Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Autographa gamma
(silver-Y moth)

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Datasheet

Autographa gamma (silver-Y moth)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Autographa gamma
  • Preferred Common Name
  • silver-Y moth
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Fully-grown caterpillar of A. gamma.
TitleLarva
CaptionFully-grown caterpillar of A. gamma.
CopyrightHorticulture Research International/Wellesbourne
Fully-grown caterpillar of A. gamma.
LarvaFully-grown caterpillar of A. gamma.Horticulture Research International/Wellesbourne

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Autographa gamma (Linnaeus)

Preferred Common Name

  • silver-Y moth

Other Scientific Names

  • Phytometra gamma Linnaeus
  • Plusia gamma Linnaeus

International Common Names

  • English: beet worm; gamma moth
  • Spanish: lambda
  • French: noctuelle gamma; noctuelle grise des jardins

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: gammaugle
  • Finland: gammayoekkoenen
  • Germany: Eule, Gamm-
  • Israel: tinshmit gamma
  • Italy: Nottua gamma
  • Netherlands: Gammauil; Pistooltje-gammauil
  • Norway: gammafly
  • Sweden: gammafly; gammatecknat metallfly

EPPO code

  • PYTOGA (Autographa gamma)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Noctuidae
  •                             Genus: Autographa
  •                                 Species: Autographa gamma

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanPresentEPPO, 2014
ChinaPresentEPPO, 2014
IndiaPresentEPPO, 2014
IranPresentShojai et al., 1988
IraqPresentAbdul-Allah et al., 1987; Younis et al., 1988; EPPO, 2014
IsraelWidespreadDunkelblum et al., 1982; Pedgley and Yathom, 1993; EPPO, 2014
JapanPresentOku and Kobayashi, 1978; Saito, 1997; EPPO, 2014
-HokkaidoPresentKaneko, 1993a; Kaneko, 1993b; Kaneko, 1993c; Saito, 1988; Kaneko et al., 1990; Kaneko, 1995
KazakhstanPresentEPPO, 2014
Korea, DPRPresentEPPO, 2014
Saudi ArabiaPresentAnon, 1972; EPPO, 2014
SyriaPresentEPPO, 2014
TurkeyPresentKavut et al., 1974; Kornosor, 1987; Zumroeglu and Akbulut, 1987; Avci and Ozbek, 1990; EPPO, 2014
UzbekistanPresentEPPO, 2014

Africa

AlgeriaPresentSoldan and Spitzer, 1983; EPPO, 2014
EgyptPresentHarakly, 1975; Harakly and Assem, 1978; Nazmi et al., 1980; Zanaty et al., 1984; Etman, 1989; Einagar et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014
LibyaPresentEPPO, 2014
MoroccoPresentEPPO, 2014

North America

USAAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014
-PennsylvaniaAbsent, invalid recordIPPC, 2010; NAPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014

