Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pythium myriotylum
(brown rot of groundnut)

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Datasheet

Pythium myriotylum (brown rot of groundnut)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pythium myriotylum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • brown rot of groundnut
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Chromista
  •     Phylum: Oomycota
  •       Class: Oomycetes
  •         Order: Pythiales

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Susceptible plants turned yellow and wilted after 5 days in the screening box and died within 21 days.
TitleFoliage symptoms on Xanthosoma sagittifolium
CaptionSusceptible plants turned yellow and wilted after 5 days in the screening box and died within 21 days.
CopyrightR.P. Pacumbaba
Susceptible plants turned yellow and wilted after 5 days in the screening box and died within 21 days.
Foliage symptoms on Xanthosoma sagittifoliumSusceptible plants turned yellow and wilted after 5 days in the screening box and died within 21 days.R.P. Pacumbaba
Infected Xanthosoma sagittifolium is wilted and chlorotic.
TitleInfected plant
CaptionInfected Xanthosoma sagittifolium is wilted and chlorotic.
CopyrightR.P. Pacumbaba
Infected Xanthosoma sagittifolium is wilted and chlorotic.
Infected plantInfected Xanthosoma sagittifolium is wilted and chlorotic.R.P. Pacumbaba
Plantlet infected with P. myriotylum (3 days after inoculation). Note extensive rotting of the roots compared with the vigorous root system of the control plantlet (left). Wilting and general chlorosis are also characteristic symptoms of infection.
TitleSymptoms for Xanthosoma sagittifolium
CaptionPlantlet infected with P. myriotylum (3 days after inoculation). Note extensive rotting of the roots compared with the vigorous root system of the control plantlet (left). Wilting and general chlorosis are also characteristic symptoms of infection.
CopyrightR.P. Pacumbaba
Plantlet infected with P. myriotylum (3 days after inoculation). Note extensive rotting of the roots compared with the vigorous root system of the control plantlet (left). Wilting and general chlorosis are also characteristic symptoms of infection.
Symptoms for Xanthosoma sagittifoliumPlantlet infected with P. myriotylum (3 days after inoculation). Note extensive rotting of the roots compared with the vigorous root system of the control plantlet (left). Wilting and general chlorosis are also characteristic symptoms of infection.R.P. Pacumbaba
From left to right, Xanthosoma sagittifolium plantlets inoculated with inoculum solution of (A) P. myriotylum from the roots, (B) P. myriotylum from the soil, (E) P. myriotylum from the soil and Fusarium solani, (F) P. myriotylum from the soil and Rhizoctonia solani, (G) P. myriotylum from the soil, F. solani, and R. solani, and (I) control plantlets (distilled water).

After Pacumbaba et al. 1992. Plant Disease 76: 768-770.
TitleSymptoms on inoculated plantlets
CaptionFrom left to right, Xanthosoma sagittifolium plantlets inoculated with inoculum solution of (A) P. myriotylum from the roots, (B) P. myriotylum from the soil, (E) P. myriotylum from the soil and Fusarium solani, (F) P. myriotylum from the soil and Rhizoctonia solani, (G) P. myriotylum from the soil, F. solani, and R. solani, and (I) control plantlets (distilled water). After Pacumbaba et al. 1992. Plant Disease 76: 768-770.
CopyrightPlant Disease
From left to right, Xanthosoma sagittifolium plantlets inoculated with inoculum solution of (A) P. myriotylum from the roots, (B) P. myriotylum from the soil, (E) P. myriotylum from the soil and Fusarium solani, (F) P. myriotylum from the soil and Rhizoctonia solani, (G) P. myriotylum from the soil, F. solani, and R. solani, and (I) control plantlets (distilled water).

