the red form (which is probably of cultivated derivation) is cultivated as an ornamental in temperate regions also, occasionally escaping there (Townsend, 1985).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 26 Mar 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
EthiopiaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
KenyaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
NigeriaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedSouthern Nigeria
Sierra LeonePresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
South AfricaPresentIntroduced
TanzaniaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
TogoPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
UgandaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
ZimbabwePresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced

Asia

BangladeshPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
ChinaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCosmopolitan, widely cultivated in China
IndiaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedCultivated at Shimla, Phagli, in mountain areas as well as at lower elevations and it has become well established as a popular food plant
IndonesiaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedIn mountain areas
IsraelPresentIntroducedInvasiveMediterranean, semi-arid and arid regions
JapanPresentIntroduced
NepalPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedIn mountain areas as well as at lower elevations and it has become well established as a popular food plant
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedReported as invasive but no record of impact. Cited as A. paniculatus, in open waste places at low and medium altitudes, sometimes cultivated
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced

Europe

AustriaPresentIntroducedCasual alien, cultivation escape
BelgiumPresentIntroducedCultivated and an ephemeral garden escape. Probably recorded only twice in the wild, observed on a municipal dump in Liege in 2005 and on ground heaps in Brugge in 2016. Also observed in a garden in Vilvoorde in 1990 grown from African grains
CzechiaPresentIntroducedCasual alien
GermanyPresentIntroducedCited as A. chlorostachys
HungaryPresentIntroducedCultivated but also reported as a weed (cited as A. chlorostachys) in maize and sunflower fields
ItalyPresentIntroducedInvasiveWeed in soyabean fields
PortugalPresentIntroducedNaturalized
SpainPresentIntroducedWeed in maize fields
UkrainePresentIntroducedCited as A. paniculatus

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroduced
BahamasPresentIntroducedBahama Archipelago
Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
-SabaPresentIntroduced
CanadaPresentIntroduced
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroduced
-OntarioPresentIntroduced
-QuebecPresentIntroduced
CubaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced
GuadeloupePresentIntroduced
GuatemalaPresentNative
HaitiPresentIntroduced
HondurasPresentIntroduced
MartiniquePresentIntroduced
MexicoPresentNative
PanamaPresentNativeChiriqui, Cocle, Colon, Panama
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedSan Juan
Saint LuciaPresentIntroduced
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedSt. Croix
United StatesPresentIntroduced
-ArizonaPresentIntroduced
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced
-ConnecticutPresentIntroduced
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedHawaiian Islands
-IllinoisPresentIntroduced
-IndianaPresentIntroduced
-IowaPresent
-KentuckyPresentIntroduced
-MainePresentIntroduced
-MarylandPresentIntroduced
-MassachusettsPresentIntroduced
-MichiganPresentIntroduced
-MissouriPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedBoone County, Jefferson City, uncommon and sporadic in Missouri. Gardens and open, disturbed areas
-NebraskaPresentIntroduced
-New HampshirePresentIntroduced
-New JerseyPresentIntroduced
-New YorkPresentIntroduced
-North CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-OhioPresentIntroduced
-OregonPresentIntroduced
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroduced
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroduced
-South CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-TexasPresentIntroduced
-UtahPresentIntroduced
-VermontPresentIntroduced
-WashingtonPresentIntroduced
-West VirginiaPresentIntroduced
-WisconsinPresentIntroduced

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedRecorded as an uncommon weed mainly occurring spontaneously in gardens and disturbed areas
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced
-Northern TerritoryPresentIntroduced
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced
-South AustraliaPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedSometimes cultivated, occasionally recorded in paddocks in north-eastern Victoria
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedNaturalized
Christmas IslandAbsent, Eradicated
New CaledoniaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedReported as invasive but no record of impact. Loyalty Islands, Isle of Pines, Grande Terre
New ZealandPresentIntroducedNaturalizedReported as invasive but no record of impact. Found growing wild near Masterton and at Rangiora, Lincoln and Waimate in Canterbury. Amongst crops, in gardens and waste places in settled areas
Papua New GuineaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedReported as invasive but no record of impact. Cultivated
-Bismarck ArchipelagoPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedReported as invasive but no record of impact. Cultivated
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroduced
TongaPresentIntroducedVavau Island. Cited as A. paniculatus
VanuatuPresentIntroduced

South America

ArgentinaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
BoliviaPresentNativeCochabamba
BrazilPresentIntroduced
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-ParaibaPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedNaturalized
ChilePresentIntroduced
ColombiaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
EcuadorPresentNativeAzuay, Chimborazo, Esmeraldas, Manabi, Napo, Sucumbios, Cayambe Coca Ecological Reserve
PeruPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedLoreto, Lambayeque, disturbed areas

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

Amaranthus cruentus is an ancient food and in the famous Tehuacan caves in central Mexico, archaeologists have dug up remains -both the pale grain and the bundles of plants brought in for threshing - at a dozen levels, dating back 5500 years. The species is still grown in the region and popped amaranth seedcakes are sold on the streets of the towns. A. cruentus has also survived as a grain crop in a few Indian villages of southern Mexico and Guatemala and as a crop used to extract a red dye for colouring corn-based foods in the Indian pueblos of the arid southwestern United States, where it probably became established in prehistoric times (National Research Council, 1984).

