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Datasheet

Diaspidiotus perniciosus
(San José scale)

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Datasheet

Diaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 09 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Diaspidiotus perniciosus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • San José scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Diaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale); severe infestation of an apple branch.
TitleInfestation
CaptionDiaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale); severe infestation of an apple branch.
CopyrightBiologische Bundesanstalt, Dossenheim, Germany
Diaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale); severe infestation of an apple branch.
InfestationDiaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale); severe infestation of an apple branch.Biologische Bundesanstalt, Dossenheim, Germany
Diaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale); crawlers (yellow) and adults (scales).
TitleAdults and crawlers
CaptionDiaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale); crawlers (yellow) and adults (scales).
Copyright©Larry A. Hull
Diaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale); crawlers (yellow) and adults (scales).
Adults and crawlersDiaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale); crawlers (yellow) and adults (scales).©Larry A. Hull
Diaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale); symptoms on apple.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionDiaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale); symptoms on apple.
Copyright©F. Kozar
Diaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale); symptoms on apple.
SymptomsDiaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale); symptoms on apple.©F. Kozar
Diaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale) female.
TitleFemale
CaptionDiaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale) female.
Copyright©F. Kozar
Diaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale) female.
FemaleDiaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale) female.©F. Kozar
Diaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale); female larval instars: 1, first instar female; 2, second instar female; 3, adult female.
TitleLarval instars
CaptionDiaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale); female larval instars: 1, first instar female; 2, second instar female; 3, adult female.
Copyright©F. Kozar
Diaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale); female larval instars: 1, first instar female; 2, second instar female; 3, adult female.
Larval instarsDiaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale); female larval instars: 1, first instar female; 2, second instar female; 3, adult female.©F. Kozar
Diaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale); Male larval instars: 1. first instar male; 2. second instar male; 3. prepupal male; 4, pupal male; 5. adult male.
TitleLarval instars
CaptionDiaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale); Male larval instars: 1. first instar male; 2. second instar male; 3. prepupal male; 4, pupal male; 5. adult male.
Copyright©F. Kozar
Diaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale); Male larval instars: 1. first instar male; 2. second instar male; 3. prepupal male; 4, pupal male; 5. adult male.
Larval instarsDiaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale); Male larval instars: 1. first instar male; 2. second instar male; 3. prepupal male; 4, pupal male; 5. adult male.©F. Kozar
Diaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale); morphological stages.
TitleLife stages
CaptionDiaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale); morphological stages.
Copyright©From journal publication of Stoetzel and Davidson, 1974 in Ann.Ent.Soc.Am.
Diaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale); morphological stages.
Life stagesDiaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale); morphological stages.©From journal publication of Stoetzel and Davidson, 1974 in Ann.Ent.Soc.Am.

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock) Cockerell, 1899; Danzig, 1993

Preferred Common Name

  • San José scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Aonidia fusca Maskell, 1895
  • Aonidiella fusca (Maskell) Berlese & Leonardi, 1898
  • Aonidiella perniciosa (Comstock) Balachowsky & Mesnil, 1935
  • Aspidiotus (Comstockaspis) perniciosus (Comstock) Borschenius, 1935
  • Aspidiotus (Diaspidiotus) andromelas Cockerell, 1897
  • Aspidiotus (Diaspidiotus) perniciosus (Comstock) Brain, 1918
  • Aspidiotus (Hemiberlesiana) perniciosus (Comstock) Thiem & Gerneck, 1934
  • Aspidiotus (Quadraspidiotus) perniciosus (Comstock) Merril, 1953
  • Aspidiotus albopunctatus Cockerell, 1896
  • Aspidiotus fuscus (Maskell) Ferris, 1941
  • Aspidiotus perniciosus Comstock, 1881
  • Comstockaspis perniciosa (Comstock) MacGillivray, 1921
  • Hemiberlesia perniciosa (Comstock) Lindinger, 1957
  • Quadraspidiotus (Aspidiotus) perniciosus (Comstock) Rahman & Ansari, 1941
  • Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock) Ferris, 1938

