Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Quadrastichus erythrinae
(Erythrina gall wasp)

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Datasheet

Quadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Quadrastichus erythrinae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Erythrina gall wasp
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Unusual growths, caused by Erythrina gall wasp (Quadrastichus erythrinae), on leaves and young shoots of coral trees (Erythrina spp). alerts to the presence of this emerging invasive species. Quadrastichus eryt...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Quadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Damage to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionQuadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Damage to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.
Copyright©Albert (Bud) Mayfield, USDA Forest Service/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Quadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Damage to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.
SymptomsQuadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Damage to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.©Albert (Bud) Mayfield, USDA Forest Service/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Quadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Damage to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionQuadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Damage to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.
Copyright©Albert (Bud) Mayfield, USDA Forest Service/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Quadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Damage to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.
SymptomsQuadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Damage to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.©Albert (Bud) Mayfield, USDA Forest Service/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Quadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Damage to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionQuadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Damage to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.
Copyright©Albert (Bud) Mayfield, USDA Forest Service/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Quadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Damage to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.
SymptomsQuadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Damage to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.©Albert (Bud) Mayfield, USDA Forest Service/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Quadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Damage to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionQuadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Damage to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.
Copyright©Albert (Bud) Mayfield, USDA Forest Service/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Quadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Damage to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.
SymptomsQuadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Damage to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.©Albert (Bud) Mayfield, USDA Forest Service/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Quadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Damage to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionQuadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Damage to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.
Copyright©Albert (Bud) Mayfield, USDA Forest Service/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Quadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Damage to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.
SymptomsQuadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Damage to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.©Albert (Bud) Mayfield, USDA Forest Service/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Quadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Damage to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionQuadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Damage to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.
Copyright©Albert (Bud) Mayfield, USDA Forest Service/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Quadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Damage to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.
SymptomsQuadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Damage to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.©Albert (Bud) Mayfield, USDA Forest Service/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Quadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Damage to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionQuadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Damage to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.
Copyright©Albert (Bud) Mayfield, USDA Forest Service/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Quadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Damage to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.
SymptomsQuadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Damage to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.©Albert (Bud) Mayfield, USDA Forest Service/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Quadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Shoot damage by Erythrina borer, Terastia meticulosalis, also exhibited to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionQuadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Shoot damage by Erythrina borer, Terastia meticulosalis, also exhibited to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.
Copyright©Albert (Bud) Mayfield, USDA Forest Service/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Quadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Shoot damage by Erythrina borer, Terastia meticulosalis, also exhibited to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.
SymptomsQuadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Shoot damage by Erythrina borer, Terastia meticulosalis, also exhibited to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.©Albert (Bud) Mayfield, USDA Forest Service/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Quadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Damage to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionQuadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Damage to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.
Copyright©Albert (Bud) Mayfield, USDA Forest Service/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Quadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Damage to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.
SymptomsQuadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Damage to Indian coralbean (Erythrina variegata). April 2007.©Albert (Bud) Mayfield, USDA Forest Service/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Quadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Adult male (left) and female (right). September 2007.
TitleAdults
CaptionQuadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Adult male (left) and female (right). September 2007.
Copyright©Erich G. Vallery, USDA Forest Service - SRS-4552/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Quadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Adult male (left) and female (right). September 2007.
AdultsQuadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Adult male (left) and female (right). September 2007.©Erich G. Vallery, USDA Forest Service - SRS-4552/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Quadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Adult male. September 2007.
TitleAdult
CaptionQuadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Adult male. September 2007.
Copyright©Erich G. Vallery, USDA Forest Service - SRS-4552/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Quadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Adult male. September 2007.
AdultQuadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp); Adult male. September 2007.©Erich G. Vallery, USDA Forest Service - SRS-4552/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim

Preferred Common Name

  • Erythrina gall wasp

International Common Names

  • English: erythrina gall wasp (EGW)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Unusual growths, caused by Erythrina gall wasp (Quadrastichus erythrinae), on leaves and young shoots of coral trees (Erythrina spp). alerts to the presence of this emerging invasive species. Quadrastichus erythrinae measures a mere 1.5mm and may be spread easily via infected leaves from infected Erythrina specimens.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hymenoptera
  •                         Family: Eulophidae
  •                             Genus: Quadrastichus
  •                                 Species: Quadrastichus erythrinae