During the 19th century, this deep-red form was adopted for use as cooked greens by gardeners throughout the tropics. It became a more important crop in tropical Africa than anywhere else. A. cruentus was evidently introduced to Africa by Europeans. But then it passed quickly from tribe to tribe, probably as a weed in millet and sorghum (Sorghum) seed. It outran European exploration of the interior, so that Livingstone and others found it already in cultivation when they arrived. Today, it is being planted and gathered year-round in the humid regions of much of Africa (National Research Council, 1984).

Habitat

Top of page

In East Africa, A. cruentus [as A. hybridus subsp. cruentus] is described as a weed of cultivation, found on broken waste ground, in short grassland and in shaded places at forest edges, and at elevations of 20-1790 m (Townsend, 1985). In Hawai’i, A. cruentus is an escape from cultivation (Wagner et al., 1999). In New Zealand, it has been observed among crops, in gardens and waste places in settled areas (Webb et al., 1988). In Papua New Guinea, this species is probably associated exclusively with areas under cultivation at altitudes of 1200-2200 m (Womersley, 1978). In the hot, humid regions of Africa, Southeast Asia, southern China, southern India and the Caribbean, A. cruentus is grown as a soup vegetable or for boiled salad greens (pot herbs) (National Research Council, 1984).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

Studies based on restriction site variations in nuclear and cytoplasmic DNA found that A. caudatus and A. cruentus are more closely related to each other and to their supposed progenitors than either is to A. hypochondriacus (Lanoue et al., 1996). Isozyme and RAPD markers were used by other authors and tended to agree with the different evolutionary hypothesis presented herein (Ranade et al., 1997; Zheleznov et al., 1997).

The two basic chromosome numbers are observed among the grain crops and their putative progenitors. While A. caudatus, A. hypochondriacus, A. hybridus and A. quitensis have 32 chromosomes (n = 16), A. cruentus and A. powellii both have 34 (n = 17) (Grant, 1959).

Reproductive Biology

Monoecious amaranths are primarily self-pollinated, as female and male flowers are arranged in close proximity (Murray, 1940). Stems are usually erect and both axillary and terminal inflorescences are arranged in cylindrical spikes or panicles (Mosyakin and Robertson, 2003).

Longevity

Amaranthus cruentus is an annual herbaceous species.

Physiology and Phenology

The following information is provided by Grubben (2004):

In cool or dark conditions the seed remains dormant; light and high temperatures break the dormancy. In moist soil above 15°C emergence takes place 3-5 days after sowing. Vegetative development is fast. The genus Amaranthus is characterized by the C4 cycle photosynthetic pathway, giving it a high rate of photosynthesis and excellent water use efficiency at high temperatures and radiation intensity. Water consumption is high due to its rapid growth; a crop with a closed leaf canopy uses about 6 mm/day. Depending on cultivar, day length and cultural practices, flowering may start 4-8 weeks after sowing, making the plant less suitable for consumption. There are at least four times as many female flowers as male flowers. Pollination is affected by wind, but the abundant pollen production causes a high rate of self-pollination. Some pollination is also affected by insects (bees, flies) and up to 40% outcrossing may occur. Seeds mature after 3-5 months and then the plant dies.

Environmental Requirements

The following information is provided by Grubben (2004):

Vegetable amaranths grow well at day temperatures above 25°C and night temperatures not lower than 15°C. In Indonesia, A. cruentus is grown up to elevations of 2000 m. Shade is disadvantageous except in cases of drought stress. Amaranth is a quantitative short-day plant, which is an advantage in the subtropics where the generative stage is retarded during summer. Amaranths like fertile, well-drained soils with a loose structure. The mineral uptake is very high. Although A. cruentus is fairly tolerant of adverse climate and soil conditions, escapes growing as a weed tend to disappear because they cannot compete with true weeds like A. spinosus or A. hybridus.

After seedling emergence, many amaranth cultivars are tolerant to drought and highly wet conditions, but sensitive to complete flooding. Amaranth is photoperiod-sensitive and most species will flower when day lengths are shorter than 12 h. Amaranth grows best in a fertile loam or silty-loam soil with good water-holding capacity, but depending on the species, also adapts to poor soil conditions and low soil moisture levels. The mineral uptake from the soil is high (Ebert et al., 2011).

Evidence indicates that amaranths adapt to many environments and tolerate adversity because they use an especially efficient type of photosynthesis to convert the raw materials of soil, sunlight and water into plant tissues (National Research Council, 1984).

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Tolerated Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Albugo bliti Pathogen Plants|Leaves; Plants|Stems not specific
Alternaria alternata Pathogen Plants|Leaves not specific
Choanephora cucurbitarum Pathogen Plants|Leaves; Plants|Roots not specific
Helicoverpa armigera Herbivore Plants|Seeds not specific
Herpetogramma bipunctalis Herbivore Plants|Stems not specific
Hypolixus truncatulus Pathogen Plants|Leaves; Plants|Roots; Plants|Seeds; Plants|Stems not specific
Lygus lineolaris Herbivore Plants|Seeds not specific
Phoma medicaginis Pathogen Plants|Leaves not specific
Spodoptera litura Herbivore Plants|Leaves not specific
Spoladea recurvalis Herbivore Plants|Stems not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

According to Grubben (2004), wet rot or stem rot caused by the fungus Choanephora cucurbitarum is the main disease in amaranths. Damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum and Rhizoctonia is often serious in seedbeds. Pythium also attacks older plants. No viral diseases have been reported.

