Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pythium arrhenomanes
(cereals root rot)

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Datasheet

Pythium arrhenomanes (cereals root rot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pythium arrhenomanes
  • Preferred Common Name
  • cereals root rot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Chromista
  •     Phylum: Oomycota
  •       Class: Oomycetes
  •         Order: Pythiales

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Root rot of barley caused by P. arrhenomanes.
TitleSymptoms on barley
CaptionRoot rot of barley caused by P. arrhenomanes.
Copyright©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
Root rot of barley caused by P. arrhenomanes.
Symptoms on barleyRoot rot of barley caused by P. arrhenomanes.©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pythium arrhenomanes Drechsler, 1928

Preferred Common Name

  • cereals root rot

Other Scientific Names

  • Nematosporangium arrhenomanes (Drechs) Sideris
  • Nematosporangium arrhenomanes var. hawaiianensis Sideris
  • Nematosporangium epiphanosporon Sideris
  • Nematosporangium hyphalosticton Sideris
  • Nematosporangium leiohyphon Sideris
  • Nematosporangium leucosticton Sideris
  • Nematosporangium polyandron Sideris
  • Nematosporangium rhizophthoron Sideris
  • Nematosporangium spaniogamon Sideris
  • Nematosporangium thysanohyphalon Sideris
  • Pythium arrhenomanes var. canadense Vanterp & Truscott
  • Pythium arrhenomanes var. philippinensis Roldan

International Common Names

  • English: pythium root rot; sugarcane root rot
  • Spanish: pie pardo de los cereales; pie pardo del guisante
  • French: pietin brun des cereales; pietin brun du pois

Local Common Names

  • Germany: wurzelfaeule
  • USA: browning root rot; damping off; pythium seedling blight

EPPO code

  • PYTHAR (Pythium arrhenomanes)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Chromista
  •         Phylum: Oomycota
  •             Class: Oomycetes
  •                 Order: Pythiales
  •                     Family: Pythiaceae
  •                         Genus: Pythium
  •                             Species: Pythium arrhenomanes

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BotswanaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1976)
MauritiusPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1976)
South AfricaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1976); Scott (1987)

Asia

IndiaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1976)
IndonesiaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1976)
JapanPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-HonshuPresentTsukiboshi et al. (2014)
MalaysiaPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1976)
OmanPresentAl-Ansari et al. (2017)
PhilippinesPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1976)
TaiwanPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1976)
ThailandPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1976)

Europe

FrancePresentRouhani et al. (1979); CABI (Undated)
ItalyPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1976)
RussiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Russia (Europe)Present, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1976)
United KingdomPresent, Few occurrencesUK, CAB International (1976); Salt (1977); Waller (1979)

North America

BarbadosPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1976); CABI (Undated)
BelizePresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1976)
CanadaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-AlbertaPresentUK, CAB International (1976)
-ManitobaPresentUK, CAB International (1976)
-OntarioPresentUK, CAB International (1976); Hall (1983)
-SaskatchewanPresentUK, CAB International (1976)
CubaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1976)
El SalvadorPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1976)
GuadeloupePresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Cochereau & Jean-Bart, 1990
GuatemalaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1976)
MexicoPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1976)
NicaraguaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1976)
Puerto RicoPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1976)
United StatesPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1976); CABI (Undated)
-ArkansasPresentLee (1994)
-FloridaPresentChellemi et al. (2000)
-GeorgiaPresentSumner et al. (1985)
-HawaiiPresentUK, CAB International (1976)
-IowaPresentHodges and Coleman (1985)
-MinnesotaPresentVANTEEPOOL and SPRAGUE (1942)
-MontanaPresentVANTEEPOOL and SPRAGUE (1942)
-North CarolinaPresentAbad et al. (1994)
-North DakotaPresentVANTEEPOOL and SPRAGUE (1942)
-South DakotaPresentVANTEEPOOL and SPRAGUE (1942)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentCother and Gilbert (1992); Cother and Gilbert (1993)
-QueenslandPresentUK, CAB International (1976); CABI (Undated);
New ZealandPresentRobertson (1980)
Papua New GuineaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1976)