Description

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Female: Length 1.45–1.6 mm. Dark brown with yellow markings. Head yellow, except gena posteriorly brown. Antenna pale brown except scape posteriorly pale. Pronotum dark brown. The mid lobe of mesoscutum with a ‘‘V’’ shaped or inverted triangular dark brown area from anterior margin, the remainder yellow. Scapula yellow. Scutellum, axilla and dorsellum brown to light brown. Propodeum dark brown. Gaster brown. Fore and hind coxae brown. Mid coxa almost pale. Femora mostly brown to light brown. Specimens from Mauritius are generally darker than those from Singapore. Oviposter sheath not protruding, short in dorsal view (Kim Delvare and La Salle 2004).
Male. Length 1.0–1.15 mm. Pale coloration white to pale yellow as opposed to yellow in female. Head and antenna pale. Pronotum dark brown (but in lateral view, only upper half dark brown; lower half yellow to white). Scutellum and dorsellum pale brown. Axilla pale. Propodeum dark brown. Gaster in anterior half pale; remainder dark brown. Legs all pale. Antenna with 4 funicular segments; without the whorl of setae; F1 distinctly shorter than the other segments and slightly transverse; about 1.4 wider than long. Ventral plaque extending 0.4– 0.5 length of scape and placed in apical half. Gaster shorter than female. Genitalia elongate, with digitus about 0.4 length of the long, exserted aedagus (Kim Delvare and La Salle 2004).

Distribution

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Native range: Quadrastichus erythrinae is believed to be native to Africa.
Known introduced range: First collected in Florida on coral trees Erythrina variegata, now in Miami and Hawaii; also known from Singapore, Mauritius and Reunion, Taiwan, Hong Kong, China, India, Thailand, Philippines, American Samoa, Guam and in the Amami Islands and Okinawa in Japan.

 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

MauritiusPresentIntroduced2004Invasive
-RodriguesPresentIntroduced
RéunionPresentIntroduced2004Invasive
SeychellesPresent
South AfricaPresentIntroduced
TanzaniaPresent

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroduced2005Invasive
-FujianPresentOriginal citation: Huang et al., 2005
-GuangdongPresent
-HainanPresent
Hong KongPresentIntroducedInvasive
IndiaPresentIntroduced2005Invasive
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-West BengalPresent
JapanPresent, Localized
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveFirst reported: after 2005
MacauPresent
MalaysiaPresentIntroduced
MaldivesPresentIntroduced
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced2005
SingaporePresentIntroduced2004Invasive
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresentIntroduced2003Invasive
ThailandPresentIntroduced2004
VietnamPresentIntroduced

North America

GuadeloupePresent
MartiniquePresent
PanamaPresent
United StatesPresent
-FloridaPresentIntroduced2006
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced2005Invasive

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroduced2004Invasive
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroduced
FijiPresentIntroduced
French PolynesiaPresent, Localized
GuamPresentIntroduced
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced
SamoaPresentIntroduced
TongaPresentIntroduced2006
VanuatuPresentIntroduced

South America

BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroduced

Habitat

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The Erythrina gall wasp infests Erythrina species, of which there are approximately 110 in tropical regions around the world. Erythrina are used as ornamentals, ‘living fences’, and nitrogen-fixing components of agroforestry systems

 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Erythrina fusca (coral bean)FabaceaeMain
    Erythrina subumbrans (December tree)FabaceaeMain
      Erythrina variegata (Indian coral tree)FabaceaeMain

        List of Symptoms/Signs

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        SignLife StagesType
        Leaves / abnormal forms
        Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
        Stems / galls

        Biology and Ecology

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        Reproduction
        A single female Erythrina gall wasp carries on average approximately 320 eggs (Yang et al. 2004).