A review of the main fungal diseases affecting A. cruentus worldwide and more specifically in Poland is given by Pusz (2007); the most common are leaf spots caused by Alternaria alternata, Phoma levellei [P. leveillei], Phoma medicaginis and a range of other fungi, and stem rot caused by Phomopsis amaranthicola. Leaf and stem blight caused by Phomopsis amaranthophila has been reported in Brazil while Alternaria leaf spot occurs on A. cruentus in Tanzania (Ebert et al., 2011). In Taiwan and other countries, white rust (Albugo bliti [Wilsoniana bliti]) and amaranth anthracnose (Colletotrichum erumpens var. amaranti) may turn into serious diseases (Ebert et al., 2011).

In the USA, the lygus bug (Lygus lineolaris) has severely damaged grain amaranth yields by piercing the developing seed and sucking out the juices (Olson and Wilson, 1990; Wilson and Olson, 1992). Leaf miners have also been found on both grain and vegetable amaranth. In Lucknow, India, serious damage to both grain and vegetable types has often been caused by spider mites. The stem weevil (Lixus truncatulus [H. truncatulus]) is a major pest of amaranth; its grubs damage foliage and roots and cause the plants to wilt. Leaf rotters (H. recurvalis [S. recurvalis]) also cause considerable damage during rainy seasons (National Research Council, 1984). Infestations of the weevil, Conotrachelus seniculus, were observed on the roots of A. cruentus in Arizona in 1984 (Terry and Lee, 1990). Significant damage to cultivated A. cruentus in southern Nigeria (Agunloye and Osisanya, 1985) and Brazil (Oliveira et al., 2012) by Herpetogramma bipunctalis has been documented.

Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum has been reported on A. cruentus in Benin (Sikirou et al., 2019).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

Seed dispersal of Amaranthus species is by wind, farm machinery, water, birds, animals, and the spreading of manure and compost. As both seeds and fruits float easily they are dispersed by raindrops, streamlets produced on the soil by rain, surface irrigation, and water courses. Viable seeds can be dispersed after ingestion and elimination by mammals and birds (Achigan-Dako et al., 2014).

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionAn important leaf vegetable crop cultivated throughout the tropics; used as a grain in many tropical countries (West Africa, Guatemala, Mexico) Yes Yes Musa et al. (2014)
Food Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Forage Yes
Medicinal useAmaranth oil is a powerful antioxidant used as a dietary supplement for diabetes and those suffering from hypertension and metabolic disorders Yes Yes Pal and Khoshoo (1974); Teutonico and Knorr (1985)
Ornamental purposes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Mail Yes Yes

Environmental Impact

Top of page

Amaranthus cruentus is listed as invasive in China, Israel and Italy with evidence of impact although no specific details are available (Celesti-Grapow et al., 2009; Xu et al., 2012Dufour-Dror and Fragman-Spair, 2017; GBIF, 2020). According to PIER (2018) this species is also invasive in New Caledonia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea and the Philippines but further details of its impact have not been provided. Although A. cruentus is noted as an agricultural weed in some countries, there is no specific information on its economic or environmental impact. In Italy, it is a weed in soyabean and maize fields and reported to have developed resistance to common herbicides (Zanin et al., 1981; Zanin et al., 1984; Sattin and Zanin, 2003).       

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page
Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has high genetic variability
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

Top of page

Amaranthus cruentus is useful as a grain or a leafy vegetable. The grain types have white seeds; the vegetable types (as well as those used to extract red dye) usually are dark seeded. It is probably the most adaptable of all amaranth species, e.g. it flowers under a wider range of daylengths than the others (National Research Council, 1984). is used as an African leafy vegetable (Grubben and van Sloten, 1981) and also widely grown as a dye plant, ornamental and pot herb in Central America, Europe, China, India, southeast Asia, and Africa. The leaves and the softest portions of the shoots are usually boiled in several changes of water and then separated from the cooking liquid (Martin and Telek, 1979) though they traditionally are steamed in Uganda (Stafford et al., 1976). Amaranth leaves are combined with condiments to prepare soup in Nigeria (Okiei and Adamson, 1979; Oke, 1983); used in salad, boiled and mixed with a groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) sauce in Mozambique (Oliveira and de Carvalho, 1975) or pureed into a sauce and served over vegetables in West Africa (Martin and Telek, 1979). In Ethiopia, A. cruentus is used as a tapeworm expellant while in Sudan ash from the stems is used as a wound dressing (Achigan-Dako et al., 2014). In Gabon heated leaves are used on tumours (Grubben, 2004).

Amaranthus cruentus is an important leaf vegetable crop cultivated throughout the tropics (Grubben and van Sloten, 1981). The leaves are rich in vitamin A, calcium and potassium (Early, 1997). The seeds of grain amaranth are valued for their high protein content (up to 15%) (Musa et al., 2014). A. cruentus is used in Mexico to produce typical sweets called alegría, in which the amaranth grains are toasted and mixed with honey or chocolate (Maestri, 2014). The economic value of A. cruentus as a popular market vegetable ranks high. From market surveys, it appears as one of the main African leafy vegetables, possibly the number one in quantity and area. No statistical data are available, since in most cases all leaf vegetables are recorded as one single group. In national or FAO statistics, they are not recorded at all. Correct registration is hampered by the short growing period (3-6 weeks), scattered occurrence of small plots of cultivation and the dispersed sales in small street markets. In the big cities in Benin, the average quantity of fresh leafy vegetables bought daily at the markets was 42 g/head/day, 31% of which was A. cruentus. There is some unregistered export of amaranth from African countries, as well as from Latin America (Caribbean, Suriname) to Western Europe (PROTA, 2016). 