After Pacumbaba et al. 1992. Plant Disease 76: 768-770.
Symptoms on inoculated plantletsFrom left to right, Xanthosoma sagittifolium plantlets inoculated with inoculum solution of (A) P. myriotylum from the roots, (B) P. myriotylum from the soil, (E) P. myriotylum from the soil and Fusarium solani, (F) P. myriotylum from the soil and Rhizoctonia solani, (G) P. myriotylum from the soil, F. solani, and R. solani, and (I) control plantlets (distilled water). After Pacumbaba et al. 1992. Plant Disease 76: 768-770.Plant Disease
Leaves of resistant plants are still green (21 days after planting in screening box). Note yellowing of the oldest leaves (arrows) on a few plants; such accessions are regarded as tolerant to P. myriotylum.
TitleResistant Xanthosoma sagittifolium
CaptionLeaves of resistant plants are still green (21 days after planting in screening box). Note yellowing of the oldest leaves (arrows) on a few plants; such accessions are regarded as tolerant to P. myriotylum.
CopyrightR.P. Pacumbaba
Leaves of resistant plants are still green (21 days after planting in screening box). Note yellowing of the oldest leaves (arrows) on a few plants; such accessions are regarded as tolerant to P. myriotylum.
Resistant Xanthosoma sagittifoliumLeaves of resistant plants are still green (21 days after planting in screening box). Note yellowing of the oldest leaves (arrows) on a few plants; such accessions are regarded as tolerant to P. myriotylum.R.P. Pacumbaba
Hyphae (stained blue) in roots of Xanthosoma sagittifolium. Note intra- and intercellular invasion of the root cells (indicated by the arrows).
TitleHyphae in roots of X. sagittifolium
CaptionHyphae (stained blue) in roots of Xanthosoma sagittifolium. Note intra- and intercellular invasion of the root cells (indicated by the arrows).
CopyrightR.P. Pacumbaba
Hyphae (stained blue) in roots of Xanthosoma sagittifolium. Note intra- and intercellular invasion of the root cells (indicated by the arrows).
Hyphae in roots of X. sagittifoliumHyphae (stained blue) in roots of Xanthosoma sagittifolium. Note intra- and intercellular invasion of the root cells (indicated by the arrows).R.P. Pacumbaba
Hyphae (may be up to 8.5 µm diameter), forming numerous clavate or globose appressoria.
TitleMycelial characteristics
CaptionHyphae (may be up to 8.5 µm diameter), forming numerous clavate or globose appressoria.
CopyrightR.P. Pacumbaba
Hyphae (may be up to 8.5 µm diameter), forming numerous clavate or globose appressoria.
Mycelial characteristicsHyphae (may be up to 8.5 µm diameter), forming numerous clavate or globose appressoria.R.P. Pacumbaba

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pythium myriotylum Drechsler

Preferred Common Name

  • brown rot of groundnut

International Common Names

  • English: cocoyam root rot; groundnut pod breakdown; kernel rot of groundnut; pod rot of groundnut; tannia leaf burning disease; wilt of groundnut
  • Spanish: mal blanco; marchitez del cacahuete; podredumbre parda del cacahuete
  • French: dépérissement du chou Caraïbe; fletrissement de l'arachide; pourriture brune de l'arachide

EPPO code

  • PYTHMY (Pythium myriotylum)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Chromista
  •         Phylum: Oomycota
  •             Class: Oomycetes
  •                 Order: Pythiales
  •                     Family: Pythiaceae
  •                         Genus: Pythium
  •                             Species: Pythium myriotylum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

CameroonPresentSteiner (1981); Xu et al. (1995); EPPO (2020)
EswatiniPresentUK, CAB International (1991); EPPO (2020)
LibyaPresentUK, CAB International (1991); EPPO (2020)
MadagascarPresentUK, CAB International (1991); EPPO (2020)
MalawiPresentUK, CAB International (1991); EPPO (2020)
NigeriaPresentAlvarez and Hahn (1982); EPPO (2020)
Sierra LeonePresentUK, CAB International (1991); EPPO (2020)
South AfricaPresentUK, CAB International (1991); EPPO (2020)
ZambiaPresentUK, CAB International (1991); EPPO (2020)