Europe

AustriaPresentEPPO, 2014
BelgiumPresentDaele & Pelerents, 1968; Legrand and Wauters, 1997a; Proft, 2000; Wauters and Legrand, 1996; Wauters, 1997; Wauters and Hermann, 1998; Hermann and Wauters, 1999
BulgariaPresentDochkova, 1971a; Dochkova, 1971b; Karadzhov, 1970; Dochkova, 1972; Velichkova, 1972; Trenchev, 1980; Slavchev, 1984; EPPO, 2014
CroatiaPresentGrubisic et al., 2006
Czech RepublicWidespreadEPPO, 2014
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentNovak, 1975; Panigaj, 1984; EPPO, 2014
DenmarkPresentThygesen, 1968; EPPO, 2014
FinlandPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014
Former USSRPresentChekmenev, 1975; Zhuravlev et al., 1976; Rubtsov, 1990
FrancePresentGagnepain, 1969; Radisson and Masson, 1974; Oudinet, 1978; Rahn, 1983; Crepin and Trouve, 1997; Monnet, 1997; Crepin and Trouve, 1998; Monnet and Thibault, 2001; EPPO, 2014
GermanyPresentTerytze et al., 1987; Freier and Gottwald, 1990; Sengonca and Peters, 1991; Forster et al., 1992; Patschke et al., 1997; Prestele and Laun, 1998; EPPO, 2014
GreecePresentEPPO, 2014
HungaryPresentToth et al., 1983; Szeoke, 1994; EPPO, 2014
IrelandPresentEPPO, 2014
ItalyPresentRina and Paolo, 1980; Inserra and Calabretta, 1985; Ippolito and Parenzan, 1985; Guda and Capizzi, 1988; Bongiovanni et al., 1990; Zandigiacomo, 1990; Maini and Burgio, 1991; Burgio and Maini, 1995; EPPO, 2014
LatviaPresentEPPO, 2014
LithuaniaPresentEPPO, 2014
MoldovaPresentEPPO, 2014
NetherlandsPresentBrouwer, 1970; Theunissen and Ouden, 1978; Pak et al., 1988; Vos and Rutten, 1996; Vos and Rutten, 1998; Vos and Rutten, 1999; EPPO, 2014
PolandPresentNapiorkowska-Kowalik and Machowicz-Stefaniak, 1986; Winiarska, 1987; EPPO, 2014
PortugalPresentMarques et al., 1999; Branco et al., 2000
RomaniaPresentPopescu-Gorj et al., 1977; Perju, 1982; Stef and Buzinovschi, 1982; Mateias, 1983; Barbulescu et al., 1984; Ionescu, 1986; Rosca et al., 1986; Ionescu and Pasol, 1987; Stan et al., 1989; Tomescu et al., 1990; Brudea and Rosca, 1992; Roman et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationPresentEPPO, 2014
-Central RussiaPresentPopova, 1996
-Eastern SiberiaPresentKravchenko, 1987
-Northern RussiaPresentMinoranskii, 1970; Roslavtseva et al., 1990
-Russia (Europe)PresentEPPO, 2014
-Southern RussiaPresentTarabrina, 1970; Sorokina, 1991
-Western SiberiaPresentAbdullagatov and Abdullagatov, 1986
SerbiaPresentMaceljski and Balarin, 1974; Sidor and Maceljski, 1974; Vasilev and Todorovski, 1974; Radin and Tosev, 1983; Maceljski and Igrc, 1990; Injac and Krnjajic, 1991; Krnjajic et al., 1997; EPPO, 2014
SlovakiaPresentBirova, 1973
SpainPresentPerez Ibanez et al., 1973; Alonso and de Medina Olivella, 1985; Enriquez, 1990; Caballero et al., 1992; Izquierdo et al., 1996; Amate et al., 1998; EPPO, 2014
SwedenPresentHill and Gatehouse, 1993
SwitzerlandPresentEPPO, 2014
UKPresentTaylor et al., 1973; Scopes and Biggerstaff, 1974; Emmett, 1980; Duthie, 1983; Taylor, 1984; Tiffin, 1984; Hill and Gatehouse, 1992; Hill and Gatehouse, 1993; Asher and Dewar, 1997; Collier and Mead, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-Channel IslandsPresentCourts, 1997
UkrainePresentEPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / external feeding
Growing point / frass visible
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / frass visible
Leaves / leaves rolled or folded
Leaves / webbing
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / frass visible

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aleiodes circumscriptus Parasite Larvae
Bacillus cereus Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis galleriae Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen
Blondelia nigripes Parasite Larvae
Campoletis chlorideae Parasite Larvae
Campoletis holmgreni
Compsilura concinnata Parasite Larvae
Copidosoma Parasite Eggs
Copidosoma floridanum Parasite Eggs
Copidosoma intermedium Parasite Eggs
Copidosoma truncatellum Parasite Eggs
Cotesia glomeratus Parasite Larvae
Cotesia plutellae Parasite Larvae
Cotesia ruficrus Parasite Larvae
Cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (CPV) Pathogen Larvae
Drino imberbis Parasite Larvae
Entomophaga aulicae Pathogen
Ephialtes capulifera Parasite Pupae
Erynia gammae Pathogen Larvae
Erynia radicans Pathogen
Eumea linearicornis Parasite Larvae
Euplectrus bicolor Parasite
Exorista larvarum Parasite Larvae
Gonia ornata Parasite Larvae
Granulosis virus Pathogen Larvae
Hyposoter didymator Parasite Pupae
Itoplectis alternans spectabilis Parasite Pupae
Labidura riparia Predator Larvae
Lecanicillium lecanii Pathogen
Meteorus rubens Parasite Larvae
Microgaster tuberculifera Parasite Larvae
Microplitis marshalli Parasite Larvae
Microplitis mediator Parasite
Microplitis spinolae Parasite Larvae
Microplitis tuberculifer Parasite Larvae
Nemoraea pellucida Parasite Larvae
Nemorilla floralis Parasite Larvae
Nemorilla maculosa Parasite Larvae
Nilea hortulana Parasite Larvae
Nosema sp. Pathogen Larvae
Nucleopolyhedrosis virus Pathogen Larvae
Paecilomyces farinosus Pathogen
Paecilomyces fumosoroseus Pathogen
Pales pavida Parasite Larvae
Patrocloides sputator Parasite
Patroclus homocerus Parasite Larvae
Peteina erinaceus Parasite Larvae
Phryxe magnicornis Parasite Larvae
Phryxe nemea Parasite Larvae
Phryxe vulgaris Parasite Larvae
Pimpla hypochondriaca Parasite Pupae
Scambus planatus Parasite Pupae
Senometopia excisa Parasite Larvae
Tachina fera Parasite Larvae
Trichogramma evanescens Parasite Eggs Bulgaria
Trichogramma maidis Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma pintoi Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma rhenanum Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma savalense Parasite Eggs
Voria ruralis Parasite Larvae
Winthemia cruentata Parasite Pupae