The potential of grain and vegetable amaranth as a food resource has been reviewed extensively by Haas and Kauffman (1984), Saunders and Becker (1983), National Research Council (1984) and Sánchez Marroquín (1980). Dye use seems limited to cultures that do not grow amaranth as a grain crop (Sauer, 1950). The red dye from amaranth leaves is used to colour alcoholic beverages in Bolivia and north western Argentina, to colour maize (Zea mays) dough in Mexico and the southwestern United States (Sauer, 1950) and to dye foods and beverages in Ecuador (Jain and Hauptli, 1980).

Amaranth is high in protein, lysine, calcium, iron and fibre, all of which are useful as functional ingredient in cereal products. Amaranth oil is high in squalene, a powerful antioxidant used as a dietary supplement for diabetes and those suffering from hypertension and metabolic disorders (Pal and Khoshoo, 1974; Teutonico and Knorr, 1985). A. cruentus forage meal and extruded grains have been used as feed ingredients for broilers (Tillman and Waldroup, 1988; Fraga et al., 1993; Miazzo et al., 1994).  

Uses List

Top of page

Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo

Genetic importance

  • Related to

Human food and beverage

  • Cereal
  • Leaves (for beverage)
  • Seeds
  • Vegetable

Materials

  • Dyestuffs
  • Essential oils

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Potted plant
  • Seed trade

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

Amaranthus cruentus is part of the so-called A. hybridus aggregate, a group of species in which taxonomic problems are far from clarified, especially because of apparently common hybridization and nomenclatural disorder caused by names being commonly misapplied. Some recognized species of this aggregate are cultivated taxa. A. cruentus is one of these, as are the other grain amaranths, A. caudatus and A. hypochondriacus, A. cruentus also seems to be closely related to A. hybridus, a weed that is its putative progenitor. Transitional forms between these four species can be found (PROTA, 2016).

Although some cultivated forms of A. caudatus-A. quitensis are suspected to be the result of interbreeding with A. cruentus, the South American amaranths are not thought to readily hybridize with the North American members of this cluster (Kole, 2011).

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Solymosi (2000) reported that chamazulene showed excellent phytotoxic activity against A. cruentus with a post-emergence application of 100 ml/12.5 m2. Pyridate was found to provide effective control of A. cruentus in field studies in Andalusia, Spain (Giménez-Espinosa and De Prado, 1997). Trials in maize fields in Egypt showed that acetochlor (750 ml/feddan) gave good control of A. cruentus (Mahmoud, 2010). 

References

Top of page

Achigan-Dako, E. G., Sogbohossou, O. E. D., Maundu, P., 2014. Current knowledge on Amaranthus spp.: research avenues for improved nutritional value and yield in leafy amaranths in sub-Saharan Africa. Euphytica, 197(3), 303-317. doi: 10.1007/s10681-014-1081-9

Agunloye, O., Osisanya, E. O., 1985. Pirimiphos-methyl in the control of Psara bipunctalis F. on Amaranthus cruentus in southern Nigeria. Tropical Pest Management, 31(3), 196-198, 248, 252.

Celesti-Grapow, L., Alessandrini, A., Arrigoni, P. V., Banfi, E., Bernardo, L., Bovio, M., Brundu, G., Cagiotti, M. R., Camarda, I., Carli, E., Conti, F., Fascetti, S., Galasso, G., Gubellini, L., Valva, V. la, Lucchese, F., Marchiori, S., Mazzola, P., Peccenini, S., Poldini, L., Pretto, F., Prosser, F., Siniscalco, C., Villani, M. C., Viegi, L., Wilhalm, T. (et al), 2009. Inventory of the non-native flora of Italy. Plant Biosystems, 143(2), 386-430. doi: 10.1080/11263500902722824

Dufour-Dror, JM, Fragman-Sapir, O, 2017. Alien plant species in natural and disturbed areas in Israel. Israel: 8 pp. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/319416709_Alien_Plant_Species_in_Natural_and_Disturbed_Areas_in_Israel_Second_edition_August_2017

Early DK, 1997. Cultivation and uses of Amaranth in contemporary Mexico. In: Proceedings of the first Amaranth Seminar [Proceedings of the first Amaranth Seminar], Emmaus, USA: Rodale Press. 39.

Ebert AW, Wu T, Wang S, 2011. Vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus L.). AVRDC Publication NNo. 11-754. Tainan, Taiwan: AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center.

Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2015. Flora of North America North of Mexico. St. Louis, Missouri; Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1

Fraga, L. M., Ramos, N., Venereo, M., Valdivié, M., Martínez, R. O., Sistachs, M., 1993. Amaranthus (Amaranthus cruentus) forage meal in diets for broilers. Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science, 27(2), 193-198.

GBIF, 2020. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. In: Global Biodiversity Information Facility . http://www.gbif.org/species

Giménez-Espinosa, R., Prado, R. de, 1997. Use of new herbicides in chickpea. In: 1997 Brighton crop protection conference: weeds. Proceedings of an international conference, Brighton, UK, 17-20 November 1997 [1997 Brighton crop protection conference: weeds. Proceedings of an international conference, Brighton, UK, 17-20 November 1997], (Volume 2) . Farnham, UK: British Crop Protection Council. 879-884.

Grant, W. F., 1959. Cytogenetic studies in Amaranthus. III. Chromosome numbers and phylogenetic aspects. Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology, 1, 313-28.