International Common Names

  • English: California scale (Russia); Chinese scale; perniciosus scale
  • Russian: Kaliforniyskaya schitova
  • Portuguese: piolho de San José

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: san José skjoldlus
  • Finland: hirmukilpikirva
  • France: cochenille de San José; pou de San José
  • Germany: Kalifornische Schildlaus; San José Schildlaus
  • Hungary: Kaliforniai pajzstetü
  • Italy: cocciniglia di San José; pidochio di San José
  • Japan: Sanhoze kaigaramusi
  • Netherlands: San José schildluis
  • Norway: san-José skjoldlus
  • Spain: cochinilla de San José; escama de San José; piojo de San José
  • Sweden: san José-sköldlus
  • Turkey: san Jose kabuklu biti

EPPO code

  • QUADPE (Quadraspidiotus perniciosus)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Diaspididae
  •                                     Genus: Diaspidiotus
  •                                         Species: Diaspidiotus perniciosus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Taxonomists disagree as to the generic placement of D. perniciosus. Danzig (1993) put it in Diaspidiotus, whereas Kosztarab (1996) left it in the widely used Quadraspidiotus genus. For further information see Bazarov and Shmelev (1971), Borchsenius (1966) and Kosztarab and Kozar (1988).

Description

Top of page The testa of the female is almost circular, slightly convex, light to dark grey, diameter ca 1.5-2.2 mm. Exuviae central or subcentral, the first-instar exuviae has a craterlike appearance. Young adult female pear-shaped, yellow; egg-laying females almost circular. Pygidium with two pairs of well-developed lobes, notched on outer margin. Plates between lobes partly pointed or fimbriated. Perivulvar pores absent (Kosztarab and Kozar, 1988).

The adult male was described by Bustshik (1958) and Gauri (1962). Morphometric analyses and a key for Quadraspidiotus (=Diaspidiotus) males are given by Kozar et al. (1996). The male is similar to the male of D. ostreaeformis, but the third segment of the antennae is shorter and elliptical in shape. For a long time there was no possibility of identifying the male and female in the first-instar stages. Later, Stoetzel and Davidson (1974) found some microscopic characters for separating the different sexes, and supposed these to be general for all members of the Aspidiotini. However, Kozar et al. (1996) found that first-instar female larva of D. perniciosus differs from other species in at least one character (an extra pair of dorsal setae on the second segment).

Distribution

Top of page D. perniciosus originated from Eastern Asia and was accidentally introduced to the USA, and subsequently to other parts of the world including Argentina, Australia and New Zealand. It is widely distributed in the Palearctic and Nearctic regions (Kozar, 1990a). There are many publications about its detailed distribution and importance in different parts of the world (Konstantinova, 1976; Baker, 1977; Chowdhuri, 1977; Kozar and Konstantinova, 1981; Anon., 1986; APPPC, 1987; Kozar and Drozdjak, 1988; Davidson and Miller, 1990; Kozar et al., 1994; Mani et al., 1995).

The distribution map includes records based on specimens of D. perniciosus from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK): dates of collection are noted in the List of Countries (NHM, various dates).