References

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1986. Registration and detection of pests and diseases of agricultural crops. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), No. 12:38-41

AbdulAllah SA; Gorg SJ; All ABMH, 1987. Ecological study of nocturnal Lepidoptera and Coleoptera using a Robinson light trap. Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 19(2):440-451

Abdullagatov AZ; Abdullagatov KA, 1986. The gamma moth as a vineyard pest. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 11:40

Alonso de Medina E; Olivella E, 1985. Contribution to knowledge of the Heterocera (Lepidoptera) of Monseny. I. Publicaciones del Departamento de Zoologia, 11:65-68

Amate J; Barranco P; Cabello T, 1998. Identification of larvae of the principal noctuid pest species in Spain (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 24(1):101-106.

Anon, 1986. Registration and detection of pests and diseases of agricultural crops. Zashchita Rastenii (Moscow), No. 12, 38-41.

Anon., 1988. Nachrichtenblatt fur den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR, 5/1988.

Asher M; Dewar A, 1997. Pests and diseases of sugar beet: a review of 1996. British Sugar Beet Review, 65:14-19.

Avci U; Ozbek H, 1990. Lepidopterous cabbage pests and their parasitoids in Erzurum. Proceedings of the Second Turkish National Congress of Biological Control Izmir, Turkey; Ege Universitesi, 319-330

Barbulescu A et al., 1984. Results obtained in the year 1983 in the context of research on diseases and pests of cereals and industrial plants. Probleme de Protectia Plantelor, 12(2):89-126

Benada J; Sedivy J; Spacek J, 1987. Atlas of diseases and pests in beet. Atlas of diseases and pests in beet., 272pp.; [many col. fig., 30x21 cm].

Birova H, 1973. On knowledge of the natural enemies (Hymenoptera and Diptera) of some injurious Noctuids. Biologicke Prace, 19(7):79 [+ 2]pp.

Bongiovanni GC; Barbini M; Ansaloni R, 1990. Results of a campaign of monitoring certain Noctuidae harmful to sugarbeet using synthetic pheromones. Informatore Agrario, 46(2):89-99

Branco S; Figueiredo E; Mexia A, 2000. Use of sexual pheromone trapping on risk assessment for noctuids on protected crops - a preliminary study in the Oeste region. Bulletin OILB/SROP, 23(1):209-212; 6 ref.

Brouwer WMTJ de, 1970. Protection of brussels sprouts against insects. Bescherming van spruitkool tegen insekten. Gewasbescherming, 1(5):104-110.

Brudea V; Rosca I, 1992. Identification of the best synthetic pheromones fur use in forecasting and indicating the need for chemical treatment. Cerceta^breve~ri Agronomice i^circumflex~n Moldova, 25(4):95-100; 6 ref.

Burges HD; Jarrett P, 1978. Caterpillar control with Bacillus thuringiensis. Grower, 90 (13):589-590, 593-595.

Burgio G; Maini S, 1994. Phenylacetaldhehyde trapping of Ostrinia nubilalis Hb., Autographa gamma (L.), and hoverflies: trap design efficacy. Bollettino Istituto di Entomologia "G. Grandi" Università di Bologna, 49:1-14.