Grubben, G. J. H., Sloten, D. H. van, 1981. Report, International Board for Plant Genetic Resources. (No.AGP:IBPGR/80/2) . 57 pp.

Grubben, GJH, 2004. Amaranthus cruentus. In: Plant resources of tropical Africa. Volume 2: Vegetables, [ed. by Grubben, GJH, Denton, OA]. Wageningen, Netherlands: PROTA Foundation. 67-72.

Haas P, Kauffman CS, 1984. Grain amaranth: an overview of research and production methods, Emmaus, USA: Rodale Press.

Jain SK, Hauptli H, 1980. Grain amaranth: a new crop for California. Agronomy Progress Report 107. Davis, USA: Agricultural Experimental Station, University of California.

Kole C, 2011. Wild crop relatives: genomic and breeding resource. Vegetables, [ed. by Kole C]. Berlin, Germany: Springer.

Lanoue, K. Z., Wolf, P. G., Browning, S., Hood, E. E., 1996. Phylogenetic analysis of restriction-site variation in wild and cultivated Amaranthus species (Amaranthaceae). Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 93(5/6), 722-732. doi: 10.1007/BF00224068

Maestri N, 2014. Amaranth: origins and use of amaranth in prehistoric America. https://www.thoughtco.com/amaranth-origin-169487

Mahmoud, M. S., 2010. Efficiency of some herbicide treatments on maize weeds, yield and yield components. Alexandria Journal of Agricultural Research, 55(3), 51-58.

Marin, D. I., Bolohan, C., Mihalache, M., Rusu, T., 2011. Research on Amaranthus cruentus L. and Amararanthus hypochondriacus L. species grown in south-eastern Romania (Moara Domneasca-Ilfov). Scientific Papers - Series A, Agronomy, 54, 297-303. http://agronomyjournal.usamv.ro/pdf/issue2011.pdf

Martin FW, Telek L, 1979. Vegetables for the hot humid tropics. Part 6: Amaranth and Celosia. New Orleans, Louisiana, USA: Science and Education Administration, US Department of Agriculture.

Miazzo, R. D., Kraft, S., Moschetti, E., 1994. Use of amounts (Amaranthus cruentus) as a substitute for maize in finishing diets for broiler chickens. (Utilización del amaranto (Amaranthus cruentus) crudo o cocido como sustituto del maíz en una dieta para terminador de parrilleros). Revista Argentina de Producción Animal, 14(1/2), 1-5.

Mosyakin SL, Robertson KR, 2003. Amaranthus Linnaeus. In: Flora of North America. Magnoliophyta: Caryophyllidae, 4 [ed. by Flora of North America Editorial Committee]. New York, USA: Oxford University Press. 410-435.

Murray, M. J., 1940. The genetics of sex determination in the family Amaranthaceae. Genetics, 25, 409-431.

Musa, M., Ajit Singh, Aminu Aliyu Lawal, 2014. Influence of priming duration on the performance of amaranths (Amaranthus cruentus L.) in Sokoto semiarid zone of Nigeria. International Journal of Agronomy, 2014, Article ID 475953. doi: 10.1155/2014/475953

National Research Council, 1984. Amaranth: modern prospects for an ancient crop, Washington DC, USA: National Academy Press.x + 80 pp.

Oke OL, 1983. Amaranth. In: Handbook of tropical foods, [ed. by Chan HT]. New York, USA: Marcel Dekker.

Okiei, W., Adamson, I., 1979. Nitrate-nitrite, vitamin C and in-vitro methemoglobin formation from some vegetables. Nutrition Reports International, 19(2), 241-248.

Oliveira, C. M. de, Ribeiro Júnior, W. Q., Camargo, A. J. A. de, Frizzas, M. R., 2012. First record of damage by an insect pest in a commercial amaranth crop in Brazil. Scientia Agricola, 69(4), 271-274. doi: 10.1590/S0103-90162012000400006

Oliveira, J. S., Carvalho, M. F. de, 1975. Nutritional value of some edible leaves used in Mozambique. Economic Botany, 29(3), 255-263. doi: 10.1007/BF02873175

Olson, D. L., Wilson, R. L., 1990. Tarnished plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae): effect on seed weight of grain amaranth. Journal of Economic Entomology, 83(6), 2443-2447. doi: 10.1093/jee/83.6.2443

Pal M, Khoshoo TM, 1974. Grain amaranths. In: Evolutionary studies in world crops: diversity and change in the Indian sub continent, [ed. by Hutchinson J]. London, UK: Cambridge University Press. 129-138.

PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROTA, 2016. PROTA4U web database. In: PROTA4U web database Wageningen and Nairobi, Netherlands\Kenya: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.https://www.prota4u.org/database/

Pusz, W., 2007. Fungal diseases of red amaranth. (Choroby grzybowe szarłatu krwistego). Ochrona Roślin, 52(5), 24-26.

Ranade, S. A., Anil Kumar, Mamta Goswami, Nuzhat Farooqui, Sane, P. V., 1997. Genome analysis of amaranths: determination of inter- and intra-species variations. Journal of Biosciences, 22(4), 457-464. doi: 10.1007/BF02703191

Sánchez Marroquín A, 1980. Potencialidad agroindustrial del amaranto, Mexico: Centro de Estudios Económicos y Sociales del Tercer Mundo.238 pp.

