Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Globisporangium irregulare
(dieback: carrot)

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Datasheet

Globisporangium irregulare (dieback: carrot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Globisporangium irregulare
  • Preferred Common Name
  • dieback: carrot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Chromista
  •     Phylum: Oomycota
  •       Class: Oomycetes
  •         Order: Pythiales
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Globisporangium irregulare (Buisman) Uzuhashi, Tojo & Kakish.

Preferred Common Name

  • dieback: carrot

Other Scientific Names

  • Pythium irregulare Buisman

International Common Names

  • English: black: beet vascular necrosis; cavity spot: carrot; crown rot: cucumber; damping-off; damping-off: beet; red root rot: corn; replant disease: apple; root rot; root rot: broadleaved plants; root rot: conifers; root rot: conifers; root-forking disease: alfalfa; rootlet disease: alfalfa; seedling death: Pinus; sour cherry; tree decline: peach
  • Spanish: fallado de las semillas de meliloto; necrosis vascular negra de la remolacha; podredumbre vascular de la cebolla; podredumbre vascular de la judia
  • French: fonte des semis du melilot; necrose vasculaire noire de la betterave; pourridie pythien de l'oignon; pourridie pythien du haricot

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Gefaessbuendelkrankheit: Ruebe; Wurzelbrand: Ruebe; Wurzelfaeule: Nadel- und Laubholzgewaechse

EPPO code

  • PYTHIR (Pythium irregulare)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Chromista
  •         Phylum: Oomycota
  •             Class: Oomycetes
  •                 Order: Pythiales
  •                     Family: Pythiaceae
  •                         Genus: Globisporangium
  •                             Species: Globisporangium irregulare

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
GhanaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
South AfricaPresentMarais (1979); Marais (1980); Denman et al. (1992); Botha and Coetzer (1996); Zwolinski et al. (1998); CABI/EPPO (2011); Mathews et al. (2016); EPPO (2020)
TunisiaPresentNordmeyer (1979); CABI/EPPO (2011); Souli et al. (2011)

Asia

ChinaPresent, LocalizedCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-AnhuiPresentJiang et al. (1990); CABI/EPPO (2011)
-FujianPresentJiang et al. (1990); CABI/EPPO (2011)
-JiangsuPresentJiang et al. (1990); CABI/EPPO (2011)
-JiangxiPresentJiang et al. (1990); CABI/EPPO (2011)
-NingxiaPresentMa et al. (1990); CABI/EPPO (2011)
-ShandongPresentJiang et al. (1990); CABI/EPPO (2011)
-YunnanPresentYu et al. (1987); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-ZhejiangPresentShen and Zhang (1995); CABI/EPPO (2011)
IndiaPresent, LocalizedAgnihotri (1974); Sharma and Chaudhary (1981); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-DelhiPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-KarnatakaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-PunjabPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-Uttar PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
IranPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
IraqPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
IsraelPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
JapanPresentIchitani and Kang (1988); Watanabe (1992); Uematsu et al. (1993); CABI/EPPO (2011)
-HokkaidoPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-HonshuPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-KyushuPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-ShikokuPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
LebanonPresentPlaats-Niterink (1981); CABI/EPPO (2011)
MalaysiaPresent, LocalizedCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-SabahPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
North KoreaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
PhilippinesPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
South KoreaPresentLee et al. (1978); Moon ByungJu and Schneider (1996); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
TaiwanPresentHsieh and Chang (1976); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
VietnamPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)

Europe

BelgiumPresentPlaats-Niterink (1981); CABI/EPPO (2011)
BulgariaPresentIlieva (1995); CABI/EPPO (2011)
CyprusPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
DenmarkPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
FinlandPresentVestberg (1990); CABI/EPPO (2011)
FrancePresentForbes and Davet (1990); Guérin et al. (1994); Paul (1994); CABI/EPPO (2011)
GermanyPresentKrober and Stahl (1974); Behr and Bottcher (1983); Rath and Wolf (1992); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
ItalyPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-SicilyPresentGuarnaccia et al. (2015)
LithuaniaPresentStankevičienė and Lugauskas (2003); CABI/EPPO (2011)
NetherlandsPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
NorwayPresentHerrero et al. (2003); CABI/EPPO (2011)
PolandPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-Southern RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
SerbiaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentVico (1994)
SpainPresentSanchez et al. (1998); CABI/EPPO (2011); CABI (Undated)
SwedenPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
SwitzerlandPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
UkrainePresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
United KingdomPresent, LocalizedMIDDLETON (1943); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-Channel IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-EnglandPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-ScotlandPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)