Asia

ChinaPresentDuan (1985)
IndiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-Andhra PradeshPresentSubrahmanyam et al. (1980); CABI (Undated)
-AssamPresentNath (1993); CABI (Undated);
-KarnatakaPresentShenoi and Wajid (1992); CABI (Undated)
-KeralaPresentSharma et al. (1984); Dake and Edison (1989)
-MaharashtraPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Lanjewar & Shukla, 1985a
-RajasthanPresentRathore et al. (1992)
-Tamil NaduPresentJayashree et al. (2002)
IndonesiaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-SumatraPresentEPPO (2020)
IsraelPresentFrank (1974); Sneh et al. (1983); EPPO (2020)
JapanPresentWatanabe (1977); Kanegae et al. (2013); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
MalaysiaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-SabahPresentEPPO (2020)
North KoreaPresentLee et al. (1975); Lee et al. (1978); EPPO (2020)
PakistanPresentHyder et al. (2018)
South KoreaPresentLee et al. (1975); Lee et al. (1978); EPPO (2020)
Sri LankaPresentUK, CAB International (1991); EPPO (2020)
TaiwanPresentCheng et al. (1989); Lin and Huang (1993)

Europe

BelgiumPresentDesai and Assche (1971)
ItalyPresentVitale et al. (2018)
NetherlandsPresentEPPO (2020)
PolandPresentKiziewicz (2005)
SpainPresentSerrano et al. (2008)

North America

DominicaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1991); EPPO (2020)
GrenadaPresent, Few occurrencesEPPO (2020)
GuadeloupePresentHountondji et al. (1984); EPPO (2020)
MartiniquePresent, WidespreadHountondji et al. (1985); EPPO (2020)
MexicoPresentGarcia and Mitchell (1974)
Saint LuciaPresentEPPO (2020)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1991); EPPO (2020)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-ConnecticutPresentElmer et al. (1994)
-FloridaPresentSonada (1975); Southern et al. (1976); Mitchell (1978); Suarez et al. (2016); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-GeorgiaPresentBell and Minton (1973); Csinos and Gaines (1986); EPPO (2020)
-KentuckyPresentWietor-Orlandi and Smith (1985)
-MarylandPresentDow and Lumsden (1975); Dutky and Lumsden (1986)
-MichiganPresentJohnson and Halloin (2001)
-North CarolinaPresentShew and Beute (1979); Jenkins and Averre (1983)
-OklahomaPresentFilinow et al. (1988); Khan et al. (1993)
-PennsylvaniaPresentMoorman et al. (2002)
-South CarolinaPresentEPPO (2020)
-TexasPresentSimpson et al. (1979); Smith et al. (1990)
-VirginiaPresentHallock (1973); Hallock (1975); Adamsen et al. (1985); EPPO (2020)
-WisconsinPresentReeleder and Hagedorn (1981)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-New South WalesPresentEPPO (2020)
-Northern TerritoryPresentEPPO (2020)
-QueenslandPresentEPPO (2020)
-Western AustraliaPresentEPPO (2020)
FijiPresentStirling et al. (2009)
New ZealandPresentLong (1988)
Papua New GuineaPresentUK, CAB International (1991); EPPO (2020)
SamoaPresentKerz-Moehlendick et al. (1983); Kerz-Moehlendick et al. (1984); UK, CAB International (1991); EPPO (2020)
Solomon IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1991); EPPO (2020)
VanuatuPresentUK, CAB International (1991); EPPO (2020)

South America

BrazilPresentEPPO (2020)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / rot of wood
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Vegetative organs / soft rot
Whole plant / damping off
Whole plant / dwarfing

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Roots hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Leaves
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Adamsen FJ, Wright FS, Porter DM, 1985. The use of plastic mulch in peanut production. Proceedings of American Peanut Research and Education Society Inc., 17:35.