Sattin, M., Zanin, G., 2003. The situation of herbicide resistant weeds in Italy. (Il punto sulla resistenza delle malerbe agli erbicidi in Italia). Informatore Fitopatologico, 53(1), 24-27.

Sauer JD, 1950. Amaranths as dye plants among the Pueblo peoples. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 6, 412-415.

Sauer, J. D., 1967. The grain amaranths and their relatives: a revised taxonomic and geographic survey. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gdn, 54(2), 103-37.

Saunders, R. M., Becker, R., 1983. Amaranthus: a potential food and feed resource. In: Advances in cereal science and technology. Vol. VI [ed. by Pomeranz, Y.]. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: American Association of Cereal Chemists.357-396.

Sikirou, R., Dossoumou, M. E. E. A., Zocli, B., Afari-Sefa, V., Honfoga, J., Azoma, K., Chen, J. R., Paret, M. L., Bihon, W., 2019. First report of bacterial wilt of Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum in Benin. Plant Disease, 103(3), 578. doi: 10.1094/pdis-07-18-1140-pdn

Solymosi, P., 2000. Herbicidal activity of chamazulene. (Kontakt hatású természetes vegyület a kamazulén). Növényvédelem, 36(3), 119-123.

Stafford, W. L., Mugerwa, J. S., Bwabye, R., 1976. Effects of methods of cooking, application of nitrogen fertiliser and maturity on certain nutrients in the leaves of Amaranthus hybridus sub-species hybridus (Green Head). Plant Foods for Man, 2(1/2), 7-13.

Stevens, P. F., 2020. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14. In: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14 . St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Terry, L. I., Lee, C. W., 1990. Infestation of cultivated Amaranthus by the weevil Conotrachelus seniculus in southeastern Arizona. Southwestern Entomologist, 15(1), 27-31.

Teutonico, R. A., Knorr, D., 1985. Amaranth: composition, properties, and applications of a rediscovered food crop. Food Technology, 39(4), 49...61.

Tillman, P. B., Waldroup, P. W., 1988. Assessment of extruded grain amaranth as a feed ingredient for broilers. 1. Apparent metabolizable energy values. Poultry Science, 67(4), 641-646. doi: 10.3382/ps.0670641

Townsend CC, 1985. Amaranthaceae. In: Flora of tropical East Africa, [ed. by Polhill RM]. Rotterdam, Netherlands: AA Balkema.

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Wagner, W. L., Herbst, D. R., Sohmer, S. H., 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, Vols. 1 and 2, (Edn 2) . Honolulu, USA: University of Hawai'i and Bishop Museum Press.xviii + 1919 pp.

Webb, C. J., Sykes, W. R., Garnock-Jones, P. J., 1988. Flora of New Zealand, Volume IV: Naturalised pteridophytes, gymnosperms, dicotyledons, Christchurch, New Zealand: Botany Division, DSIR.1365 pp. http://floraseries.landcareresearch.co.nz/pages/Book.aspx?fileName=Flora%204.xml

Wilson, R. L., Olson, D. L., 1992. Tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Hemiptera: Miridae): effects on yield of grain amaranth, Amaranthus cruentus L., in field cages. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 65(4), 450-452.

Womersley JS, 1978. Handbooks of the flora of Papua New Guinea. Volume I, [ed. by Womersley JS]. Australia: Melbourne University Press.xvii + 278 pp.

Xu HaiGen, Qiang Sheng, Genovesi, P., Ding Hui, Wu Jun, Meng Ling, Han ZhengMin, Miao JinLai, Hu BaiShi, Guo JiangYing, Sun HongYing, Huang Cheng, Lei JunCheng, Le ZhiFang, Zhang XiaoPing, He ShunPing, Wu Yi, Zheng Zhou, Chen Lian, Jarošík, V., Pyšek, P., 2012. An inventory of invasive alien species in China. NeoBiota, (No.15), 1-26. http://www.pensoft.net/journals/neobiota/article/3575/an-inventory-of-invasive-alien-species-in-china

Zanin, G., Molle, I., Vazzana, C., 1984. Distribution and spread of atrazine-resistant broadleaved weeds in Italy. (Distribution et extension des dicotylédones adventices résistantes à l'atrazine en Italie). In: Comptes rendus du 7ème colloque international sur l'écologie, la biologie et la systématique des mauvaises herbes [Comptes rendus du 7ème colloque international sur l'écologie, la biologie et la systématique des mauvaises herbes], Paris, France: COLUMA/EWRS. 273-280.

Zanin, G., Vecchio, V., Gasquez, J., 1981. Experimental research on atrazine-resistant populations of broad-leaved weeds. (Indagini sperimentali su popolazione di dicotiledoni resistenti all' atrazina). Rivista di Agronomia, 15(3-4), 196-207.

Zheleznov, A. V., Solonenko, L. P., Zheleznova, N. B., 1997. Seed proteins of the wild and the cultivated Amaranthus species. Euphytica, 97(2), 177-182. doi: 10.1023/A:1003073804203

Distribution References

Abbas G, Arif M J, Muhammad Ashfaq, Muhammad Aslam, Shafqat Saeed, 2010. Host plants distribution and overwintering of cotton mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis; Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 12 (3), 421-425. http://www.fspublishers.org/ijab/past-issues/IJABVOL_12_NO_3/20.pdf

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Alien plants of Belgium, 2020. Manual of the alien plants of Belgium. In: Manual of the alien plants of Belgium, Belgium: National Botanic Garden of Belgium. http://alienplantsbelgium.be/

Anon, 1978. Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea. Volume I. In: Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea. Volume I. [ed. by Womersley J S]. Carlton, Victoria, Australia: Melbourne University Press. xvi + 278 pp.

