Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Diaspidiotus ostreaeformis
(pear oyster scale)

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Datasheet

Diaspidiotus ostreaeformis (pear oyster scale)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 09 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Diaspidiotus ostreaeformis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • pear oyster scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Diaspidiotus ostreaeformis (pear oyster scale); adult female, with scale cover overturned.
TitleFemale
CaptionDiaspidiotus ostreaeformis (pear oyster scale); adult female, with scale cover overturned.
Copyright©Rosa Henderson & T.K. Crosby/Landcare Research/via PaDIL - CC BY 3.0 AU
Diaspidiotus ostreaeformis (pear oyster scale); adult female, with scale cover overturned.
FemaleDiaspidiotus ostreaeformis (pear oyster scale); adult female, with scale cover overturned.©Rosa Henderson & T.K. Crosby/Landcare Research/via PaDIL - CC BY 3.0 AU
Diaspidiotus ostreaeformis (pear oyster scale); dark grey female scale covers, with pale crawler flaps, on bark with lichens.
TitleFemale
CaptionDiaspidiotus ostreaeformis (pear oyster scale); dark grey female scale covers, with pale crawler flaps, on bark with lichens.
Copyright©Rosa Henderson & T.K. Crosby/Landcare Research/via PaDIL - CC BY 3.0 AU
Diaspidiotus ostreaeformis (pear oyster scale); dark grey female scale covers, with pale crawler flaps, on bark with lichens.
FemaleDiaspidiotus ostreaeformis (pear oyster scale); dark grey female scale covers, with pale crawler flaps, on bark with lichens.©Rosa Henderson & T.K. Crosby/Landcare Research/via PaDIL - CC BY 3.0 AU

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Diaspidiotus ostreaeformis (Curtis) Borchsenius, 1949

Preferred Common Name

  • pear oyster scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Aspidiotus almaatensis Borchsenius, 1935
  • Aspidiotus betulae Baerensprung, 1849
  • Aspidiotus hippocastani Signoret, 1869
  • Aspidiotus ostreaeformis Curtis, 1843
  • Aspidiotus ostreaeformis var. oblongus Goethe, 1899
  • Aspidiotus oxyacanthae Signoret, 1869
  • Mytilococcus ellipticus (Amerling, 1858)
  • Quadraspidiotus ostreaeformis (Curtis) MacGillivray, 1921
  • Quadraspidiotus williamsi (Takagi, 1958) Danzig, 1993

International Common Names

  • English: European fruit scale; yellow plum scale
  • Spanish: cochinilla ostreiforme
  • French: cochenille ostréiforme
  • Russian: lozhnokaliforniskaya schitovka

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Gelbe Austernschildlaus
  • Hungary: sarga almapajzstetu
  • Italy: cocciniglia grigia dei fruttiferi

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Diaspididae
  •                                     Genus: Diaspidiotus
  •                                         Species: Diaspidiotus ostreaeformis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ArmeniaPresentDanzig, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002
ChinaPresentDanzig, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-AnhuiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-HeilongjiangPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-LiaoningPresentBorchsenius, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Nei MengguPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-ShaanxiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-ShanxiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-XinjiangPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
Georgia (Republic of)PresentDanzig, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002
IndiaPresentNakahara, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002
IranPresentDanzig, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002
IraqPresentNakahara, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002
IsraelPresentDanzig, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002
JapanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-HokkaidoPresentDanzig, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002
KazakhstanPresentDanzig, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002
Korea, DPRPresentDanzig, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002
Korea, Republic ofPresentNakahara, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002
KyrgyzstanPresentDanzig, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002
NepalPresentNakahara, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002
PakistanPresentNakahara, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002
TajikistanPresentDanzig, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002
TurkeyPresentNHM; CABI/EPPO, 2002
UzbekistanPresentDanzig, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002

Africa

AlgeriaPresentDanzig, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002
EgyptPresentDanzig, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002