Agueguia A, Nzietchueng S, 1984. Production of hybrid Xanthosoma sagittifolium and test for resistance to Pythium myriotylum. Tropical root crops: production and uses in Africa Ottawa, Canada; International Development Research Centre, 169-171

Agueguia A, Onokpise OU, 1990. Evaluation of cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) clones for root rot blight complex resistance. Indian Journal of Genetics & Plant Breeding, 50(3):216-220; 15 ref.

Alvarez M, Hahn SK, 1982. Cocoyam pathology. Annual Report, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, 1981 IITA Ibadania Niger, 76

Ayers WA, Lumsden RD, 1975. Factors affecting production and germination of oospores of three Pythium species. Phytopathology, 65(10):1094-1100

Bell DK, Minton NA, 1973. Postemergence damping off of peanut plants caused by Pythium myriotylum. Phytopathology, 63:1544-1545.

Bell DK, Wells HD, Markham CR, 1982. In vitro antagonism of Trichoderma species against six fungal plant pathogens. Phytopathology, 72(4):379-382

Bon Hde, Boula R, 1992. Improved cultivation of tania, Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott, in Martinique. Agronomie Tropicale, 46(1):3-11; 14 ref.

Chen SS, Huang JW, 1992. Control of pod rot of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by soil amendments. II. Effects of gypsum and GS on pod rot and yield. Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 41(3-4):59-64

Cheng YH, Cheng AH, Chen SS, Tu CC, 1989. The outbreaks of pod rot of peanut and its control. Journal of Agricultural Research of China, 38(3):353-364; 20 ref.

CMI, 1991. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 622, Edition 2. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cobley LS, Steele WM, 1976. An Introduction to Botany of Tropical Crops, 2nd Edition. UK: English Language Book Society/Longman, 123-128.

Croft BJ, 1988. First report of Pythium myriotylum on sugarcane in Australia. Plant Disease, 72(12):1077

Croft BJ, 1989. Root rot of cowpeas caused by Pythium myriotylum in northern Queensland. Australasian Plant Pathology, 18(1):8-9

Csinos A, Hendrix JW, 1978. Parasitic and nonparasitic pathogenesis of tomato plants by Pythium myriotylum. Canadian Journal of Botany, 56(19):2334-2339

Csinos AS, 1979. Nonparasitic pathogenesis of germinating tomato by Pythium myriotylum. Canadian Journal of Botany, 57(19):2059-2063

Csinos AS, 1979a. Stem and foliar response of tobacco inoculated with Phytophthora spp. and Pythium myriotylum. Tobacco International, 181:97-99.

Csinos AS, Gaines TP, 1986. Peanut pod rot complex: A geocarposphere nutrient imbalance. Plant Disease, 70(6):525-529; [7 tab.]; 22 ref.

Dake GN, Edison S, 1989. Association of pathogens with rhizome rot of ginger in Kerala. Indian Phytopathology, 42(1):116-119; 13 ref.

Desai BS, Assche C van, 1971. The effect of benomyl on Pythium myriotylum Drechsler an incitant of damping off of tomato and pea. Mededelinge Fakulteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Gent., 36:1178-1187.

Devaki NS, Bhat SS, Bhat SG, Manjunatha KR, 1992. Antagonistic activities of Trichoderma harzianum against Pythium aphanidermatum and Pythium myriotylum on tobacco. Journal of Phytopathology, 136(1):82-87

Devaki NS, Bhat SS, Shenoi MM, Wajid SMA, 1991. Pythium myriotylum a new threat to tobacco in India. Indian Phytopathology, 44(4):541-542

Dow RL, Lumsden RD, 1975. Histopathology of infection of bean with Pythium myriotylum compared with infection with other Pythium species. Canadian Journal of Botany, 53(17):1786-1795