See also CABI/EPPO (1998, No. 131).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentMohammad, 1988; EPPO, 2014
ArmeniaPresentDanzig, 1993
AzerbaijanPresentDanzig, 1993; EPPO, 2014
BangladeshPresentKosztarab, 1996
BhutanPresentNakahara, 1982
Brunei DarussalamPresentKosztarab and Kozár, 1988
ChinaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-AnhuiPresentEPPO, 2014
-GuangdongPresentEPPO, 2014
-HebeiPresentEPPO, 2014
-HeilongjiangPresentEPPO, 2014
-HenanPresentEPPO, 2014
-Hong KongPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014
-HubeiPresentEPPO, 2014
-JiangxiPresentEPPO, 2014
-JilinPresentEPPO, 2014
-LiaoningPresentEPPO, 2014
-Nei MengguPresentEPPO, 2014
-ShandongPresentEPPO, 2014
-ShanxiPresentEPPO, 2014
-SichuanPresentEPPO, 2014
-XinjiangPresentEPPO, 2014
-ZhejiangPresentEPPO, 2014
Georgia (Republic of)PresentBorchsenius, 1966; EPPO, 2014
IndiaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-Andhra PradeshPresentEPPO, 2014
-AssamPresentEPPO, 2014
-DelhiPresentEPPO, 2014
-Himachal PradeshPresentEPPO, 2014
-Indian PunjabPresentNHM, 1983; Sharma, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Jammu and KashmirPresentEPPO, 2014
-KarnatakaPresentEPPO, 2014
-MaharashtraPresentEPPO, 2014
-OdishaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Tamil NaduPresentEPPO, 2014
-Uttar PradeshPresentEPPO, 2014
-UttarakhandPresentSingh et al., 2001
-West BengalPresentEPPO, 2014
IranRestricted distributionKosztarab and Kozár, 1988; EPPO, 2014
IraqPresentKosztarab and Kozár, 1988; EPPO, 2014
JapanWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-HokkaidoWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-HonshuWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-KyushuWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-ShikokuWidespreadEPPO, 2014
JordanAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
KazakhstanAbsent, unreliable recordDanzig, 1993; EPPO, 2014
Korea, DPRPresentDanzig, 1993; EPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofPresentDanzig, 1993; EPPO, 2014
KyrgyzstanPresentEPPO, 2014
NepalPresentNakahara, 1982; EPPO, 2014
PakistanPresentDanzig, 1993; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanAbsent, formerly presentEPPO, 2014
TajikistanRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
ThailandPresentDanzig, 1993
TurkeyRestricted distribution****Kosztarab and Kozár, 1988; EPPO, 2014
UzbekistanRestricted distributionDanzig, 1993; EPPO, 2014
VietnamPresentDanzig, 1993
YemenEradicatedEPPO, 2014

Africa

AlgeriaWidespreadKosztarab and Kozár, 1988; EPPO, 2014
AngolaPresentNakahara, 1982
CongoPresentDanzig, 1993
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentEPPO, 2014
MoroccoRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
South AfricaPresentDanzig, 1993; EPPO, 2014
Spain
-Canary IslandsRestricted distributionKosztarab and Kozár, 1988; EPPO, 2014
TunisiaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
ZimbabweRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaRestricted distributionBorchsenius, 1966; EPPO, 2014
-British ColumbiaRestricted distributionAgr. Canada; EPPO, 2014
-Nova ScotiaEradicatedAgr. Canada; EPPO, 2014
-OntarioRestricted distributionAgr. Canada; Kosztarab, 1996; EPPO, 2014
-QuebecRestricted distributionAgr. Canada; EPPO, 2014
MexicoPresentBorchsenius, 1966; EPPO, 2014
USAWidespreadBorchsenius, 1966; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentEPPO, 2014
-HawaiiPresentBorchsenius, 1966
-IllinoisPresentEPPO, 2014
-MainePresentEPPO, 2014
-MassachusettsPresentEPPO, 2014
-MichiganPresentEPPO, 2014
-New JerseyPresentEPPO, 2014
-New YorkPresentEPPO, 2014
-OhioPresentKosztarab, 1996
-OregonPresentEPPO, 2014
-TennesseePresentEPPO, 2014
-UtahPresentNHM, 1962
-WashingtonPresentKnight et al., 2001; EPPO, 2014
-WashingtonPresentKnight et al., 2001; EPPO, 2014
-West VirginiaPresentKozar et al., 1994