North America

CanadaPresentDanzig, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-British ColumbiaPresentKosztarab, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-OntarioPresentKosztarab, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2002
USAWidespreadDanzig, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-ColoradoPresentNakahara, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-ConnecticutPresentKosztarab, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-IdahoPresentNakahara, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-IndianaPresentNakahara, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-IowaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-KansasPresentNakahara, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-MainePresentNakahara, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-MarylandPresentKosztarab, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-MassachusettsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-MichiganPresentKosztarab, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-MinnesotaPresentNakahara, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-MontanaPresentNakahara, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-New HampshirePresentKosztarab, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-New YorkPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-OhioPresentKosztarab, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-OregonPresentNakahara, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-PennsylvaniaPresentKosztarab, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Rhode IslandPresentKosztarab, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-South DakotaPresentNakahara, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-UtahPresentNakahara, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-WashingtonPresentNakahara, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-West VirginiaPresentKosztarab, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-WisconsinPresentKosztarab, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-WyomingPresentNakahara, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2002

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, formerly presentDanzig, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002

Europe

AustriaPresentKosztarab and Kozár, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002
BelgiumPresentBorchsenius, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2002
BulgariaPresentKosztarab and Kozár, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentKosztarab and Kozár, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002
FinlandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
FrancePresentKosztarab and Kozár, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-CorsicaPresentBorchsenius, 1966
GermanyPresentKosztarab and Kozár, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002
GreecePresentBorchsenius, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2002
HungaryPresentKosztarab and Kozár, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002
ItalyPresentKosztarab and Kozár, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002
LithuaniaPresentMalumphy et al., 2010
MaltaPresentBorchsenius, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2002
MoldovaPresentBorchsenius, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2002
NorwayPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
PolandPresentKosztarab and Kozár, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002
PortugalPresentBorchsenius, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2002
RomaniaPresentKosztarab and Kozár, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002
Russian FederationPresentDanzig, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Central RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-Northern RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-Russian Far EastPresentDanzig, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-SiberiaPresentDanzig, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Southern RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
SpainPresentBorchsenius, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2002
SwedenPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
SwitzerlandPresentKosztarab and Kozár, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002
UKPresentBorschenius, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Channel IslandsPresentNHM
-England and WalesPresentNHM
UkrainePresentBorschenius, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2002
Yugoslavia (former)PresentKosztarab and Kozár, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002

Oceania

AustraliaPresentDanzig, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-South AustraliaPresentNHM; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-TasmaniaPresentNHM; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-VictoriaPresentNHM; CABI/EPPO, 2002
New ZealandPresent1939Kosztarab and Kozár, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anagyrus schoenherri Parasite Nymphs
Aphytis aonidiae Parasite
Aphytis hispanicus Parasite
Aphytis maculicornis Parasite
Aphytis mytilaspidis Parasite Nymphs
Aphytis proclia Parasite
Archenomus longiclava Parasite Adults/Nymphs Italy hazelnuts
Archenomus maritimus Parasite Nymphs
Azotus celsus Parasite Adults/Nymphs Italy hazelnuts
Chilocorus renipustulatus Predator Adults/Nymphs Italy
Diaspiniphagus moeris Parasite Nymphs
Encarsia citrina Parasite Nymphs Italy hazelnuts
Encarsia gigas Parasite
Encarsia perniciosi Parasite
Epitetracnemus zetterstedtii Parasite Nymphs
Fusarium larvarum Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Pteroptrix opaca Parasite Adults/Nymphs Italy hazelnuts

References

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APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Baker G, 1977. Distribution of San Jose scale, Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (Comst.), in the Adelaide Hills. Agricultural Record, 4(7):54-56

Boratynski K, 1953. Sexual dimorphism in the second instar of some Diasapididae (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society London, 104 (12):451-479.

Borchsenius NS, 1966. A Catalogue of the Armoured Scale Insects (Diaspidoidea) of the World. (In Russian). Leningrad, Russia: Akademii Nauk SSR Zoologicheskogo Instituta, 449 pp.

Bustshik TN, 1958. A contribution to the comparative morphology of the males of the scale insects (Homoptera, Coccoidea, Diaspididae). Trudy Akad. Nauk. SSSR. Vsesoiuzn. Entomol. Obsh., 46:162-269.

CABI/EPPO, 2002. Diaspidiotus ostreaeformis. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 636. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Danzig EM, 1993. Fauna of Russia. Families Phoenicoccidae and Diaspididae. St. Petersburg, Russia: Nauka, 450 pp.