Duan RL, 1985. A new species and two new records of Pythium in China. Acta Mycologica Sinica, 4(1):1-4

Duff JD, Barnaart A, 1992. Solarisation controls soilborne fungal pathogens in nursery potting mixes. Australasian Plant Pathology, 21(1):20-23

Duff JD, Connelly MI, 1993. Effect of solarisation using single and double layers of clear plastic mulch on Pythium, Phytophthora and Sclerotium species in a nursery potting mix. Australasian Plant Pathology, 22(1):28-35

Dutky EM, Lumsden RD, 1986. Damping-off, root rot and wilt of crownvetch caused by Pythium myriotylum. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 8(1):107-108

Elmer WH, Mattina MJI, MacEachern GJ, 1994. Sensitivity of plant pathogenic fungi to taxane extracts from ornamental yews. Phytopathology, 84(10):1179-1185

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Filinow AB, Melouk HA, Martin M, Sherwood J, 1988. Effect of calcium sulphate on pod rot of peanut. Plant Disease, 72:589-593.

Filonow AB, Russell CC, 1991. Nematodes and fungi associated with pod rot of peanuts in Oklahoma. Nematologia Mediterranea, 19(2):207-210; 25 ref.

Frank ZR, 1972. Notes on soil management in relation to Pythium rot of peanut pods. Plant Disease Reporter, 56(7):600-601

Frank ZR, 1974. Effect of constant moisture levels on Pythium rot of peanut pods. Phytopathology, 64:317-319.

Frank ZR, Ashri A, 1985. Pythium pod rot reduction in peanuts, as affected by breeding for resistance and by disease level. Phytoparasitica, 13(1):41-45

Garcia R, Mitchell DJ, 1974. Interactions of Pythium myriotylum with several fungi, and with Meloidogyne arenaria in peanut pod rot and preemergence damping-off. Proceedings of the American Phytopathological Society, 1:122

Garcia R, Mitchell DJ, 1975. Interactions of Pythium myriotylum with Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani, and Meloidogyne arenaria in pre-emergence damping-off of peanut. Plant Disease Reporter, 59(8):665-669

Garcia R, Mitchell DJ, 1975. Interactions of Pythium myriotylum with several fungi in peanut pod rot. Phytopathology, 65(12):1375-1381

Garcia R, Mitchell DJ, 1975. Synergistic interactions of Pythium myriotylum with Fusarium solani and Meloidogyne arenaria in pod rot of peanut. Phytopathology, 65(7):832-833

Gilbert RL, Cother EJ, Nicol HI, 1995. Mathematical methods to compare growth curves of Pythium arrhenomanes and eleven other Pythium species as an aid to their identification. Mycological Research, 99(1):19-30

Gill DL, 1972. Effect of gypsum and dolomite on Pythium diseases of seedlings. Journal of American Society Horticultural Science, 97:467-471.

Godoy R, 1982. Structural, physiological and pathological comparisons of peanut genotypes differing in pod rot resistance. Dissertation Abstract International, 42:10.

Godoy R, Smith OD, Boswell TE, 1984. Evaluation of six peanut genotypes for pod rot resistance. Peanut Science, 11(1):49-52

Grichar WJ, Boswell TE, 1990. Comparison of metalaxyl/PCNB with PCNB, gypsum, and metalaxyl for the control of pod rot organisms in peanuts. Oleagineux (Paris), 45(4):183-187

Grichar WJ, Smith OD, 1991. Effects of tillage systems on southern blight and pod yields on five runner peanut genotypes. Peanut Science, 18(2):144-147

Hale MG, Moore LD, Orcutt DM, 1981. Effect of gibberellin A3 and 2,4-D on plant and root exudate lipids and susceptibility to Pythium myriotylum. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 13(5):395-399

Hallock DL, 1973. Soil fertility relationship in pod breakdown disease of peanut. Journal of American Peanut Research Education Association Inc., 5:152-159.

