Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pythium vexans
(damping off)

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Datasheet

Pythium vexans (damping off)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pythium vexans
  • Preferred Common Name
  • damping off
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Chromista
  •     Phylum: Oomycota
  •       Class: Oomycetes
  •         Order: Pythiales
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pythium vexans de Bary

Preferred Common Name

  • damping off

Other Scientific Names

  • Pythium allantocladon Sideris
  • Pythium ascophallon Sideris
  • Pythium complectens Braun
  • Pythium piperinum Dastur

International Common Names

  • English: water rot
  • Spanish: podredumbre acuosa; podredumbre blanda
  • French: pourriture aqueuse

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Wurzelfäule

EPPO code

  • PYTHVE (Pythium vexans)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Chromista
  •         Phylum: Oomycota
  •             Class: Oomycetes
  •                 Order: Pythiales
  •                     Family: Pythiaceae
  •                         Genus: Pythium
  •                             Species: Pythium vexans

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

ComorosPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1987)
Congo, Republic of thePresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1987)
LiberiaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1987)
MadagascarPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1987)
MauritiusPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1987)
NigeriaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1987)
South AfricaPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Middleton, 1943
TanzaniaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1987)
UgandaPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Middleton, 1943

Asia

BruneiPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1987)
CambodiaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1987)
ChinaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
-HainanPresentZeng et al. (2005)
-NingxiaPresentMa et al. (1990)
Hong KongPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1987)
IndiaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1987)
-KeralaPresentShahjahan (1985)
-Tamil NaduPresentVijayan and Thomas (2002)
IndonesiaPresentSantoso et al. (2015)
-SumatraPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
IranPresent, WidespreadErshad (1977)
JapanPresentWatanabe (1985)
MalaysiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Middleton, 1943
-SabahPresentLiu (1979); UK, CAB International (1987)
-SarawakPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
PakistanPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1987)
Sri LankaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1987)
TaiwanPresentChang (1993)
ThailandPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1987)
VietnamPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1987)

Europe

BulgariaPresentIlieva (1995)
FrancePresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Middleton, 1943
GermanyPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1987)
GreecePresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1987)
IrelandPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Middleton, 1943
NetherlandsPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Middleton, 1943
United KingdomPresent, Few occurrencesUK, CAB International (1987)

North America

GuatemalaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Tejada, 1983
HaitiPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1987)
JamaicaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1987)
PanamaPresentDavidson et al. (2000)
United StatesPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Middleton, 1943
-HawaiiPresentGuo and Ko (1994); CABI (Undated)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
-New South WalesPresentUK, CAB International (1987); Ogle et al. (1993)
-QueenslandPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
-South AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
-Western AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Dewan Sivasithamparam (1988)
FijiPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1987)
Papua New GuineaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1987)
SamoaPresentKerz-Moehlendick et al. (1983)
Solomon IslandsPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1987)

South America

ArgentinaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1987)
BrazilPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Minas GeraisPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
-ParaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
-Sao PauloPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
VenezuelaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1987)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / extensive mould
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / wilting
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Roots / rot of wood
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Whole plant / damping off
Whole plant / dwarfing

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Roots hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Biesbrock JA, Hendrix EF Jr. , 1970. Influence of soil water and temperature on root necrosis of peach caused by Pythium spp. Phytopathology, 60:880-882.

Chang TT, 1993. Investigation and pathogenicity tests of Pythium species from rhizosphere of Cinnamomum osmophloeum. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 2(2):66-70

Chase AR, 1987. Pythium splendens root rot. In: Compendium of Ornamental Foliage Plant Disease. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 43-45.

Davidson JM; Rehner SA; Santana M; Lasso E; Ureña de Chapet O; Herre EA, 2000. First report of Phytophthora heveae and Pythium spp. on tropical tree seedlings in Panama. Plant Disease, 84(6):706.

Dewan MM; Sivasithamparam K, 1988. Pythium spp. in roots of wheat and rye-grass in Western Australia and their effect on root rot caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 20(6): 801-808.

Ershad D, 1977. Contribution to the knowledge of Pythium species of Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 13(3/4):26-38; 55-74

Garzón CD; Geiser DM; Moorman GW, 2005. Diagnosis and population analysis of Pythium species using AFLP fingerprinting. Plant Disease, 89(1):81-89. http://www.apsnet.org

Guo LY; Ko WH, 1994. Survey of root rot of Anthurium. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 3(1):18-23

Hendrix EF Jr., Campbell WA, 1973. Pythium as plant pathogens. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 11:77-99.

Hendrix EF Jr., Powell WM, Owen JH, 1966. Relation of root necrosis caused by Pythium species to peach tree decline. Phytopathology, 56:1229-1232.

Ilieva EI, 1995. Two species of Pythium isolated from tomatoes, cucumbers and carnation. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 1(1):1-6

Kerz-Moehlendick FH; Fliege FH; Schlosser E, 1983. Morphology and pathogenicity of four Pythium species isolated with root and corm rot of taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott in Wetern Samoa. Alafua Agricultural Bulletin, 8(3):53-62

Kleijunas JT; Ko WH, 1975. The occurrence of Pythium vexans in Hawaii and its relation to ohia decline. Plant Disease Reporter, 59(5):392-395

Ko WH, 1981. Reversible change of mating type in Phytophthora parasitica. Journal of General Microbiology, 125(2):451-454

Ko WH; Chang MS; Su HJ, 1978. Isolates of Phytophthora cinnamomi from Taiwan as evidence for an Asian origin of the species. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 71(3):496-499

Liu PSW, 1979. Preliminary investigation of Pythium seedling root rot of oil palm. Technical Bulletin, Department of Agriculture, Sabah, Malaysia, No. 4:21-27

Ma GZ; Yu YN; Wang KC, 1990. Species of Pythium recently isolated from Ningxia in China. Mycosystema, 3:1-8

Marks GC; Kassaby FY, 1974. Pathogenicity of Pythium spp. and Phytopththora drechsleri to Eucalyptus spp. Australian Journal of Botany, 22(4):661-668

Ogle HJ; Stirling AM; Dart PJ, 1993. Pathogenicity of fungi associated with seedling disease of cotton. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 33(7):923-929; 30 ref.