Burgio G; Maini S, 1994. Phenylacetaldhehyde trapping of Ostrinia nubilalis Hb., Autographa gamma (L.), and hoverflies: trap design efficacy. Bollettino Istituto di Entomologia "G. Grandi" Università di Bologna, 49:1-14.

Caballero P; Aldebis HK; Vargas-Osuna E; Santiago-Alvarez C, 1992. Epizootics caused by a nuclear polyhedrosis virus in populations of Spodoptera exigua in southern Spain. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 2(1):35-38

Carter DJ; Hargreaves B (Illustrator), 1986. A field guide to caterpillars of butterflies and moths in Britain and Europe. London, UK: Collins, 296 pp.

Chekmenev SYu, 1975. Injuriousness of Noctuidae and control measures against them. Revue de Zoologie Agricoleset de Pathologie Vegetale, 74(2):61-67

Collier RH; Mead A, 1999. Simulating sampling strategies for aphid and caterpillar pests of brassica crops. Bulletin OILB/SROP, 22(5):1-7; 10 ref.

Costa MS; Poltronieri LS; Kato M do SA, 1982. Insects injurious to crops of cabbage (Brassica oleracea, var. capitata, L.) in Transamazonica, Para. Comunicado Tecnico, EMBRAPA, UEPp, No. 4:5 pp.

Courts SE, 1997. Insectivory in captive Livingstone's and Rodrigues fruit bats Pteropus livingstonii and P. rodricensis (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae): a behavioural adaptation for obtaining protein. Journal of Zoology, 242(2):404-410; 19 ref.

Crepin O; Trouve C, 1997. Survey and importance of defoliating caterpillars on Brussels sprouts in northern France. Quatrieme Conference Internationale sur les Ravageurs en Agriculture, 6-7-8 Janvier 1997, le Corum, Montpellier, France. Tome 2, 471-478. Paris, France: Association Nationale pour la Protection des Plantes (ANPP).

Crepin O; Trouve C, 1998. Survey and importance of defoliating caterpillars in Brussels sprouts in northern France: results of 3 years. Inventaire et importance des chenilles defoliatrices du chou dans le nord de la France: bilan de 3 annees d'etude. First transnational workshop on biological integrated and rational control: status and perspectives with regard to regional and European experiences Lille, France 21-23 January 1998, Service Regional de la Protection des Vegetaux Nord Pas De Calais Loos en Gohelle France: 11-12.

Dochkova B, 1971. Injurious Noctuids on sugar-beet in northern Bulgaria. Rastitelna Zashchita, 19(12):11-13

Dochkova B, 1971. Noctuids - dangerous pests of plants. The cabbage moth and the gamma moth. Rastitelna Zashchita, 19(6):9-10

Dochkova B, 1972. Some biological and ecological studies of the gamma moth. Rasteniev"dni Nauki, 9(10):141-149

Dple EVan; Pelerents C, 1968. Four years of observations on the Noctuidae of the horticultural region of Ghent. Mededelingen Rijksfaculteit Landbouwwetenschappen Gent, 33(1):1-31

Dunkelblum E; Gothilf S; Kehat M, 1982. Sex pheromones of Plusiinp in Israel. Les mediateurs chimiques agissant sur le comportement des insectes. Symposium international. Versailles, 16-20 novembre 1981 Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique Paris France, 271-276

Duthie DJ, 1983. The ecology of a migratory moth, Autographa gamma L. The ecology of a migratory moth, Autographa gamma L. Oxford Polytechnic United Kingdom, 175 pp.

Einagar S et al., 1993. Two polyhedrosis viruses from two semi-loopers in Egypt. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Egypt Economic Series, No. 20, 25-37.

Emmett BJ, 1980. Key for the identification of lepidopterous larvae infesting brassica crops. Plant Pathology, 29(3):122-123

Enriquez RM, 1990. Provisional atlas of the heteroceran Lepidoptera of Valladolid province (Part 4). SHILAP, Sociedad Hispano-Luso-Americanan de Lepidopterologia, 18(72):347-365

EPPO, 1996. EPPO PQR database. Paris, France: EPPO.