Central America and Caribbean

CubaPresentNakahara, 1982; EPPO, 2014

South America

ArgentinaWidespreadBorchsenius, 1966; EPPO, 2014
BoliviaWidespreadNakahara, 1982; EPPO, 2014
BrazilWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-Minas GeraisPresentEPPO, 2014
-ParanaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Rio de JaneiroPresentEPPO, 2014
-Rio Grande do SulPresentEPPO, 2014
-Santa CatarinaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Sao PauloPresentEPPO, 2014
ChileWidespreadBorchsenius, 1966; EPPO, 2014
EcuadorRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
ParaguayRestricted distributionNakahara, 1982; EPPO, 2014
PeruWidespreadNakahara, 1982; EPPO, 2014
UruguayWidespreadNakahara, 1982; EPPO, 2014
VenezuelaWidespreadNakahara, 1982; EPPO, 2014

Europe

AlbaniaPresentEPPO, 2014
AustriaWidespreadKosztarab and Kozár, 1988; EPPO, 2014
BelgiumAbsent, formerly presentEPPO, 2014
BulgariaRestricted distribution196*Kosztarab and Kozár, 1988; EPPO, 2014
CroatiaWidespreadKosztarab and Kozár, 1988; EPPO, 2014
CyprusAbsent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
DenmarkAbsent, formerly presentEPPO, 2014
EstoniaAbsent, no pest recordEPPO, 2014
FinlandAbsent, no pest recordEPPO, 2014
FranceWidespreadKosztarab and Kozár, 1988; EPPO, 2014
GermanyWidespread1946Kosztarab and Kozár, 1988; EPPO, 2014; Schönfeld, 2015
GreeceRestricted distributionKosztarab and Kozár, 1988; EPPO, 2014
GuernseyAbsent, no pest recordEPPO, 2014
HungaryWidespread1928Kosztarab and Kozár, 1988; EPPO, 2014
ItalyWidespreadKosztarab and Kozár, 1988; EPPO, 2014
-SardiniaPresentEPPO, 2014
LatviaAbsent, no pest recordEPPO, 2014
LithuaniaAbsent, intercepted onlyEPPO, 2014
MaltaAbsent, no pest recordEPPO, 2014
MoldovaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
NetherlandsRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
NorwayAbsent, intercepted onlyEPPO, 2014
PolandAbsent, formerly presentKosztarab and Kozár, 1988; EPPO, 2014
PortugalWidespreadKosztarab and Kozár, 1988; EPPO, 2014
-AzoresPresentEPPO, 2014
-MadeiraPresentKosztarab and Kozár, 1988; EPPO, 2014
RomaniaWidespreadKosztarab and Kozár, 1988; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-Central RussiaPresentDanzig, 1993
-Eastern SiberiaAbsent, formerly presentDanzig, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-Russian Far EastPresentDanzig, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-Southern RussiaPresentDanzig, 1993; EPPO, 2014
SerbiaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
SlovakiaPresentKosztarab and Kozár, 1988; EPPO, 2014
SloveniaRestricted distributionKosztarab and Kozár, 1988; EPPO, 2014
SpainRestricted distributionKosztarab and Kozár, 1988; EPPO, 2014
SwedenAbsent, intercepted onlyEPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandPresent****Kosztarab and Kozár, 1988; EPPO, 2014
UKAbsent, intercepted onlyKosztarab and Kozár, 1988; EPPO, 2014
UkraineRestricted distribution1952Kosztarab and Kozár, 1988; EPPO, 2014
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)WidespreadKosztarab and Kozár, 1988

Oceania

AustraliaRestricted distribution****Kosztarab and Kozár, 1988; EPPO, 2014
-New South WalesPresentEPPO, 2014
-QueenslandWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-South AustraliaPresentEPPO, 2014
-TasmaniaEradicatedEPPO, 2014
-VictoriaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-Western AustraliaPresentEPPO, 2014
New ZealandWidespread1908Borchsenius, 1966; New Zealand MAF Biosecurity, 2011; EPPO, 2014

Risk of Introduction

Top of page This species is considered an object of quarantine regulations on almost all continents. In the past few years, however, the European Union has deleted it from its quarantine list, because of its presence in most of the member countries.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page D. perniciosus is a polyphagous species. The host plant range could probably be much wider. However, on some of the recorded host plants this insect cannot finish development, which means that these species are not true host plants. The importance of the host plant is different in different parts of the world, so for each region only the local literature sources can give a true picture. In general, this species is very dangerous on deciduous fruit trees including apple, pear, peach, plum, currants and some woody ornamental plants (Konstantinova, 1976; APPPC, 1987; Davidson and Miller, 1990; Kozar, 1990a; Kosztarab, 1996). Different varieties of fruit species show different susceptibility in different parts of the world, and many fruit species have been studied in this respect (Bichina and Gatina, 1976; Shalamberidze, 1978; Verma and Sriravasta, 1990).