North America

CanadaPresent, WidespreadOrr and Martin (1987); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-AlbertaPresentHwang et al. (1989); Hou TianJue et al. (1997); CABI/EPPO (2011)
-British ColumbiaPresentFavrin et al. (1988); Benard and Punja (1995); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-New BrunswickPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-Nova ScotiaPresentBraun (1991); Braun (1995); CABI/EPPO (2011)
-OntarioPresentBarr and Kemp (1975); Sutton (1975); Basu (1983); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-Prince Edward IslandPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-QuebecPresentBarr and Kemp (1975); CABI/EPPO (2011)
-SaskatchewanPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
Puerto RicoPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
United StatesPresent, WidespreadMIDDLETON (1943); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-AlabamaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-ArizonaPresentStanghellini and Kronland (1986); CABI/EPPO (2011)
-ArkansasPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-CaliforniaPresentHancock (1985); Hancock (1991); Hancock (1993); CABI/EPPO (2011); CABI (Undated)
-ConnecticutPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-DelawarePresentMao et al. (1998); CABI/EPPO (2011)
-FloridaPresentPloetz et al. (1985); CABI/EPPO (2011)
-GeorgiaPresentSumner et al. (1979); Sumner et al. (1997); CABI/EPPO (2011)
-HawaiiPresent, WidespreadMIDDLETON (1943); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-IdahoPresentCook et al. (2002); CABI/EPPO (2011)
-IllinoisPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-IowaPresentRizvi and Yang (1996); Rivas et al. (1998); CABI/EPPO (2011)
-KansasPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-KentuckyPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-LouisianaPresentAffeltrange et al. (1980); Lee and Hoy (1992); CABI/EPPO (2011)
-MarylandPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-MassachusettsPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-MichiganPresentJohnson and Halloin (2001); CABI/EPPO (2011)
-MinnesotaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-MississippiPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-MissouriPresentLarkin et al. (1995); CABI/EPPO (2011)
-MontanaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-NebraskaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-New HampshirePresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-New JerseyPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-New MexicoPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-New YorkPresentBruckart and Lorbeer (1982); Jeffers et al. (1982); CABI/EPPO (2011); CABI (Undated)
-North CarolinaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-North DakotaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-OhioPresentStephens and Powell (1982); Saladini et al. (1983); CABI/EPPO (2011)
-OklahomaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-OregonPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-PennsylvaniaPresentMoorman and Kim (2004); CABI/EPPO (2011)
-South CarolinaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-South DakotaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-TennesseePresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-TexasPresentWheeler et al. (2005); CABI/EPPO (2011)
-VermontPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-VirginiaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-WashingtonPresentChamswarng and Cook (1985); CABI/EPPO (2011)
-WisconsinPresentReeleder and Hagedorn (1981); Reeleder and Hagedorn (1982); CABI/EPPO (2011)
-WyomingPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, WidespreadBurdon and Chilvers (1975); Burdon J. J. and Chilvers (1976); Bretag (1985); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-New South WalesPresentStovold (1973); Stovold (1974); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-Northern TerritoryPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-QueenslandPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-South AustraliaPresentCother and Gilbert (1993); Pankhurst et al. (1995); Pankhurst et al. (1998); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-TasmaniaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-VictoriaPresentPorter and Merriman (1983); Mwanza and Kellas (1987); CABI/EPPO (2011); Petkowski et al. (2013); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-Western AustraliaPresentSweetingham (1989); Davison and McKay (1998); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
Cook IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
FijiPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
French PolynesiaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
New CaledoniaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
New ZealandPresentRobertson (1980); Robertson (1982); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
Papua New GuineaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
VanuatuPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)

South America

ArgentinaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
BrazilPresent, LocalizedPlaats-Niterink (1981); Pires-Zottarelli and Milanez (1993); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-Minas GeraisPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
-ParaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011)
-Sao PauloPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)

Growth Stages

Top of page Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Roots / reduced root system
Stems / dieback
Whole plant / damping off
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback
Whole plant / seedling blight

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Pythium oligandrum Mycoparasite

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Roots hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Abad ZG, Shew HD, Lucas LT, 1994. Characterization and pathogenicity of Pythium species isolated from turfgrass with symptoms of root and crown rot in North Carolina. Phytopathology, 84(9):913-921.