        Lifecycle stages
        Studies conducted by the Hawaii Department of Agriculture (HDOA) on Erythrina gall wasp indicate a life cycle (egg to adult) of about 20 days. A one-day old female wasp contains about 60 mature eggs in its ovaries. The adult female wasp exhibited a preference for depositing eggs in very young terminal leaves and stems, but not mature leaves. Adult wasps not given any food survived less than 3 days (males - 2.5 days, females - 2.9 days) while those provided with honey lived longer (males - 10.3 days, females - 6.1 days). The sex ratio of emerging wasps in lab-infested plants was 7 males to 1 female (Heu et al. 2006).

        Means of Movement and Dispersal

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        Introduction pathways to new locations
        Ship: Boats carrying fallen infested leaves raise the risk of spreading Erythrina gall wasp (Quadrastichus erythrinae) (SPC 2006).

        Local dispersal methods
        Hikers' clothes/boots:Quadrastichus erythrinae may be transported on many items, including clothing and flowers (SPC 2006).
        Wind dispersed:Quadrastichus erythrinae may be spread via the wind (SPC 2006).

        Pathway Vectors

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        VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
        Clothing, footwear and possessions Yes
        Wind Yes

        Impact Summary

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        CategoryImpact
        Native flora Negative

        Impact

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        Like other gall-forming eulophid wasps, the Erythrina gall wasp inserts its eggs inside young leaf and stem tissue. The wasp larvae, which develop within plant tissue, induce the formation of galls in the leaflets and petioles. As the infestation progresses, leaves curl and appear deformed while petioles and shoots become swollen. After feeding is complete, larvae pupate within the leaf and stem tissue. After pupation within the galls, adult wasps emerge after cutting exit holes through to the outside. Heavily galled leaves and stems result in a loss of growth and vigour. Severe infestations can cause defoliation and death of trees (Yang et al. 2004; Heu et al. 2006).

        The Erythrina gall wasp infests Erythrina spp. of which there are approximately 110 mostly in tropical regions around the world. (Kim et al. 2004). Erythrina spp. are also known as coral trees and have a variety of functions in different locations. In Taiwan they are highly associated with farming and fishing activities (Yang et al. 2004). As indicated by its Latin name "erythros" meaning red, its obvious red flowers have been used as a sign of the arrival of spring and as a working calendar by tribal peoples (Yang et al. 2004). Specifically, the blooming of its showy red flowers serves as a signal to the coastal people to begin their ceremonies for catching flying fish, and for the Puyama people to plant sweet potatoes (Yang et al. 2004).

        In Hawaii the Erythrina gall wasp infests coral trees, Erythrina variegata, E. crista-galli and the native E. sandwicensis (Heu et al. 2006). E. sandwicensis, known as the wiliwili tree, is endemic to Hawaii and a “keystone species in Hawaii's lowland dry forest, one of the most endangered ecosystems in the world.” For a closer look at the threat posed by the Erythrina gall wasp to the native Hawaii wiliwili, please see Wiliwili on Maui: threatened by the Erythrina gall wasp . Control of the spread of Erythrina gall wasp in Hawaii was predicted to cost over $1 million in 2008 (Brannon, 2007).

        The Erythrina gall wasp has caused approximately 95% mortality of Erythrina endemic to Hawaii (E. sandwicensis and E. variegata) over 2 years (Medeiros, 2008, personal communication, 28 Nov). The Erythrina gall wasp, although thought to be native to Africa (Gates & Delvare, 2008), has been identified as a threat to Erythrina trees in Latin America, Asia, Africa, and Oceania (including the Pacific) (Messing, 2008; Li et al. 2006).

        Threatened Species

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        Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
        Erythrina sandwicensisNo detailsHawaiiParasitism (incl. parasitoid)ISSG (2011)
        Erythrina variegata (Indian coral tree)No detailsHawaiiParasitism (incl. parasitoid)ISSG (2011)

        Risk and Impact Factors

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        Impact outcomes
        • Reduced native biodiversity
        Impact mechanisms
        • Parasitism (incl. parasitoid)

        Bibliography

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        Aliens-L 24-Jan-2006 JohnMauremootoo (CABI-Africa) Erythrina Gall Wasp in Mauritius

        B. Napompeth, 2006. RE: [pestnet] Erythrina gall wasp - American Samoa. (Email posting).

        Brannon, J. (2007, March 23). Dying trees cost $1M a year. The Honolulu Advertiser [online – accessed 07/01/2009]. http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/article/2007/Mar/23/ln/FP703230359.html

        Erythrina Gall Wasp (Quadrastichus erythinae), in American Samoa. 2006. Pest Alert (ISSN 1727 8473). Plant Protection Service, Secretariat of the Pacific Community.