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page D. perniciosus infests mostly the bark on the stem and branches of the tree. Sometimes it can be found on the fruits, where it causes red spot. In cases of heavy infestation, the branches can die.

The red spots on the fruits and leaves do not cause great damage; however, it can cause problems in quarantine inspection, because the species is a quarantine insect in many countries.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / necrotic areas
Stems / dieback
Stems / discoloration of bark
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Biology and Ecology

Top of page D. perniciosus has 1-5 generations in different parts of the world. Its development differs in these regions and detailed information can be found only in local publications. It overwinters in colder countries as first-instar larvae. The female has three stages (first- and second-instar larvae and the adult) while the male has five (first- and second-instar larvae, the pronymph, nymph and adult). In central Europe, the adults appear at the end of April, and in northern Europe 1 or 2 months later. The crawlers continue to appear for 1-2 months: the females have about 100 crawlers. The development of one generation requires about 45-80 days (Kosztarab and Kozar, 1988).

The first-instar larva is the dispersal phase. It can be distributed by wind, birds or flying insects. The most important means of transport, however, is infested nursery material. Using this method, this pest was accidentally introduced throughout the world.

The development was studied in detail in different countries. A comprehensive biological monograph has not yet been published. There are some smaller, but important, works available in different countries: For example, see Benassy (1969). In general, development starts at 7°C and this pest is tolerant of cold winter temperatures.

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Ablerus clisiocampae Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Ablerus kashmirensis Parasite Adults/Nymphs India; Jammu and Kashmir apples
Anagrus armatus Parasite Eggs
Anagrus atomus Parasite Eggs
Anagrus epos Parasite Eggs
Anthemus affinis Parasite
Aphytis aonidiae Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphytis chilensis Parasite
Aphytis diaspidis Parasite
Aphytis hispanicus Parasite
Aphytis maculicornis Parasite
Aphytis melanostictus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphytis mytilaspidis Parasite Adults/Nymphs India fruit trees
Aphytis paramaculicornis Parasite
Aphytis proclia Parasite Adults/Nymphs India; Jammu and Kashmir; Republic of Georgia apples; fruit trees
Aphytis sp. nr. diaspidis Parasite Adults/Nymphs India fruit trees
Aphytis vandenboschi Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Azotus dozieri Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Azotus perspeciosus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Chilocorus bijugus Predator Adults/Nymphs Himachal Pradesh; India; USSR
Chilocorus circumdatus Predator Adults/Nymphs Australia apricots; peaches; plums
Chilocorus geminus Predator Adults/Nymphs China; Xinjiang; USSR Ziziphus
Chilocorus infernalis Predator Adults/Nymphs Pakistan; USSR
Chilocorus kuwanae Predator Adults/Nymphs India; USA fruit trees
Chilocorus nigrita Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chilocorus renipustulatus Predator Adults/Nymphs Europe fruit trees
Chilocorus similis Predator Adults/Nymphs Czechoslovakia; USA fruit trees
Chilocorus stigma Predator Adults/Nymphs Australia apricots; peaches; plums
Chrysopa orestes Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccidencyrtus steinbergi Parasite
Coccidophilus citricola Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccinella septempunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccophagoides murtfeldtae Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Comperiella bifasciata Parasite New Zealand pears
Crematogaster subdentata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Cybocephalus fodori Predator Adults/Nymphs
Cybocephalus gibbulus Predator Adults/Nymphs India fruit trees
Encarsia aurantii Parasite
Encarsia citrina Parasite Adults/Nymphs New Zealand pears
Encarsia diaspidicola Parasite
Encarsia fasciata Parasite Adults/Nymphs France; Germany fruit trees
Encarsia gigas Parasite
Encarsia perniciosi Parasite Adults/Nymphs Austria; Bulgaria; Chile; Czechoslovakia; France; Germany; Greece; India; India; Jammu and Kashmir; Italy; New South Wales; New Zealand; Pakistan; Republic of Georgia; South Africa; Spain; Switzerland; USSR; Yugoslavia apples; fruit trees; pears
Euussuria shutovae Parasite
Exochomus uropygialis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Habrolepis aspidioti Parasite California fruit trees
Hemisarcoptes malus Parasite
Marietta carnesi Parasite Adults/Nymphs India; Jammu and Kashmir apples
Marietta mexicana Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Orius insidiosus Predator Adults/Nymphs USA; Virginia apples
Pentilia insidiosa Predator Adults/Nymphs Pakistan apples
Pharoscymnus flexibilis Predator Adults/Nymphs India
Pteroptrix chinensis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Rhyzobius lindi Predator Adults/Nymphs California fruit trees
Rhyzobius lophanthae Predator Adults/Nymphs Czechoslovakia; Europe; India fruit trees
Scymnus gracilis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Sticholotis madagassa Predator Adults/Nymphs India
Sticholotis marginalis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Teleterebratus perversus Parasite
Thomsonisca pallipes Parasite USSR
Thomsonisca shutovae Parasite USSR fruit trees
Thomsonisca typica Parasite