Affeltranger CE, Fallin F, Morris P, 1980. Pythium root rot of black walnut in Louisiana. Tree Planters' Notes, 31(3):11-12

Agnihotri VP, 1974. Thiram induced changes in soil microflora, their physiological activity and control of damping-off in chillies (Capsicum annuum). Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 12(1):85-88

Al-Hamdany MA, Salih MM, 1986. Wilt causing fungi on broad bean. Indian Phytopathology, 39(4):620-622; 4 ref.

Barbetti MJ, 1989. Response of Medicago cultivars to fungal root pathogens associated with Trifolium subterraneum. Plant Protection Quarterly, 4(2):75-77; 13 ref.

Barr DJS, Kemp WG, 1975. Olpidium brassicae, tobacco necrosis virus, and Pythium spp. in relation to rusty root of carrots in Ontario and Quebec. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 55(2):77-82

Barr DJS, Warwick SI, Desaulniers NL, 1997. Isozyme variation, morphology, and growth response to temperature in Pythium irregulare. Canadian Journal of Botany, 75(12):2073-2081; 20 ref.

Basu PK, 1983. Survey of eastern Ontario alfalfa fields to determine common fungal diseases and predominant soil-borne species of Pythium and Fusarium.. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 63(2):51-54; [1 fig., 2 tab.]; 19 ref.

Behr L, Bottcher I, 1983. Pythium debaryanum Hesse and P. irregulare Buisman. Archiv für Phytopathologie und Pflanzenschutz, 19(1):81-83

Benard D, Punja ZK, 1995. Role of Pythium species in cavity spot development on carrots in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 17(1):31-45

Ben-Yephet Y, Nelson EB, 1999. Differential suppression of damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum, P. irregulare, and P. myriotylum in composts at different temperatures. Plant Disease, 83(4):356-360; 32 ref.

Botha WJ, Coetzer RLJ, 1996. Species of Pythium associated with root-rot of vegetables in South Africa. South African Journal of Botany, 62(4):196-203; 40 ref.

Braun PG, 1991. The combination of Cylindrocarpon lucidum and Pythium irregulare as a possible cause of apple replant disease in Nova Scotia. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 13(4):291-297

Braun PG, 1995. Effects of Cylindrocarpon and Pythium species on apple seedlings and potential role in apple replant disease. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 17(4):336-341; 12 ref.

Bretag TW, 1985. Fungi associated with root rots of annual Medicago spp. in Australia. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 85(2):329-334; [8 tab.]; 23 ref.

Bretag TW, Kollmorgen JF, 1986. Effects of trifluralin, benomyl and metalaxyl on the incidence and severity of root disease in annual Medicago spp., and evaluation of cultivars for resistance to root rot. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 26(1):65-70; [5 tab.]; 18 ref.

Bruckart WL, Lorbeer JW, 1982. Pythium species pathogenic to onion seedlings grown on organic soils in New York. Phytopathology, 72(5):469-475

Bumbieris M, 1972. Observations on some pythiaceous fungi associated with grapevine decline in South Australia. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 23:651-657.

Burdon JJ, Chilvers GA, 1975. Epidemiology of damping-off disease (Pythium irregulare) in relation to density of Lepidium sativum seedlings. Annals of Applied Biology, 81(2):135-143

Burdon JJ, Chilvers GA, 1976. The effect of clumped planting patterns on epidemics of damping-off disease in cress seedlings. Oecologia, 23(1):17-29

CABI/EPPO, 2011. Pythium irregulare. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.April. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 206 (Edition 5).

Cartwright DK, Spurr HW Jr, Shew HD, 1995. Commercial potting medium as the source of Pythium causing a disease on tobacco transplants. Plant Disease, 79(5):538

Chamswarng C, Cook RJ, 1985. Identification and comparative pathogenicity of Pythium species from wheat roots and wheat-field soils in the Pacific Northwest. Phytopathology, 75(7):821-827

Chang KF, Barr DJS, Hwang SF, Mirza M, 1994. Effect of interactions between Fusarium, Rhizoctonia, and Pythium on root and rhizome rot of Alstroemeria. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 101(5):460-466; 17 ref.