EPPO, 1999. EPPO PQR database. Paris, France: EPPO.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Etman AAM, 1989. On some factors influencing the population dynamics of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.), Sp. exigua (Hbn.), Syngrapha circumflexa (L.), Autographa gamma L., and Heliothis armigera (Hbn.) (Lep., Noctuidae) in Egypt. Journal of Applied Entomology, 108(2):182-190

Food and Agriculture Organization, 1972. Report to the Government of Saudi Arabia on research in plant protection based on the work of H.E. Martin, FAO Entomologist. Report to the Government of Saudi Arabia on research in plant protection based on the work of H.E. Martin, FAO Entomologist., v + 38 pp.

Forster R et al., 1992. Attack and damage of lepidopterous pests in white cabbage. Befall und Frassschaden Verschiedener Schadlepidopteren an Weisskohl. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Allgemeine und Angewandte Entomologie, 8(1-3):174-181.

Freier B; Gottwald R, 1990. The use of pheromone traps for monitoring noctuids in vegetable fields (Noctuidae). Nachrichtenblatt fur den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR, 44(1):8-12

Gagnepain C, 1969. Study of a Noctuid population by means of light-traps. Mededelingen Rijksfakulteit Landbouwwetenschappen Gent, 34(3):716-727

Grubisic D; Barcic JI; Baric B; Culjak TG, 2006. Possibilities for biological control of velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medik.) with phytophagous insects. Entomologia Croatica, 10(1/2):67-86.

Guda CD; Capizzi A, 1988. Pheromones and their use in integrated control in floriculture. Colture Protette, 17(8):97-100

Harakly FA, 1975. Biological studies on the loopers Autographa gamma (L.) and Cornutiplusia circumflexa (L.) (Lep., Noctuidae) infesting truck crops in Egypt. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 78(3):285-290

Harakly FA; Assem MAH, 1978. Ecological studies on the truely pests of leguminous plants in Egypt. I. Biting and chewing pests. Proceedings of the Fourth Conference of Pest Control, September 30 - October 3, 1978. (Part I). Cairo, Egypt: Academy of Scientific Research and Technology and National Research Centre, 233-236.

Hermann O; Wauters A, 1999. Protection of beetroots against insects during growth. Protection de la betterave contre les insectes en vegetation. Betteravier (Bruxelles), 33(350):11-12.

Hill DS, 1987. Agricultural insect pests of the tropics and their control. 2nd edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Hill JK; Gatehouse AG, 1992. Effects of temperature and photoperiod on development and pre-reproductive period of the silver Y moth Autographa gamma (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 82(3):335-341

Hill JK; Gatehouse AG, 1993. Phenotypic plasticity and geographical variation in the pre-reproductive period of Autographa gamma (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its implications for migration in this species. Ecological Entomology, 18(1):39-46

Injac M; Krnjajic S, 1991. The characteristics of baculoviruses (NPV) of cabbage moth (Mamestra brassicae L.). Zastita Bilja, 42(2):137-152

Inserra S; Calabretta C, 1985. Attack by noctuids: a recurring problem in greenhouse crops of the Ragusa coast. Tecnica Agricola, 37(3-4):283-297

Ionescu C, 1986. Distribution range, structure and seasonal dynamics, in the year 1982, of the principal species of Lepidoptera Noctuidae of economic importance in Romania. Analele Institutului de Cercetari pentru Protectia Plantelor, 19:121-136

Ionescu C; Pasol P, 1987. The structure, distribution and seasonal dynamics of the main noctuid species injurious to crop plants in Romania in 1984. Lucrari Stiintifice, Institutul Agronomic 'Nicolp', Balcescu Bucuresti, Seria A, Agronomie, 30(1):49-57

IPPC, 2010. Retraction of identification of silver Y moth, Autographa gamma, in Pennsylvania, United States. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. USA-10/2. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

Ippolito R; Parenzan P, 1985. Hoplodrina ambigua D. & S. (Lepidoptera - Noctuidae) and other noctuids on artichoke in Apulia. Entomologica, 20:147-158

Izquierdo J; Arilla E; Ramirez M; Abad J, 1996. Plusiinae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on tomato: species, seasonal development and distribution on the plant. Plusiinae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) en tomate: especies, evolucion en la campana y distribucion en la planta. Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 22(4):803-810.

Jones FGW; Jones MG, 1984. Pests of field crops. Pests of field crops., Ed. 3:[4+] 392 pp.; [many fig., 252 x 179 mm].

Jones FGW; Jones MG, 1984. Pests of field crops. Pests of field crops., Ed. 3:[4+] 392 pp.; [many fig., 252 x 179 mm].