Hallock DL, 1975. Effect of plowing date and certain crop rotations on peanut productivity. Peanut Science, 2:81-83.

Hountondji A, Prior P, Béramis M, Messiaen CM, 1984. Preliminary observations on decline of Xanthosoma sagittifolium in Martinique. Bulletin Agronomique Antilles - Guyane, No. 3:22-28; 5 ref.

Hountondji A, Prior P, Beramis M, Messiaen CM, 1985. First observations on tannia decline in Martinique. Agronomie Tropicale Riz et Riziculture et Cultures Vivrières Tropicales, 40(2):167-172.

Hsieh HJ, 1983. Study on paulownia diseases found in Taiwan. Bulletin, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, No. 388:i + 24 pp.

Hsieh H-J, Fung T-W, 1980. The preliminary study on damping-off and root rot of Paulownia seedlings in Taiwan. Quarterly Journal of Chinese Forestry, 13(2):69-76

Hyder, S., Inam-Ul-Haq, M., Ashfaq, M., Ahmad, A., Gondal, A. S., Iqbal, M., 2018. First report of Pythium myriotylum D., causing damping off and root rot in chili pepper (Capsicum annum L.) from Punjab, Pakistan., 102(3), 687. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/pdis-06-17-0788-pdn

Jayashree K, Shanmugam V, Johnson I, Raguchander T, Samiyappan R, 2002. Biological management of cassava tuber rot. Indian Phytopathology, 55(4):519-521.

Jenkins SFJr, Averre CW, 1983. Root diseases of vegetables in hydroponic culture systems in North Carolina greenhouses. Plant Disease, 67(9):968-970; [1 fig., 2 tab.]; 14 ref.

Johnson DJ, Halloin JM, 2001. Metalaxyl resistance in MI isolates of Pythium spp. and the development of a seedling disease nursery. In: Proceedings from the 31st Biennial Meeting (Agriculture) of the American Society of Sugar Beet Technologists, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 28 February-3 March, 2001. Denver, USA: American Society of Sugar Beet Technologists, 156-160.

Jones BL, Woodard KE, 1983. A technique for evaluating peanut germ plasm for resistance to Pythium myriotylum. Plant Disease, 67(10):1093-1094

Kageyama K, Ui T, 1981. Pythium species isolated from bean plants and soils in the experimental plots of monoculture and rotation. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 47(3):313-319

Kageyama K, Ui T, 1983. Host range and distribution of Pythium myriotylum and unidentified Pythium sp. contributed to the monoculture injury of bean and soybean plants. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 49(2):148-152

Kageyama K, Ui T, Narita Y, Yamaguchi H, 1982. Relation of Pythium spp. to monoculture injury of soybean. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 48(3):333-335

Kanegae Y, Tanaka C, Ebihara Y, Uematsu S, Fukami M, Kageyama K, 2013. First report of pythium root rot of calla lily (Zantedeschia rehmannii) caused by Pythium myriotylum in Japan. Annual Report of the Kanto-Tosan Plant Protection Society, No.60:71-73. http://www.ktpps.org/

Karikari SK, 1971. Cocoyam cultivation in Ghana. World Crops, 23:118-122.

Kerz-Moehlendick FH, Fliege FH, Schloesser E, 1984. Susceptibility of 15 Samoan taro cultivars to root rot caused by Pythium myriotylum Drechsler. Alafua Agricultural Bulletin, 9(2):36-41

Kerz-Moehlendick FH, Fliege FH, Schlosser E, 1983. Morphology and pathogenicity of four Pythium species isolated with root and corm rot of taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott in Wetern Samoa. Alafua Agricultural Bulletin, 8(3):53-62

Khan NI, Filonow AB, Singleton LL, Payton ME, 1993. Parasitism of oospores of Pythium spp. by strains of Actinoplanes spp. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 39(10):964-972

Kiziewicz B, 2005. Aquatic fungi growing on seeds of plants in various types of water bodies of Podlasie Province. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 14(1):49-55.