South America

BrazilPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Rio de JaneiroPresentValdebenito-Sanhueza et al. (1984)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentUK, CAB International (1976)
-Sao PauloPresentUK, CAB International (1976); Souza et al. (1986)
VenezuelaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1976)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / dead heart
Growing point / rot
Inflorescence / twisting and distortion
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Roots / reduced root system
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Stems / dieback
Whole plant / damping off
Whole plant / dwarfing

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Roots hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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1986. Cane diseases. 86th Annual Report of the Bureau of Sugar Experiment Stations for 1986 Indooroopilly, Queensland, Australia; Sugar Experiment Stations Board, 19-24

Abad ZG, Shew HD, Lucas LT, 1994. Characterization and pathogenicity of Pythium species isolated from turfgrass with symptoms of root and crown rot in North Carolina. Phytopathology, 84(9):913-921

Al-Ansari, M. S., Finckh, M. R., Deadman, M., Al-Sadi, A. M., 2017. First report of Pythium arrhenomanes associated with root rot of maize (Zea mays) in Oman. Journal of Plant Pathology, 99(3), 806. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3968/2612

Bettiol W, Krugner TL, 1984. Effect of sewage sludge on the severity of sorghum root rot caused by Pythium arrhenomanes. Summa Phytopathologica, 10(3/4):243-251

Bureau of Sugar Experiment Stations, 1985. 85th Annual Report. Indooroopilly, Queensland, Australia: Sugar Experiment Stations Board

Cadet P, Boer HGde, 1991. Growth patterns of sugar cane in different areas of Barbados with indications about soil borne pathogens. Proceedings - Ninth Annual Conference Barbados Society of Technologists in Agriculture, Rockley Resort, Barbados, November 13 and 15, 1991 Christ Church, Barbados; Barbados Society of Technologists in Agriculture, 84-100

Chellemi DO, Mitchell DJ, Kannwischer-Mitchell ME, Rayside PA, Rosskopf EN, 2000. Pythium spp. associated with bell pepper production in Florida. Plant Disease, 84(12):1271-1274

Chen WD, Hoy JW, 1993. Molecular and morphological comparison of Pythium arrhenomanes and P. graminicola. Mycological Research, 97(11):1371-1378

CMI, 1976. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 420. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Cochereau P, Jean-Bart A, 1990. Losses in standing sugarcane tonnage in Guadeloupe (Grande-Terre): estimate and probable causes. Agronomie Tropicale, 45(3):179-197

Conway KE, 1985. Selective medium for isolation of Pythium spp. from soil. Plant Disease, 69(5):393-395

Cother EJ, Gilbert RL, 1992. Distribution of Pythium arrhenomanes in rice-growing soils of southern New South Wales. Australasian Plant Pathology, 21(2):79-82

Cother EJ, Gilbert RL, 1993. Comparative pathogenicity of Pythium species associated with poor seedling establishment of rice in southern Australia. Plant Pathology, 42(2):151-157

Croft BJ, Magarey RC, 1984. Pathogenic fungi associated with northern poor root syndrome of sugarcane. Proceedings of the 1984 Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists Brisbane, Qd., Australia; Watson Ferguson & Co., 55-61

Croft BJ, Reghenzani JR, Hurney AP, 1984. Northern poor root syndrome of sugarcane studies on soil transmission and the effects of various fungicidal, nutritional and agronomic treatments. Proceedings of the 1984 Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists Brisbane, Qd., Australia; Watson Ferguson & Co., 69-77

Forbes GA, Ziv O, Frederiksen RA, 1987. Resistance in sorghum to seedling disease caused by Pythium arrhenomanes. Plant Disease, 71(2):145-148

Hall R, 1983. Pythium root rot of white bean in Ontario. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 5(4):239-244

Hodges CF, Campbell DA, 1994. Infection of adventitious roots of Agrostis palustris by Pythium species at different temperature regimes. Canadian Journal of Botany, 72(3):378-383