Kaneko J, 1991. Seasonal prevalence of the silver Y moth, Autographa gamma L. (Noctuidae: Plusiinae) in comparison with that of the cabbage looper, A. nigrisigna in a cabbage field at Hitsuji-ga-oka, Sapporo. Annual Report of the Society of Plant Protection of North Japan, 42:133-135.

Kaneko J, 1993. Existence ratio of the silver Y moth, Autographa gamma (L.) after overwintering in a cabbage field at Sapporo, Japan. Annual Report of the Society of Plant Protection of North Japan, No. 44:124-126

Kaneko J, 1993. Parasitic wasps of the silver Y moth, Autographa gamma (L.) (Noctuidae: Plusiinae) and the Asiatic common looper, A. nigrisigna (Walker) in Hokkaido, Japan. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 37(1):22-24.

Kaneko J, 1993. Seasonal prevalence of the silver Y moth, Autographa gamma (L.) (Noctuidae: Plusiinae) and the Asiatic common looper, A. nigrisigna (Walker) in a cabbage field at Sapporo in relation to the number of male moths captured by sex-pheromone traps. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 37(2):61-67

Kaneko J; Kitamura C; Sugawara N; Kanehira O; Akiyama Y; Saito O; Sato I; Sugie H, 1990. Investigation of the annual prevalence of the silver Y moth (Autographa gamma L.) at different points in Hokkaido with synthetic sex pheromone traps. Annual Report of the Society of Plant Protection of North Japan, No. 41:164-166

Kaneko J; Konishi K, 1995. Rate of parasitism of cocoons of silvery Y moth Autographa gamma (L.) in grass fields at Sapporo Japan and species composition of parasitoids. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 39(2):162-164.

Kaneko JI, 1995. Rate of parasitism of cocoons silver Y moth, Autographia gamma (L.) in grass fields at Sapporo, Japan and species composition of parasitoids. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 39(2):162-164

Karadzhov S, 1970. Cabbage moths and the possibilities of their biological control. Rastitelna Zashchita, 18(5):14-18.

Kavut N; Dincer J; Karman M, 1974. Preliminary studies on the parasites and predators of cotton pests in the Aegean region. Bitki Koruma Bulteni, 14(1):19-28

Kitamura C; Kaneko J; Saito O; Tsutsui H; Sugie H, 1989. Investigation of the annual prevalence of the silver Y moth (Autographa gamma L.) with synthetic sex pheromone traps. Annual Report of the Society of Plant Protection of North Japan, No. 40:142-144

Kornosor S, 1987. Investigations on the distribution and systematics of Noctuinae and Plusiinae (Lep. Noctuidae) in the regions of south and south-east Anatolia. Turkiye I. Entomoloji Kongresi Bildirileri, 13-16 Ekim 1987, Ege Universitesi, Bornova, Izmir. Bornova/Izmir, Turkey: Ege Universitesi Ataturk Kultur Merkezi, 649-659

Kravchenko VD, 1987. Daily flight rhythm to synthetic sex pheromones of three species of moths (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in Azerbaijan. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 66(9):1421-1423

Krnjajic S; Dimic N; Peric P; Vuksa M; Cvetkovic M, 1997. Biological control of cabbage pests. Acta Horticulturae, No. 462:119-124; 9 ref.

Kwak MM; Velterop O, 1997. Flower visitation by generalists and specialists: analysis of pollinator quality. Proceedings of the Section Experimental and Applied Entomology of the Netherlands Entomological Society, 8:85-89; 16 ref.

Legrand G; Wauters A, 1997. An invasion of silver Y moth caterpillars during summer 1996. Invasion de chenilles de noctuelles gamma au cours de l'ete 1996. Betteravier (Bruxelles), 31(325):45-46.

Legrand G; Wauters A, 1997. Infestation of larvae of Autographa gamma during summer 1996 in Belgium. Infestation de chenilles de Autographa gamma au cours de l'ete 1996 en Belgique. Proceedings of the 60th IIRB Congress, Cambridge, UK, 1-3 July 1997. Brussels, Belgium: Institut International de Recherches Betteravieres, 503-507.

Maceljski M; Balarin I, 1972. On knowledge of polyphagy and its importance for the silver-Y moth (Autographa gamma L.). Acta Entomologica Jugoslavica, 8(1/2):39-54

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