Knauss JF, 1976. In vitro antagonistic activity of several Streptomyces spp. against species of Pythium and Phytophthora. Plant Disease Reporter, 60(10):846-850

Kusakari S, Tanaka Y, 1987. Root rot caused by Pythium spp. in tomato hydroponics. Proceedings of the Kansai Plant Protection Society, 29:31-35.

Lanjewar RD, Shukla VN, 1985. Amino acid constituents of Pythium myriotylum, the incitant of soft-rot of ginger. Indian Phytopathology, 38(3):555-557

Lanjewar RD, Shukla VN, 1985. Parasitism and interaction between Pythium myriotylum and Meloidogyne incognita in soft rot complex of ginger. Indian Journal of Nematology, 15(2):170-173

Lee EK, Lee YH, Yoo JD, Long PG, 1975. Studies on Pythium spp. in Korea (I) Preliminary taxonomic and physiological studies. Korean Journal of Mycology, 3(2):7-12

Lee YH, Lee EK, Kim BS, 1978. Studies on the identification of Pythium spp. and sclerotial fungi isolated from rice plants in Korea (II). Korean Journal of Mycology, 6(2):19-24

Lewis JA, Lumsden RD, Millner PD, Keinath AP, 1992. Suppression of damping-off of peas and cotton in the field with composted sewage sludge. Crop Protection, 11(3):260-266

Lewis PI, Filonow AB, 1990. Reaction of peanut cultivars to Pythium pod rot and their influence on populations of Pythium spp. in soil. Peanut Science, 17(2):90-95

Lin YS, Huang SH, 1993. Occurrence of Pythium root rot of hydroponic vegetables. Plant Protection Bulletin (Taipei), 35(1):51-61

Liu CF, 1976. The species and distribution of Pythium causing damping off of tobacco seedlings in Taiwan. Plant Protection Bulletin, Taiwan, 18:199-206.

Liu PSW, 1979. Preliminary investigation of Pythium seedling root rot of oil palm. Technical Bulletin, Department of Agriculture, Sabah, Malaysia, No. 4:21-27

Locke JC, Papavizas GC, Lewis JA, Lumsden RD, Kantzes JG, 1983. Control of Pythium blight of snap bean by seed treatment with systemic fungicides. Plant Disease, 67(9):974-977

Long PG, 1988. New records of Pythium species in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 16(2):165-166

Lopez, P., Sanahuja, G., Suarez, S. N., Palmateer, A. J., 2018. First report of Pythium myriotylum causing damping-off of Amaranthus tricolor in Florida., 102(4), 828. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-07-17-1132-PDN

Lumsden RD, 1981. A nylon fabric technique for studying the ecology of Pythium aphanidermatum and other fungi in soil. Phytopathology, 71(3):282-285

Lumsden RD, Ayers WA, Adams PB, Dow RL, Lewis JA, Papavizas GC, Kantzes JG, 1976. Ecology and epidemiology of Pythium species in field soil. Phytopathology, 66(10):1203-1209

Lyonga S, 1980. Cocoyam production in Cameroon. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Taro and Cocoyam. Sweden. International Foundation of Science (IFS). Provisional Report 5.

Maduewesi JNC, Onyike Rose CT, 1981. Fungal rotting of cocoyams in storage in Nigeria. In:Terry ER, Onduro KA, Caveness F, (eds). Tropical Root Crops: Research Strategies for the 1980's. Proceedings of the first Triennial Root Crop Symposium of the International Society for Tropical Root Crops - Africa Branch. Sept. 8-12, 1980. lbadan, Nigeria.

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Steiner KG, 1981. A root rot of macabo (Xanthosoma sp.) in Cameroun, associated with Pythium myriotylum. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 88(10):608-613

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