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page D. perniciosus has a high number of parasitoids and predators, which have been studied in detail, especially in the Palearctic region (Trjapitzin, 1978; Kosztarab and Kozar, 1988). There are many papers on natural enemies of this pest in different countries (Ahmad and Ghani, 1971; Rosen and De Bach, 1976; Folkina, 1978; Myartzeva, 1978; Trjapitzin, 1978; Popova, 1979; Darling and Johnson, 1984; Katsoyanos, 1984; Yasnosh, 1985; Bhagat et al., 1988; Titayavan and Davis, 1988; Thakur et al., 1989; Sharma et al., 1990; Bull et al., 1993).

These natural enemies are efficient regulators of D. perniciosus, and they keep down the population density in natural habitats. Where chemical control is inefficient against D. perniciosus, but kills the natural enemies, local outbreaks can occur in orchards. The efficiency of natural enemies is also reduced in urban regions by pollution, where subsequently the pest can cause damage on ornamental plants.

There have been many successful special biological control projects against D. perniciosus in different parts of the world, especially in the USA, Europe and Russia. Usually the main specialized parasitoid Encarsia perniciosi was reared, released and established, according to Rosen (1991). Concerning the list of parasitoids it is important to notice that some parasitoids are only parasitoids, but that others may be both parasitoids and hyperparasitoids, and in many published cases this is not clarified.

All data cited in the table are based on original publications. Therefore there could be misidentifications of the parasitoids or even the host. The generic names also could be not updated. Very often the origin, and the real distribution of the natural enemies cannot be established from the original source and needs to be surveyed. The time of the introduction into a particular country also needs clarification: for example there was not a special release of Encarsia perniciosi in Hungary, but the parasitoid appeared very quickly because of the mass release in the neighbouring countries.

Impact

Top of page Crop loss caused by D. perniciosus on different trees is difficult to assess. The trees lose their vigour and have a shorter lifespan. Shortly after introduction to a new country, this pest can infest and kill whole trees and plantations. This species is a quarantine pest in different parts of the world. The import and export of infested fruits or plants could be refused.

Local outbreaks have been observed in different parts of the world on fruit trees and ornamental plants, as in Hungary (Kozar and Drozdjak, 1988), Switzerland (Kozar et al, 1994; Mani et al, 1995), the European part of Russia (Kozar and Konstantinova, 1981), Australia (Baker, 1977) and Canada (Ker and Sears, 1986).