Hodges CF, Coleman LW, 1985. Pythium-induced root dysfunction of secondary roots of Agrostis palustris. Plant Disease, 69(4):336-340

Hoy JW, Schneider RW, 1988. Role of Pythium in sugarcane stubble decline: effects on plant growth in field soil. Phytopathology, 78(12, II):1692-1996

Johann H, Holbert JR, Dickson JG, 1928. A Pythium seedling blight and root rot of dent corn. Journal of Agricultural Research, 37:443-464

Lee FN, 1994. Dead tiller syndrome in rice caused by Pythium arrhenomanes. Arkansas Farm Research, 43(6):17

Messipn CM, Benkada MY, Rouhani H, 1980. Detection in soil samples of Pythium spp. pathogenic on maize roots. Annales de Phytopathologie, 12(3):193-198

Middleton John T, 1943. The taxonomy, host range and geographic distribution of the genus Pythium. Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club, 20(1):46-51

Mojdehi H, Singleton LL, Melouk HA, Waller GR, 1990. Reproduction of symptoms of a root disease of wheat by toxic metabolites produced by two Pythium species and their partial characterization. Journal of Phytopathology, 128(3):246-256

Mojdehi H, Singleton LL, Richardson PE, 1991. Histopathology of wheat seedling roots infected with Pythium arrhenomanes. Journal of Phytopathology, 132(1):75-83

Robertson GI, 1980. The genus Pythium in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 18(1):73-102

Rouhani H, Davet P, Poinso B, Beyries A, Messipn CM, 1979. List and evaluation of the pathogenicity of constituents of the fungal microflora on maize roots in France. Annales de Phytopathologie, 11(1):69-93

Salt GA, 1977. A survey of fungi in cereal roots at Rothamsted, Woburn and Saxmundham, 1970-75. Rothamsted Experimental Station Report for 1976. Part 2. Harpenden, Herts.. UK, 153-168

Scott DB, 1987. Identification and pathogenicity of Pythium isolates from wheat field soils in South Africa. Phytophylactica, 19(4):499-504

Sonoda RM, 1973. Pythium fruit rot of tomatoes. Plant Disease Reporter, 57(8):638-639

Sonoda RM, 1973b. Occurrence of a Pythium disease in virgin sandy soils of South Florida associated with a new method of field seeding tomatoes. Plant Disease Reporter, 57(3):260-261

Souza NL de, Milanez AI, Balmer E, 1986. The complex Pythium graminicolum Pythium arrhenomanes sensu Watanabe, 1974 associated with maize root rot in the State of Sao Paulo. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 11(3):697-703

Sumner DR, Dowler CC, Johnson AW, Chalfant RB, Glaze NC, Phatak SC, Epperson JE, 1985. Effect of root diseases and nematodes on yield of corn in an irrigated multiple-cropping system with pest management. Plant Disease, 69(5):382-387

Tsukiboshi T, Sugawara K, Masunaka A, Mitsuhashi S, 2014. First report of pythium root and stalk rot of forage corn caused by Pythium arrhenomanes in Japan. Plant Disease, 98(8):1155. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Valdebenito-Sanhueza RM, Balmer E, 1988. Evaluation of the reaction of sugarcane cultivars to inoculation with Pythium arrhenomanes. Summa Phytopathologica, 14(3-4):180-190

Valdebenito-Sanhueza RM, Milanez AI, Balmer E, Tokeshi H, 1984. Pythium spp. associated with root rot of sugarcane cultivars in the field in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Rickia, 11:65-75

Vanterpool TC, Sprague R, 1942. Pythium arrhenomanes on cereals and grasses in the Northern Great Plains. Phytopathology, 32:327-328

Waller JM, 1979. Observations on Pythium root rot of wheat and barley. Plant Pathology, 28(1):17-24

Waterhouse GM, Waterston JM, 1964. Pythium arrhenomanes. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 39. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Distribution References

Abad Z G, Shew H D, Lucas L T, 1994. Characterization and pathogenicity of Pythium species isolated from turfgrass with symptoms of root and crown rot in North Carolina. Phytopathology. 84 (9), 913-921. DOI:10.1094/Phyto-84-913