Chen W, 1999. Pythium root rot and feeder root necrosis. In: White DG, (ed). Compendium of corn diseases. 3rd edn. St. Paul, MN, USA: The American Phytopathological Society Press, 11-12.

Chen W, Hoy JW, Schneider RW, 1991. Comparisons of soluble proteins and isozymes for seven Pythium species and applications of the biochemical data to Pythium systematics. Mycological Research, 95(5):548-555.

Chen W, Hoy JW, Schneider RW, 1992. Species-specific polymorphisms in transcribed ribosomal DNA of five Pythium species. Experimental Mycology, 16(1):22-34.

Chen W, Schneider RW, Hoy JW, 1992. Taxonomic and phylogenetic analyses of ten Pythium species using isozyme polymorphisms. Phytopathology, 82(10):1234-1244.

Cook RJ, Weller DM, El-Banna AY, Vakoch D, Zhang H, 2002. Yield responses of direct-seeded wheat to rhizobacteria and fungicide seed treatments. Plant Disease, 86(7):780-784.

Cook RJ, Zhang BX, 1985. Degrees of sensitivity to metalaxyl within the Pythium spp. pathogenic to wheat in the Pacific Northwest. Plant Disease, 69(8):686-688

Cother EJ, Gilbert RL, 1993. Comparative pathogenicity of Pythium species associated with poor seedling establishment of rice in southern Australia. Plant Pathology, 42(2):151-157

Darvas JM, Scott DB, Kotze JM, 1978. Fungi associated with damping-off in coniferous seedlings in South African nurseries. South African Forestry Journal, No. 104:15-19

Davison EM, McKay AG, 1998. Pythium spp. associated with cavity spot of carrots in Western Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 27(3):163-168; 21 ref.

Denman S, Knox-Davies PS, Ali-Shtayeh MS, 1992. Identification of Pythium isolates associated with damped-off lucerne seedlings in South Africa. Phytophylactica, 24(4):329-334

Denman S, Knox-Davies PS, Calitz FJ, Lamprecht SC, 1995. Pathogenicity of Pythium irregulare, P. sylvaticum and P. ultimum var. ultimum to lucerne (Medicago sativa). Australasian Plant Pathology, 24(2):137-143

Descalzo RC, Punja ZK, LTvesque CA, Rahe JE, 1996. Assessment of host specificity among different species of glyphosate synergistic Pythium. Mycological Research, 100(12):1445-1453; 19 ref.

Descalzo RC, Punja ZK, LTvesque CA, Rahe JE, 1996. Identification and role of Pythium species as glyphosate synergists on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown in different soils. Mycological Research, 100(8):971-978; 23 ref.

Dewan MM, Sivasithamparam K, 1988. Pythium spp. in roots of wheat and rye-grass in Western Australia and their effect on root rot caused by Gpumannomyces graminis var. tritici. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 20(6):801-808

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Favrin RJ, Rahe JE, Mauza B, 1988. Pythium spp. associated with crown rot of cucumbers in British Columbia greenhouses. Plant Disease, 72(8):683-687

Forbes GA, Davet P, 1990. Characterization and pathogenicity on seedlings of Pythium species isolated from soybean roots in the Toulouse area. Agronomie, 10(10):825-830

Garzón CD, Geiser DM, Moorman GW, 2005. Diagnosis and population analysis of Pythium species using AFLP fingerprinting. Plant Disease, 89(1):81-89. http://www.apsnet.org

Gill DL, 1977. Root and crown rot of shore juniper (Juniperus conferta): cause and control. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(7):584-587

Gillings MR, Tesoriero LA, Gunn LV, 1993. Detection of double-stranded RNA and virus-like particles in Australian isolates of Pythium irregulare. Plant Pathology, 42(1):6-15

Gould AB, Sonoda RM, 1989. Damping-off of Stylosanthes guianensis by Pythium irregulare. Tropical Grasslands, 23(4):250-253

Greenhalgh FC, Taylor PA, 1985. Phytophthora clandestina, cause of severe taproot rot of subterranean clover in Victoria, Australia. Plant Disease, 69(11):1002-1004; [3 tab.]; 19 ref.