Anon, 2002. Neobiota in Österreich. [ed. by Essl F, Rabitsch W]. Wien, Austria: Umweltbundesamt GmbH. 432 pp.

Argenti C, Costalonga S, Pavan R, 2000. Floristic findings from Friuli-Venezia Giulia region. VIII (145-165). (Segnalazioni floristiche dalla regione Friuli-Venezia Giulia. VIII (145-165).). Gortania. 81-90.

Brouillet L, Coursol F, Meades SJ, Favreau M, Anions M, Bélisle P, Desmet P, 2010. VASCAN, the Database of Vascular Plants of Canada., http://data.canadensys.net/vascan/

CABI Data Mining, Undated. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Celesti-Grapow L, Alessandrini A, Arrigoni P V, Banfi E, Bernardo L, Bovio M, Brundu G, Cagiotti M R, Camarda I, Carli E, Conti F, Fascetti S, Galasso G, Gubellini L, Valva V la, Lucchese F, Marchiori S, Mazzola P, Peccenini S, Poldini L, Pretto F, Prosser F, Siniscalco C, Villani M C, Viegi L, Wilhalm T (et al), 2009. Inventory of the non-native flora of Italy. Plant Biosystems. 143 (2), 386-430. DOI:10.1080/11263500902722824

Correa A, Galdames M D C, Stapf M N S, 2004. Catalogo de Plantas Vasculares de Panama. Panama: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. 599 pp.

Correll D S, Johnston M C, 1970. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas. Contributions from Texas Research Foundation. A series of botanical studies. 1881 pp.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2015. Australia's virtual herbarium., Australia: Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria. http://avh.ala.org.au/#tab_simpleSearch

Das S, 2012. Taxonomical observation on the grain amaranths and new varieties of Amaranthus cruentus (Amaranthaceae). Nordic Journal of Botany. 30 (4),

de Almeida JD, Freitas H, 2006. Exotic naturalized flora of continental Portugal - A reassessment. In: Botanica Complutensis, 30 117-130.

Dufour-Dror JM, Fragman-Sapir O, 2017. Alien plant species in natural and disturbed areas in Israel., Israel: 8 pp. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/319416709_Alien_Plant_Species_in_Natural_and_Disturbed_Areas_in_Israel_Second_edition_August_2017

Eliasson UH, 1987. Amaranthaceae. In: Flora of Ecuador, 28.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015. Flora of China., St. Louis, Missouri; Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2015. Flora of North America North of Mexico., St. Louis, Missouri; Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1

GBIF, 2020. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. In: Global Biodiversity Information Facility, http://www.gbif.org/species

Graveson R, 2019. Plants of St Lucia: a pictorial flora of wild and cultivated vascular plants., http://www.saintlucianplants.com/index.html

Grubben GJH, 2004. Amaranthus cruentus. In: Plant resources of tropical Africa. Volume 2: Vegetables. [ed. by Grubben GJH, Denton OA]. Wageningen, Netherlands: PROTA Foundation. 67-72.

Hejný S, Slavík B, 1990. Květena České republiky 2. [ed. by Hejný S, Slavík B]. Praha, Czech Republic: Academia.

Hernández Bermejo J E, León J, 1994. Neglected crops: 1492 from a different perspective. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). xxii + 341 pp.

Holm L, Pancho J V, Herberger J P, Plucknett D L, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, Chichester (), Brisbane, Toronto, UK: John Wiley and Sons. xlix + 391 pp.

Howell CJ, Sawyer JWD, 2006. New Zealand naturalized vascular plant checklist. Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. iv + 60 pp. https://www.nzpcn.org.nz/site/assets/files/0/13/474/naturalised-list-06-new.pdf

Hwang KiSeon, Eom MinYong, Park SuHyuk, Won OkJae, Lee InYong, Park KeeWoong, 2015. Occurrence and distribution of weed species on horticulture fields in Chungnam province of Korea. Journal of Ecology and Environment. 38 (3), 353-360. DOI:10.5141/ecoenv.2015.036

Joseph P, Abati Y, 2016. The flower plants introduced in the Lesser Antilles: Martinique’s example (general summary of the key data and ecosystem impacts). In: Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 10 88-108.

Kang ByeungHoa, Shim SangIn, 2002. Overall status of naturalized plants in Korea. Korean Journal of Weed Science. 22 (3), 207-226.

Kondár L, Szabó M, 1986. Weed control in sunflowers. (Napraforgók vegyszeres gyomirtása.). Növényvédelem. 22 (3), 126-129.

Lazányi J, Kapocsi I, Bene S, Fazekas M, Chrappán G, 1988. Agronomic evaluation of some cultivated and wild amaranth species (Amaranthus ssp.). (Termesztett és vad disznóparéj (Amaranthus ssp.) fajok agronómiai értékelése.). Növénytermelés. 37 (3), 219-227.

Macbride JF, 1937. Amaranthaceae: Flora of Peru. Field Museum of Natural History, Botanical Series. 13 (2/2), 478-518.

Marticorena C, Quezada M, 1985. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Chile. (Catàlogo de la Flora Vascular de Chile.). Gayana, Botanica. 1-157 pp.