Davidson JA, Miller DR, 1990. Ornamental plants. In: Rosen D, ed. Armoured Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Vol. 4B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 603-632.

Ghauri M, 1962. The Morphology and Taxonomy of Male Scale Insects (Homoptera, Coccoidea). British Museum (Natural History). Dorking, UK: Adlard and Son, 221 pp.

Hippe C, Schwaller F, Mani E, Kull H, Kozar F, 1995. Control of native oyster scale insects. Obst- und Weinbau, 131(4):84-85

Hornok L, Kozár F, 1984. Fungi associated with a scale-insect, Quadraspidiotus ostreaeformis (Curtis, 1843) (Homoptera, Coccoidea: Diaspididae). Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 19(1/2):9-11; [1 fig.]; 5 ref.

Ker KW, Sears MK, 1986. Effectiveness of superior oil applied to apple for control of the San Jose scale, Quadraspidiotus perniciosus, and the European fruit scale, Quadraspidiotus ostrepformis (Homoptera: Diaspididae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 117:45-48

Konstantinova GM, 1976. Coccids - pests of apple. Zashchita Rastenii, 12:49-50.

Kosztarab M, 1996. Scale Insects of North Eastern North America: identification, biology, and distribution. Martinsville, USA: Virginia Museum of Natural History, 650 pp.

Kosztarab M, Kozar F, 1988. Scale insects of Central Europe. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 455 pp.

Kozár F, Drozdjak J, 1988. Peculiarities in the distribution of scale-insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) on deciduous fruit trees in Hungary. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 23(1-2):187-210

Kozár F, Guignard E, Bachmann F, Mani E, Hippe C, 1994. The scale insect and whitefly species of Switzerland (Homoptera: Coccoidea and Aleyrodoidea). Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 67(1-2):151-161; 24 ref.

Kozar F, Hippe C, Mani E, 1997. Kulcs a Quadraspidiotus (Homoptera: Coccoidea) pajzstetu nembe tartozo himek meghatarozasahoz. Novenyvedelem, 33(7):321-327.

Kozár F, Konstantinova GM, 1981. The scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of deciduous fruit orchards in some European countries. (Survey of scale insect (Homoptera: Coccoidea) infestations in European orchards No. III.). Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 16(1/2):211-222.

Kozßr F, 1990. Deciduous fruit trees. In: Rosen D, ed. Armored Scale Insects their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Vol. 4B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 593-602.

Kozßr F, 1990. Forecasting and Monitoring Infestations. Forecasting. In: Rosen D, ed. Armored Scale Insects their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Vol. B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 335-340.

Kozßr F, 1990. Sampling and Census-Taking. In: Rosen D, ed. Armored Scale Insects their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Vol. B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 341-347.

Kozßr F, Hippe C, Mani E, 1996. Morphometric analyses of the males of Quadraspidiotus species (Hom., Diaspididae) found in European orchards or their vicinity. Journal of Applied Entomology, 120(7):433-437; 18 ref.

Malumphy C, Ostrauskas H, Pye D, 2010. New data on the scale insects (Hemiptera, Coccoidea) of southern Lithuania, including ten species new for the country. Acta Zoologica Lituanica, 20(3):253-263. http://versita.com/science/lifesciences/azl/

Mani E, Hippe C, Schwaller F, 1993. Increased incidence of oystershell scales in fruit orchards. Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Obst- und Weinbau, 129(12):299-302

McLaren GF, 1989. Control of oystershell scale Quadraspidiotus ostreaeformis (Curtis) on apples in central Otago. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 17(3):221-227

Nakahara S, 1982. Checklist of the Armored Scales (Homoptera: Diapididae) of the Conterminous United States. Washington, USA: USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, 110 pp.

Trjapitzin VA, 1978. Superfamily Chalcidoidea. In: Medvedev GS, ed. Insect Determination Manual for the European part of USSR. Hymenoptera, 3(2):28-538.

Viggiani G, 1985. Phenology, natural enemies and control of Quadraspidiotus ostrpformis Curtis (Homoptera: Diaspididae) on hazel. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria "Filippo Silvestri", 42:3-9

Viggiani G, 1994. Current management of hazelnut diseases and pests. Acta Horticulturae, 351:531-541

Distribution Maps

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