Guarnaccia V, Hansen ZR, Aiello D, Smart CD, Polizzi G, 2015. First detection of root rot and foliar blight on pittosporum (Pittosporum tenuifolium) caused by Pythium irregulare in Italy. Journal of Phytopathology, 163(5):411-414. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0434

Guerin L, Briard M, Rouxel F, 1994. Biochemical characterisation of Pythium spp. involved in cavity spot of carrots in France. Annals of Applied Biology, 125(2):255-265

Hall MR, Sumner DR, 1994. Influence of cultivar and primed or germinated seed on stand establishment of watermelon in soil infested with Pythium irregulare or Rhizoctonia solani AG-4. Crop Protection, 13(6):443-450

Hancock JG, 1985. Fungal infection of feeder rootlets of alfalfa. Phytopathology, 75(10):1112-1120; [7 fig., 7 tab.]; 40 ref.

Hancock JG, 1991. Seedling and rootlet diseases of forage alfalfa caused by Pythium irregulare. Plant Disease, 75(7):691-694

Hancock JG, 1993. Fungal rootlet colonization and forage yields of alfalfa in fungicide-treated field plots. Plant Disease, 77(6):601-608; 27 ref.

Hancock JG, Grimes DW, 1990. Colonization of rootlets of alfalfa by species of Pythium in relation to soil moisture. Phytopathology, 80(12):1317-1322

Harris AR, Adkins PG, 1999. Versatility of fungal and bacterial isolates for biological control of damping-off disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium spp. Biological Control, 15(1):10-18; 22 ref.

He SS, Zhang BX, Ge QX, 1992. On the antagonism by hyperparasite Pythium oligandrum. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 22(1):77-82

Hernández MES, Dávila AR, Algaba APde, López MAB, Casas AT, 1998. Occurrence and etiology of death of young olive trees in southern Spain. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 104(4):347-357; 39 ref.

Herrero ML, Hermansen A, Elen ON, 2003. Occurrence of Pythium spp. and Phytophthora spp. in Norwegian greenhouses and their pathogenicity on cucumber seedlings. Journal of Phytopathology, 151(1):36-41.

Hershman DE, Varney EH, Johnston SA, 1986. Etiology of parsley damping-off and influence of temperature on disease development. Plant Disease, 70(10):927-930; 24 ref.

Hou TianJue, Huang HC, Acharya SN, 1997. Preliminary study on damping-off of cicer milkvetch in Southern Alberta. Acta Prataculturae Sinica, 6(2):47-50; 2 ref.

Howard RJ, Pratt RG, Williams PH, 1978. Pathogenicity to carrots of Pythium species from organic soils of North America. Phytopathology, 68(9):1293-1296

Hsieh H-J, Chang H-S, 1976. Five species of Pythium, two species of Pythiogeton new for Taiwan and Pythium afertile. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica, 17(2):141-150

Hsu D, Hendrix FF Jr, 1973. Influence of Criconemoides quadricornis on pecan feeder root necrosis caused by Pythium irregulare and Fusarium solani at different temperatures. Canadian Journal of Botany, 51(7):1421-1424

Humphreys-Jones DR, 1975. Root rot (Pythium irregulare Buisman) in Dutch iris. Plant Pathology, 24(4):248

Hwang SF, Chang KF, Howard RJ, Deneka BA, Turnbull GD, 1996. Decrease in incidence of Pythium damping-off of field pea by seed treatment with Bacillus spp. and metalaxyl. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 103(1):31-41; 39 ref.

Hwang SF, Howard RJ, Moskaluk E, 1989. Crown and root rot of alfalfa in southern Alberta. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 69(1):9-11; 22 ref.

Ichitani T, Kang HT, 1988. Materials for Pythium flora of Japan (1) Plant-pathogenic Pythium irregulare. Bulletin of the University of Osaka Prefecture. Series B, Agriculture and Biology, 40:19-26

Ichitani T, Kashimoto T, Fukunishi T, 1991. Root rot of tulip caused by three Pythium species. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 57(2):174-179

Iihama H, Takeuchi J, Sasai Y, Oba Y, Ono T, Kagiwada S, Horie H, 2014. First report of passiflora root-rot of passion fruit caused by two species of Globisporangium (Pythium) in Japan. Annual Report of the Kanto-Tosan Plant Protection Society, No.61:70-73. http://www.ktpps.org/

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