        Gates, M. & Delvare, G. (2008). A new species of Eurytoma (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) attacking Quadrastichus spp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) galling Erythrina spp. (Fabaceae), with a summary of African Eurytoma biology and species checklist. Zootaxa 1751: 1–24.

        Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk Project (HEAR), 2006. Species Info Quadrastichus erythrinae (Eulophidae) http://www.hear.org/species/quadrastichus_erythrinae/

        Heu, R.A., Tsuda, D.M., Nagamine, W.T., Yalemar, J.A. and Suh, T.H. 2006. Erythrina Gall Wasp Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), New Pest Advisory. Department of Agriculture: Manoa (Hawaii). http://www.hawaiiag.org/hdoa/npa/npa05-03-EGW.pdf

        Hurley, T. 2005. Tiny wasp may kill off native trees, Hawaii Advertiser.

        I. Buldawoo, 2006. [Aliens-L] Re Erythrina Gall Wasp in Mauritius. (Email posting).

        Kami, P. (2008). Re Pestnet, 1 Dec. (Email posting).

        Kaya, T. (2007, June 18). Wasp swap: A relief for wiliwili? The Maui News [online – accessed 06/01/2009]. http://www.mauinews.com/page/content.detail/id/31519.html

        Kim, I., Delvare, G. and La Salle, J. 2004. A new Species of Quadrastichus (Hymenoptera: Euphidae): A Gall-Inducing Pest on Erythrina (Fabaceae), J. HYM. RES. 13(2): 243-249.

        Kranz, B. (2008). Pestnet, 21 Jan (Email posting)

        Lal, S. N. (2008). Pestnet, 29 Nov (Email posting)

        Li, H.-M. et al. (2006). Potential global range expansion of a new invasive species, the erythrina gall wasp, Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim (insecta: Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 54 (2): pp. 229-234.

        Liebregts, W. (2008). [Personal communication – Pestnet, 28 Nov]

        Medeiros, A. (2008). [Personal communication – Pestnet, 28 Nov]

        Messing, R. H. et al. (2008). Using host plant relationships to help determine origins of the invasive Erythrina gall wasp, Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Biological Invasions. pp. 1-9 [article in press].

        Mille, C. (2008). Pestnet, 28 Nov (Email posting)

        Oishi, D. (2008). Pestnet, 29 Nov (Email posting)

        Rubinoff, Daniel; Brenden S. Holland; Alexandra Shibata; Russell H. Messing, and Mark G. Wright, 2010. Rapid Invasion Despite Lack of Genetic Variation in the Erythrina Gall Wasp (Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim). Pacific Science (2010), vol. 64, no. 1:23–31

        Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) Pest Focus - February 2006 Erythrina gall wasp (Quadrastichus erythrinae)

        Tanji, E. (2008, November 29). Insects being released to attack gall wasps. The Maui News [online – accessed 06/01/2009]. http://www.mauinews.com/page/content.detail/id/511802.html

        Thomas, P. (2005). Wiliwili on Maui: threatened by the Erythrina gall wasp [online - accessed 07/01/2009] http://www.hear.org/issues/wiliwilionmaui/

        Uechi, Nami., Takumi Uesato and Junichi Yukawa., 2007. Detection of an invasive gall-inducing pest, Quadrastichus erythrinae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), causing damage to Erythrina variegata L. (Fabaceae) in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan Entomological Science (2007) 10, 209–212

        Walker, K. 2007. Erythrina gall wasp (Quadrastichus erythrinae) Pest and Diseases Image Library. http://www.padil.gov.au/viewPestDiagnosticImages.aspx?id=989

        Wiley, J. & Skelley, P. (2006). Erythrina Gall Wasp, Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim, in Florida [online – accessed 06/01/2008]. http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/pi/enpp/ento/gallwasp.html

        Xu, T. et al. (2008). Efficacy of systemic insecticides on the gall wasp Quadrastichus erythrinae in wiliwili trees (Erythrina spp.). Pest Management Science 65(2): pp. 163 - 169. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/121428027/PDFSTART

        Yang, M., Tung, G., La Salle, J. and Wu, M. 2004. Outbreak of erythrina gall wasp (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) on Erythrina spp. (Fabaceae) in Taiwan.