Al-Ansari M S, Finckh M R, Deadman M, Al-Sadi A M, 2017. First report of Pythium arrhenomanes associated with root rot of maize (Zea mays) in Oman. Journal of Plant Pathology. 99 (3), 806. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3968/2612

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chellemi D O, Mitchell D J, Kannwischer-Mitchell M E, Rayside P A, Rosskopf E N, 2000. Pythium spp. associated with bell pepper production in Florida. Plant Disease. 84 (12), 1271-1274. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2000.84.12.1271

Cother E J, Gilbert R L, 1992. Distribution of Pythium arrhenomanes in rice-growing soils of southern New South Wales. Australasian Plant Pathology. 21 (2), 79-82. DOI:10.1071/APP9920079

Cother E J, Gilbert R L, 1993. Comparative pathogenicity of Pythium species associated with poor seedling establishment of rice in southern Australia. Plant Pathology. 42 (2), 151-157. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.1993.tb01484.x

Hall R, 1983. Pythium root rot of white bean in Ontario. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 5 (4), 239-244.

Hodges C F, Coleman L W, 1985. Pythium-induced root dysfunction of secondary roots of Agrostis palustris. Plant Disease. 69 (4), 336-340.

Lee F N, 1994. Dead tiller syndrome in rice caused by Pythium arrhenomanes. Arkansas Farm Research. 43 (6), 17.

Robertson G I, 1980. The genus Pythium in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany. 18 (1), 73-102.

Rouhani H, Davet P, Poinso B, Beyries A, Messiaen C M, 1979. List and evaluation of the pathogenicity of constituents of the fungal microflora on maize roots in France. (Inventaire et evaluation du pouvoir pathogene des composants de la microflore fongique sur racines de mais en France.). Annales de Phytopathologie. 11 (1), 69-93.

Salt G A, 1977. A survey of fungi in cereal roots at Rothamsted, Woburn and Saxmundham, 1970-75. In: Rothamsted Experimental Station Report for 1976. Part 2. Harpenden, Herts.. UK: 153-168.

Scott D B, 1987. Identification and pathogenicity of Pythium isolates from wheat field soils in South Africa. Phytophylactica. 19 (4), 499-504.

Souza N L de, Milanez A I, Balmer E, 1986. The complex Pythium graminicolum - Pythium arrhenomanes sensu Watanabe, 1974 associated with maize root rot in the State of São Paulo. (Complexo Pythium graminicolum - Pythium arrhenomanes sensu Watanabe, 1974 associado a podridão de raízes de milho no Estado de São Paulo.). Fitopatologia Brasileira. 11 (3), 697-703.

Sumner D R, Dowler C C, Johnson A W, Chalfant R B, Glaze N C, Phatak S C, Epperson J E, 1985. Effect of root diseases and nematodes on yield of corn in an irrigated multiple-cropping system with pest management. Plant Disease. 69 (5), 382-387. DOI:10.1094/PD-69-382

Tsukiboshi T, Sugawara K, Masunaka A, Mitsuhashi S, 2014. First report of pythium root and stalk rot of forage corn caused by Pythium arrhenomanes in Japan. Plant Disease. 98 (8), 1155. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-14-0059-PDN

UK, CAB International, 1976. Pythium arrhenomanes. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 420.

Valdebenito-Sanhueza R M, Milanez A I, Balmer E, Tokeshi H, 1984. Pythium spp. associated with root rot of sugarcane cultivars in the field in the State of Rio de Janeiro. (Pythium spp. associadas à podridão de raízes de cultivares de cana-de-açúcar em campos, Estado de Rio de Janeiro.). Rickia. 65-75.

VANTEEPOOL T C , SPRAGUE R A, 1942. Pythium arrhenomanes on cereals and grasses in the northern Great Plains. Phytopathology. 32 (4), 327-328 pp.

Waller J M, 1979. Observations on Pythium root rot of wheat and barley. Plant Pathology. 28 (1), 17-24. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.1979.tb02612.x

Distribution Maps

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