Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pythium ultimum
(black-leg of seedlings)

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Datasheet

Pythium ultimum (black-leg of seedlings)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 23 February 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pythium ultimum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • black-leg of seedlings
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Chromista
  •     Phylum: Oomycota
  •       Class: Oomycetes
  •         Order: Pythiales
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pythium ultimum Trow

Preferred Common Name

  • black-leg of seedlings

International Common Names

  • English: damping-off of seedlings; fruit rot; leek of potato; root rot; stem rot of seedlings; tree decline; watery wound rot of potato
  • Spanish: marras de nascencia
  • French: fonte des semis; piétin pythien; pourriture aqueuse de la pomme de terre; pourriture de la tige; pourriture pythienne; pourriture pythienne de la gousse

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Fruchtfäule; Schwarzbeinigkeit: Keimlinge; Umfallkrankheit: Keimlinge; Wurzelbrand: Keimlinge; Wurzelfäule: Keimlinge

EPPO code

  • PYTHUL (Pythium ultimum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Chromista
  •         Phylum: Oomycota
  •             Class: Oomycetes
  •                 Order: Pythiales
  •                     Family: Pythiaceae
  •                         Genus: Pythium
  •                             Species: Pythium ultimum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent
EgyptPresent

Asia

ChinaPresent
-FujianPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-HainanPresent
-HenanPresent
-NingxiaPresent
-ShandongPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
IndiaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresent
JapanPresent
JordanPresent
PakistanPresent2016
South KoreaPresent
TurkeyPresent

Europe

Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
ItalyPresent
PolandPresent, Only undercover/indoors
RussiaPresent
Serbia and MontenegroPresent
SwedenPresent
United KingdomPresent

North America

CanadaPresent
-AlbertaPresent
-British ColumbiaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-QuebecPresent
-SaskatchewanPresent
MexicoPresent
United StatesPresent
-AlabamaPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-IdahoPresent
-IndianaPresent
-MinnesotaPresent
-MissouriPresent
-MontanaPresent
-New JerseyPresent
-New YorkPresent
-OklahomaPresent
-OregonPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent, Only undercover/indoors
-South CarolinaPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-WashingtonPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-TasmaniaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent

South America

PeruPresent

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Actinoplanes missouriensis Pathogen
Aphelenchus avenae Herbivore peas
Clonostachys rosea Antagonist
Enterobacter cloacae Pathogen
Gliocladium catenulatum Antagonist
Gliocladium virens Antagonist
Hebeloma crustuliniforme Pathogen
Humicola fuscoatra Pathogen
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite
Laetisaria arvalis Pathogen
Myrothecium verrucaria Pathogen
Paecilomyces variotii Pathogen
Penicillium oxalicum Pathogen
Pseudomonas fluorescens Antagonist Montana
Pseudomonas putida Pathogen
Pythium monospermum Antagonist
Pythium nunn Antagonist
Pythium oligandrum Mycoparasite
Rhizobium radiobacter Pathogen
Rhizobium rhizogenes Pathogen
Thanatephorus cucumeris Pathogen
Tolypocladium niveum Pathogen
Trichoderma hamatum Antagonist
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist
Trichoderma koningii Antagonist
Trichoderma pseudokoningii Antagonist

References

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Hatami N, Aminaee MM, Zohdi H, Tanideh T, 2013. Damping-off disease in greenhouse cucumber in Iran. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 46(7):796-802. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gapp20

Petkowski JE, Boer RFde, Norng S, Thomson F, Minchinton EJ, 2013. Pythium species associated with root rot complex in winter-grown parsnip and parsley crops in south eastern Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 42(4):403-411. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13313-013-0211-5

Zhang, Y. L., Li, C. S., Zhang, B., Qi, J. S., Xu, Z. T., Ma, L. G., 2018. First report of root rot of Chinese yam caused by Pythium ultimum var. ultimum in China., 102(3), 687. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/pdis-06-17-0829-pdn

Distribution References

Amein T, 2006. Soil-borne pathogens infecting sugar beet in Southern Sweden. Plant Pathology Journal (Faisalabad). 5 (3), 356-361. http://www.ansinet.org/ppj

Anwar W, Nawaz K, Iftikhar S, Subhani M N, 2017. First report of fruit rot of tomato caused by Pythium ultimum in Pakistan. Journal of Plant Pathology. 99 (2), 535. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3863/2507

Babai-Ahary A, Abrinnia M, Heravan I M, 2004. Identification and pathogenicity of Pythium species causing damping-off in sugarbeet in northwest Iran. Australasian Plant Pathology. 33 (3), 343-347. DOI:10.1071/AP04038

Beckerman J, Stone J, Ruhl G, Creswell T, 2018. First report of Pythium ultimum crown and root rot of industrial hemp in the United States. Plant Disease. 102 (10), 2045. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-17-1999-PDN

CABI Data Mining, Undated. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cariddi C, Miacola C, Prigigallo M I, Bubi G, 2017. First report of cauliflower collar rot caused by Globisporangium ultimum in Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology. 99 (2), 540. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3898/2542