Plaats-Niterink AJ Van der, 1981. Monograph of the genus Pythium. Studies in Mycology, No.21:242 pp.

Raabe RD; Leiser AT; Hurlimann JH, 1981. Susceptibility of some prostrate juniper cultivars to root rot. California Plant Pathology, No. 54:3-5

Santoso PJ; Aryantha INP; Pancoro A; Suhandono S, 2015. Identification of Pythium and Phytophthora associated with durian (Durio sp.) in Indonesia: their molecular and morphological characteristics and distribution. Asian Journal of Plant Pathology, 9(2):59-71. http://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=ajppaj.2015.59.71&org=10

Shahjahan A, 1985. Combating cardamom diseases. Planters' Chronicle, 80(11):381

Tajada CJR, 1983. Preliminary note on diseases of rubber observed in Guatemala. Revista Cafetalera, 230:13, 15.

UK CAB International, 1987. Pythium vexans. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, December (Edition 4). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 205.

Vijayan AK; Thomas J, 2002. Integrated management of rhizome rot of small cardamom using Trichoderma sp. In: Proceedings of the 15th Plantation Crops Symposium Placrosym XV, Mysore, India, 10-13 December, 2002 [ed. by Sreedharan, K.\Vinod Kumar, P. K.\Jayarama\Chulaki, B. M.]. Karnataka, India: Central Coffee Research Institute, Coffee Research Station, 576-578.

Watanabe T, 1985. Distribution and ecology of Pythium species in Japan. Plant Protection Bulletin, Taiwan, 27(3):211-224

Zeng HC; Ho HH; Zheng FC, 2005. Pythium vexans causing patch canker of rubber trees on Hainan Island, China. Mycopathologia, 159(4):601-606. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=102966

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chang T T, 1993. Investigation and pathogenicity tests of Pythium species from rhizosphere of Cinnamomum osmophloeum. Plant Pathology Bulletin. 2 (2), 66-70.

Davidson J M, Rehner S A, Santana M, Lasso E, Ureña de Chapet O, Herre E A, 2000. First report of Phytophthora heveae and Pythium spp. on tropical tree seedlings in Panama. Plant Disease. 84 (6), 706. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2000.84.6.706C

Ershad D, 1977. Contribution to the knowledge of Pythium species of Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology. 13 (3/4), 26-38; 55-74.

Guo L Y, Ko W H, 1994. Survey of root rot of Anthurium. Plant Pathology Bulletin. 3 (1), 18-23.

Ilieva E I, 1995. Two species of Pythium isolated from tomatoes, cucumbers and carnation. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science. 1 (1), 1-6.

Kerz-Moehlendick F H, Fliege F H, Schlösser E, 1983. Morphology and pathogenicity of four Pythium species isolated with root and corm rot of taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott in Wetern Samoa. Alafua Agricultural Bulletin. 8 (3), 53-62.

Liu P S W, 1979. Preliminary investigation of Pythium seedling root rot of oil palm. Technical Bulletin, Department of Agriculture, Sabah, Malaysia. 21-27.

Ma G Z, Yu Y N, Wang K C, 1990. Species of Pythium recently isolated from Ningxia in China. Mycosystema. 1-8.

Ogle H J, Stirling A M, Dart P J, 1993. Pathogenicity of fungi associated with seedling disease of cotton. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 33 (7), 923-929. DOI:10.1071/EA9930923

Santoso P J, Aryantha I N P, Pancoro A, Suhandono S, 2015. Identification of Pythium and Phytophthora associated with durian (Durio sp.) in Indonesia: their molecular and morphological characteristics and distribution. Asian Journal of Plant Pathology. 9 (2), 59-71. http://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=ajppaj.2015.59.71&org=10 DOI:10.3923/ajppaj.2015.59.71

Shahjahan A, 1985. Combating cardamom diseases. Planters' Chronicle. 80 (11), 381.

UK, CAB International, 1987. Pythium vexans. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 205.

Vijayan A K, Thomas J, 2002. Integrated management of rhizome rot of small cardamom using Trichoderma sp. In: Proceedings of the 15th Plantation Crops Symposium Placrosym XV, Mysore, India, 10-13 December, 2002. [ed. by Sreedharan K, Vinod Kumar P K, Jayarama, Chulaki B M]. Karnataka, India: Central Coffee Research Institute, Coffee Research Station. 576-578.

Watanabe T, 1985. Distribution and ecology of Pythium species in Japan. Plant Protection Bulletin, Taiwan. 27 (3), 211-224.

Zeng H C, Ho H H, Zheng F C, 2005. Pythium vexans causing patch canker of rubber trees on Hainan Island, China. Mycopathologia. 159 (4), 601-606. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=102966 DOI:10.1007/s11046-005-5258-6

Distribution Maps

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