Detection and Inspection

Top of page In cases of heavy infestation, greyish scales can be found on the bark of the trees. Lighter infestations can be found by laboratory examination with stereomicroscope analyses of the branches, following the survey system described in detail by Kozar (1990b, c). The pheromone of the species is also known. The different compounds of the D. perniciosus pheromone attract the males and parasitoids. Colour and sticky traps have been developed to follow the flight of the males and parasitoids (Kozar, 1990c). The red spots on the fruits can also indicate infestation.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page D. perniciosus can be identified only by its characteristics on microscope slides. A method of slide mounting is described by Kosztarab and Kozar (1988). This species is often found together with other species of Diaspidiotus. According to microscopic characters, it is easy to distinguish, because D. perniciosus has no groups of perivulvar pores, which are present in other Diaspidiotus species infesting fruit trees. D. perniciosus overwinters as first-instar larvae, whereas other species overwinter as second instars or females. D. perniciosus is ovoviviparous, whereas the other species lay eggs.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Regulatory Control (Plant Quarantine and Certification)

Many different countries have special regulations against this pest, the most detailed elaborated by EPPO (1996).

Cultural Control and Sanitary Methods

Scale-free nursery material is very important, because young plants can die very quickly once infested. Cutting the heavily infested parts of the trees and cleaning the bark from infestation can help to increase the efficiency of chemical treatments. There is discussion in the literature about the role of the surrounding infested vegetation: it is partly a source for the re-infestation of the plantations, but it could also be a refuge for the natural enemies.

Host-Plant Resistance

There are no resistant varieties against this pest. There are several tolerant varieties of different fruit species; however, these varieties are not usually very marketable.

Biological Control

Biological control against D. perniciosus is well studied and is one of the more successful projects of this nature in the world, especially using Encarsia perniciosi. Such programmes can give substantially good results only after a relatively long time, and only in the absence of toxic insecticides. The additional release of different predators, and conserving the local natural enemies can increase the efficiency of control.

Chemical Control

For a long time fumigation of seedlings was the most important means of preventing early infestation. For this purpose different chemicals were used, such as hydrogen cyanide, fostoxin or methylbromide (Obretenchev and Stanev, 1992; Anon., 1993; Mordkovich and Chernei, 1993). There are also quarantine recommendations, or requirements for treatment of the fruits to prevent infestation by this pest (although the infestation of plants from fruits has never been proved). For this purpose different methods were proposed as irradiation, fumigation, cold treatment or warm treatment (Angerilli and Fitzgibbon, 1990 and others).

For the treatment of plantations, dormant oil spraying was proposed and is very effective (Ker and Sears, 1986; Chander and Kakar, 1994; Hippe et al., 1995; Isufi and Myrtal, 1996). Almost all the toxic insecticides used (phosphororganics, carbamates, pyrethroids) are effective against crawlers of this pest. The use of these chemicals in summer against other pests such as codling moth, leafrollers, leafminers or mites can often keep down the density of this pest.

Early Warning Systems, Field Monitoring/Economic Threshold Levels

Monitoring and forecasting systems were analysed in detail by Kozar (1990b, c). It was established that there are several methods for monitoring and detection, like white sticky traps (for the males), suction traps (for the males and parasitoids). Pheromone traps collecting the males and parasitoids are the most widely used. Because of the quarantine requirements an economic threshold was not developed. However, in some countries (where there is no strict prohibition, like in Hungary or Russia) there is a special quarantine threshold, only 5% of the fruits can be infested with this scale.

IPM Programmes

Special integrated control projects have been developed against orchard pests including scale insects (Kozar and Varjas, 1976; Ripa and Caltagirone, 1994; Paloukis and Navzoridis, 1995; Jenser et al., 1997). These programmes propose the use of new, selective, non-toxic products (different types of juvenoids and chitin inhibitors, for example) against pests, which have a good effect against different groups of pests, including scale insects. In these orchards the introduced and local natural enemies could reach a high density and reduce the density of pests. If such programmes are implemented, it is possible to have fruits with very low numbers of D. perniciosus.
 

References

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