Davison E M, MacNish G C, Murphy P A, McKay A G, 2003. Pythium spp. from cavity spot and other root diseases of Australian carrots. Australasian Plant Pathology. 32 (4), 455-464. DOI:10.1071/AP03049

Erol F Y, Tunalı B, 2009. Determination of root and crown rot diseases in tomato growing area of Samsun Province. Acta Horticulturae. 65-69. http://www.actahort.org

Fang X L, Phillips D, Li Hua, Sivasithamparam K, Barbetti M J, 2011. Severity of crown and root diseases of strawberry and associated fungal and oomycete pathogens in Western Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology. 40 (2), 109-119. http://www.springerlink.com/content/a6m6712g43166203/ DOI:10.1007/s13313-010-0019-5

Hatami N, Aminaee M M, Zohdi H, Tanideh T, 2013. Damping-off disease in greenhouse cucumber in Iran. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 46 (7), 796-802. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gapp20 DOI:10.1080/03235408.2012.752145

Ho H H, Chen XiuXian, Zeng HuiCai, Zheng FuCong, 2012. The occurrence and distribution of Pythium species on Hainan Island of South China. Botanical Studies. 53 (4), 525-534. http://ejournal.sinica.edu.tw/bbas/content/2012/4/Bot534-11.pdf

Lazreg F, Belabid L, Sanchez J, Gallego E, Garrido-Cardenas J A, Elhaitoum A, 2013. First report of Globisporangium ultimum causing pythium damping-off on Aleppo pine in Algeria, Africa, and the Mediterranean region. Plant Disease. 97 (8), 1111. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-12-0625-PDN

Moorman G W, Kim S H, 2004. Species of Pythium from greenhouses in Pennsylvania exhibit resistance to propamocarb and mefenoxam. Plant Disease. 88 (6), 630-632. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.6.630

Orlikowski L B, Ptaszek M, 2013. First notice of phytophthora crown and root rot of Euphorbia pulcherrima in Polish greenhouses. Journal of Plant Protection Research. 53 (4), 307-311. http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jppr.2013.53.issue-4/jppr-2013-0046/jppr-2013-0046.xml?format=INT DOI:10.2478/jppr-2013-0046

Parkunan V, Brenneman T, Ji P, 2014. First report of Pythium deliense associated with peanut pod rot in Georgia. Plant Disease. 98 (9), 1269-1270. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-13-0982-PDN

Petkowski J E, Boer R F de, Norng S, Thomson F, Minchinton E J, 2013. Pythium species associated with root rot complex in winter-grown parsnip and parsley crops in south eastern Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology. 42 (4), 403-411. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13313-013-0211-5 DOI:10.1007/s13313-013-0211-5

Rennberger G, Dowling M, Keinath A P, Schnabel G, 2017. First report of root rot caused by Pythium ultimum on Acanthosicyos horridus (Cucurbitaceae). Plant Disease. 101 (1), 258-259. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-16-0515-PDN

Tanina K, Tojo M, Date H, Nasu H, Kasuyama S, 2004. Pythium rot of chingensai (Brassica campestris L. chinensis group) caused by Pythium ultimum var. ultimum and Pythium aphanidermatum. Journal of General Plant Pathology. 70 (3), 188-191. DOI:10.1007/s10327-004-0109-8

Taylor R J, Salas B, Secor G A, Rivera V, Gudmestad N C, 2002. Sensitivity of North American isolates of Phytophthora erythroseptica and Pythium ultimum to mefenoxam (metalaxyl). Plant Disease. 86 (7), 797-802. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2002.86.7.797

Waheed Akram, Aqeel Ahmad, Yasin N A, Khan W U, Guo JuXian, Luo WenLong, Xie DaSen, Li GuiHua, 2020. First report of stem rot of taro caused by Pythium ultimum in China. Plant Disease. 104 (3), 995-995. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-19-1950-PDN Supplemental

Wang Y L, Jia W Q, X H Du, Zhu X P, Mu J Y, Wang S P, He S L, Liu H C, 2020. First report of chlorosis and root rot caused by Pythium ultimum in garden pansy in China. Plant Disease. 104 (1), 294-294. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-19-0894-PDN

Weiland J E, 2011. Influence of isolation method on recovery of Pythium species from forest nursery soils in Oregon and Washington. Plant Disease. 95 (5), 547-553. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-10-0242

Wrather J A, Phipps B, Rothrock C S, 2002. Fungi associated with postemergence cotton seedling disease in Missouri. Plant Health Progress. 1-4. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/pub/php/research/cottonseedling/

You X, Tojo M, 2017. First report of soybean damping off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum and P. coloratum in Japan. New Disease Reports. 14. https://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=036014 DOI:10.5197/j.2044-0588.2017.036.014

Zhang Y L, Li C S, Zhang B, Qi J S, Xu Z T, Ma L G, 2018. First report of root rot of Chinese yam caused by Pythium ultimum var. ultimum in China. Plant Disease. 102 (3), 687. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/pdis-06-17-0829-pdn

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