        References

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        CABI/EPPO, 2009. Quadrastichus erythrinae. [Distribution Map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No.June. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 722

        Culik MP, Martins Ddos S, Ventura JA, Costa VA, 2014. The invasive gall wasp Quadrastichus erythrinae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in South America: is classical biological control needed? Biocontrol Science and Technology, 24(8):971-975. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/cbst20

        Das BK, Barindra Talukdar, 2011. Record of invasive Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim, gall wasp on Erythrina variegata L. from Eastern India with notes on gall morphologies. Insect Environment, 17(1):9-11

        EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

        Etienne J, Dumbardon-Martial E, 2013. Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim: a formidable pest for erythrina in Guadeloupe and Martinique (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, Tetrastichinae). (Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim: un redoutable ravageur pour les érythrines de Guadeloupe et de Martinique (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, Tetrastichinae).) Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 118(2):155-158

        Huang PY, Fang YW, Huang J, Lin SM, Wang HY, 2005. A new invasive alien species, Quadrastichus erythrinae, in mainland of China. Chinese Bulletin of Entomology, 42(6):731-733

        IPPC, 2010. Quadrastichus erythrinae on Erythrina variegata. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. PYF-07/1. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

        ISSG, 2011. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database

        Kim IK, Delvare G, Salle J la, 2004. A new species of Quadrastichus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae): a gall-inducing pest on Erythrina (Fabaceae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research, 13(2):243-249

        Medianero, E., Zachrisson, B., 2019. Erythrina gall wasp, Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim, 2004 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae): a new pest in Central America. BioInvasions Records, 8(2), 452-456. doi: 10.3391/bir.2019.8.2.28

        SPC, 2006. Erythrina gall wasp (Quadrastichus erythrinae), in American Samoa. PestAlert, 35. February 2006. Plant Protection Service Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Suva, Fiji Islands

        Yang MM, Tung GS, Salle J la, Wu ML, 2004. Outbreak of erythrina gall wasp (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) on Erythrina spp. (Fabaceae) in Taiwan. Plant Protection Bulletin Taipei, 46(4):391-396

        Distribution References

        CABI, EPPO, 2009. Quadrastichus erythrinae. [Distribution Map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CABI. Map 722. DOI:10.1079/DMPP/20093167385

        CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

        CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

        CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

        Culik M P, Martins D dos S, Ventura J A, Costa V A, 2014. The invasive gall wasp Quadrastichus erythrinae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in South America: is classical biological control needed? Biocontrol Science and Technology. 24 (8), 971-975. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/cbst20 DOI:10.1080/09583157.2014.900735

        Das B K, Barindra Talukdar, 2011. Record of invasive Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim, gall wasp on Erythrina variegata L. from Eastern India with notes on gall morphologies. Insect Environment. 17 (1), 9-11.

        EPPO, 2021. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

        Etienne J, Dumbardon-Martial E, 2013. Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim: a formidable pest for erythrina in Guadeloupe and Martinique (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, Tetrastichinae). (Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim: un redoutable ravageur pour les érythrines de Guadeloupe et de Martinique (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, Tetrastichinae).). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France. 118 (2), 155-158.

        Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG), 2011. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). In: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD), Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland. http://www.issg.org/database

        IPPC, 2010. Quadrastichus erythrinae on Erythrina variegata. In: IPPC Official Pest Report, Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

        Medianero E, Zachrisson B, 2019. Erythrina gall wasp, Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim, 2004 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae): a new pest in Central America. BioInvasions Records. 8 (2), 452-456. DOI:10.3391/bir.2019.8.2.28

        Links to Websites

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        WebsiteURLComment
        GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
        Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

        Contributors

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          Reviewed by: Gene-Sheng Tung Forest Protection Division, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC
          Compiled by: Major update underway: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
          Last Modified: Friday, February 26, 2010

         

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