Maseko I, Beletse Y G, Nogemane N, Plooy C P du, Tafadzwanashe Mabhaudhi, 2015. Growth, physiology and yield responses of Amaranthus cruentus, Corchorus olitorius and Vigna unguiculata to plant density under drip-irrigated commercial production. South African Journal of Plant and Soil. 32 (2), 87-94. DOI:10.1080/02571862.2014.994142

Merrill E D, 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants. Manila, Philippines: Bureau of Printing.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015. Tropicos database., St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Mito T, Uesugi T, 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and new regulations for prevention of their adverse effects. In: Global Environmental Research, 8 (2) 171-191.

Molina R A, 1975. Enumeration of the plants of Honduras. (Enumeración de las plantas de Honduras). Ceiba. 19 (1), 1-118.

Molnár J, 1988. Weed growth and weed control in maize in Vas county in 1986 and 1987. (Vas megye kukorica területeinek gyomviszonyai és a vegyszeres gyomirtás helyzete az 1986 és 1987 években.). Növényvédelem. 24 (5), 222-224.

Nelson CH, 2008. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Honduras. (Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Honduras)., Tegucigalpa, Honduras: Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras. 1576 pp.

Oesau A, 1979. Alien elements in the flora of field weed populations of the Rhenish Palatinate. (Fremde Florenelemente im Ackerunkrautbestand von Rheinland-Pfalz.). Gesunde Pflanzen. 31 (10), 262-265.

Orchard A E, 1993. Flora of Australia. Vol. 50, Oceanic islands 2. Canberra, ACT, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service. unpaginated.

Peekel PG, 1984. Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for naturalists., Lae, Papua New Guinea: Office of Forests, Division of Botany. 638 pp.

POWO, 2020. Plants of the World Online. In: Plants of the World Online, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org

Prado R de, Sanchez M, Dominguez C, 1991. Resistance to s-triazines in Amaranthus cruentus and A. hybridus. I. Cross-resistance to herbicides. In: Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 56 (3a) 799-805.

Radford A E, Ahles H E, Bell C R, 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill: Univ. N. Carolina Press. 1244 pp.

Sartorato I, Berti A, Zanin G, 1996. Estimation of economic thresholds for weed control in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Crop Protection. 15 (1), 63-68. DOI:10.1016/0261-2194(95)00114-X

Sikirou R, Dossoumou M E E A, Zocli B, Afari-Sefa V, Honfoga J, Azoma K, Chen J R, Paret M L, Bihon W, 2019. First report of bacterial wilt of Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum in Benin. Plant Disease. 103 (3), 578. DOI:10.1094/pdis-07-18-1140-pdn

Siqueira JC, 2002. Amaranthaceae. In: Flora Fanerogâmica do Estado de São Paulo, Volume 2. [ed. by Wanderley MGL, Shepherd GJ, Giulietti AM, Melhem TS, Bittrich V , Kameyama C]. São Paulo, Brazil: Instituto de Botânica. 11-30. https://www.infraestruturameioambiente.sp.gov.br/institutodebotanica/wp-content/uploads/sites/235/2016/06/FFESP-Volume-II_06_24.pdf

Standley P C, Steyermark J A, 1946. Flora of Guatemala. Fieldiana (Botany). 24 (Pt V), v + 502 pp.

Swarbrick J T, 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. In: Technical Paper - South Pacific Commission, Nouméa, New Caledonia: South Pacific Commission (Commission du Pacifique Sud). viii + 124 pp.

Tassin J, 2005. Personal communication.,

Tokhtar V K, 1996. Additions to the adventive flora of south-east Ukraine. Ukrainskiĭ Botanichniĭ Zhurnal. 53 (6), 687-690.

University of Puerto Rico - Río Piedras, 2020. Herbarium UPR RP. (Herbario UPR RP)., San Juan, Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico - Río Piedras. http://herbario.uprrp.edu/

VicFlora, 2015. Flora of Victoria., Melbourne, Australia: Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne. http://data.rbg.vic.gov.au

Wagner W L, Herbst D R, Sohmer S H, 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, Vols. 1 and 2. Honolulu, USA: University of Hawai'i and Bishop Museum Press. xviii + 1919 pp.

Webb C J, Sykes W R, Garnock-Jones P J, 1988. Flora of New Zealand, Volume IV: Naturalised pteridophytes, gymnosperms, dicotyledons. Christchurch, New Zealand: Botany Division, DSIR. 1365 pp. http://floraseries.landcareresearch.co.nz/pages/Book.aspx?fileName=Flora%204.xml

Xu HaiGen, Qiang Sheng, Genovesi P, Ding Hui, Wu Jun, Meng Ling, Han ZhengMin, Miao JinLai, Hu BaiShi, Guo JiangYing, Sun HongYing, Huang Cheng, Lei JunCheng, Le ZhiFang, Zhang XiaoPing, He ShunPing, Wu Yi, Zheng Zhou, Chen Lian, Jarošík V, Pyšek P, 2012. An inventory of invasive alien species in China. NeoBiota. 1-26. http://www.pensoft.net/journals/neobiota/article/3575/an-inventory-of-invasive-alien-species-in-china

Yuncker TG, 1959. Plants of Tonga. In: Bishop Museum Bulletin, 220 343 pp.

Contributors

Top of page

05/05/2015 Original text by:

Eduardo A Ventosa-Febles, Consultant, Puerto Rico 

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map
Select a dataset
Map Legends
  • CABI Summary Records
Map Filters
Extent
Invasive
Origin
Third party data sources: