Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pythium aphanidermatum
(damping-off)

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Datasheet

Pythium aphanidermatum (damping-off)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 29 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pythium aphanidermatum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • damping-off
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Chromista
  •     Phylum: Oomycota
  •       Class: Oomycetes
  •         Order: Pythiales

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Pythium wet stem rot.
TitleStem rot symptoms
CaptionPythium wet stem rot.
CopyrightRob Williams/CAB International
Pythium wet stem rot.
Stem rot symptomsPythium wet stem rot.Rob Williams/CAB International

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp.

Preferred Common Name

  • damping-off

International Common Names

  • English: black leg of seedlings; collar rot; damping-off: seedlings; nécrose du collet; stem rot of seedlings; water rot
  • Spanish: marras de nascencia; pie negro criptogamico
  • French: fonte des semis; pied noir; pourridie pythien

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Saatbeetfaeulnis; Schwarzbeinigkeit: Keimlinge; Umfallkrankheit: Keimlinge; Wurzelbrand: Keimlinge

EPPO code

  • PYTHAP (Pythium aphanidermatum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Chromista
  •         Phylum: Oomycota
  •             Class: Oomycetes
  •                 Order: Pythiales
  •                     Family: Pythiaceae
  •                         Genus: Pythium
  •                             Species: Pythium aphanidermatum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanPresentCMI, 1978
ChinaPresentCMI, 1978
-GansuPresentGu et al., 2009
-HainanPresentZhang et al., 2003
-ShanghaiPresentYang et al., 2003
-XinjiangPresentZhao et al., 2009
-YunnanPresentCMI, 1978
IndiaPresentCMI, 1978
-Andhra PradeshPresentKumar and Rao, 2006
-AssamPresentHazarika, 2004
-BiharPresentBimla et al., 2000
-GujaratPresentPatel and Patel, 2003
-HaryanaPresentKaushik et al., 2002
-KarnatakaPresentSagar et al., 2008
-KeralaPresentJacob et al., 2002
-Tamil NaduPresentKarthikeyan et al., 2001; Muthukumar and Venkatesh, 2012
-Uttar PradeshPresentNishat and Mall, 2009
IndonesiaPresentCMI, 1978
IranPresentCMI, 1978; Bolboli and Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa, 2015
IraqPresentHasan and Samir, 2007
IsraelPresentCMI, 1978
JapanPresentCMI, 1978; You et al., 2015
MalaysiaPresentCMI, 1978
OmanPresentAl-Sa'di et al., 2008; Al-Mahmooli et al., 2015
PakistanPresentCMI, 1978; Veesar et al., 2015
PhilippinesPresentCMI, 1978
SingaporeWidespreadLim, 1988; Yik, 1988
Sri LankaPresentCMI, 1978
TaiwanPresentCMI, 1978
ThailandPresentCMI, 1978
United Arab EmiratesPresentCMI, 1978
VietnamPresentCMI, 1978

Africa

BotswanaPresentLabuschagne et al., 2003
CongoPresentCMI, 1978
Côte d'IvoirePresentCMI, 1978
EgyptPresentCMI, 1978
GhanaPresentCMI, 1978
KenyaPresentCMI, 1978
MalawiPresentCMI, 1978
MaliPresentCMI, 1978
MauritiusPresentCMI, 1978
MozambiquePresentCMI, 1978
NigeriaPresentCMI, 1978
SenegalPresentCMI, 1978
Sierra LeonePresentCMI, 1978
South AfricaPresentCMI, 1978
SudanPresentCMI, 1978
TanzaniaPresentCMI, 1978
TogoPresentCMI, 1978
TunisiaPresentTriki et al., 2001
ZambiaPresentCMI, 1978
ZimbabwePresentCMI, 1978

North America

CanadaPresentCMI, 1978
MexicoPresentCMI, 1978
USAPresentCMI, 1978
-CaliforniaPresentStanghellini et al., 2000
-FloridaPresentRoberts et al., 2005
-HawaiiPresentCMI, 1978
-KansasPresentSettle et al., 2001
-MichiganPresentJohnson and Halloin, 2001
-PennsylvaniaPresentMoorman et al., 2002

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentCMI, 1978
CubaPresentSosa et al., 2006
Greater AntillesPresentCMI, 1978
GuatemalaPresentCara et al., 2008
HondurasPresentCara et al., 2008
JamaicaPresentCMI, 1978
Lesser AntillesPresentCMI, 1978
PanamaPresentCMI, 1978
Puerto RicoPresentCMI, 1978

South America

ArgentinaPresentCMI, 1978
BrazilPresentCMI, 1978
-AlagoasPresentFeijó et al., 2016
-Sao PauloPresentPires-Zottarelli et al., 2009
ChilePresentCMI, 1978
PeruPresentCMI, 1978
VenezuelaPresentCMI, 1978

Europe

AustriaPresentCMI, 1978
CyprusPresentCMI, 1978
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentCMI, 1978
Former USSRPresentCMI, 1978
FrancePresentCMI, 1978
GreecePresentCMI, 1978
ItalyPresentCMI, 1978; Garibaldi et al., 2013; Garibaldi et al., 2014; Garibaldi et al., 2015; Gilardi et al., 2015
NetherlandsPresentCMI, 1978
NorwayPresentLoizaga MLHRde, 2000
PolandPresentCMI, 1978
SpainPresentSerrano et al., 2008
UKPresentCMI, 1978
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentCMI, 1978

Oceania

American SamoaPresentBooks, 2002
AustraliaPresentCMI, 1978
-QueenslandPresentScott et al., 2005
New CaledoniaPresentCMI, 1978
Papua New GuineaPresentCMI, 1978

Growth Stages

Top of page Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Roots / reduced root system
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Roots / stubby roots
Vegetative organs / internal rotting or discoloration
Vegetative organs / soft rot
Vegetative organs / surface lesions or discoloration
Whole plant / damping off
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Actinoplanes missouriensis Pathogen
Aspergillus niger Antagonist
Gliocladium virens Antagonist
Humicola fuscoatra Pathogen
Hyphochytrium catenoides Pathogen
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite India
Laetisaria arvalis Pathogen India
Penicillium pinophilum Pathogen Iraq
Penicillium stipitatum Pathogen
Pseudomonas corrugata Antagonist Quebec
Pseudomonas fluorescens Antagonist Quebec
Pythium monospermum Antagonist
Pythium stiptatum Pathogen Iraq
Serratia plymuthica Pathogen Quebec
Trichoderma hamatum Antagonist
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist Iraq; Philippines; India
Trichoderma longibrachiatum Antagonist

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Roots hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Abdelzaher HMA; Elnaghy MA; Fadl-Allah EM; Zohri SS, 1997. Some physical and chemical factors affecting asexual reproduction of three Pythium spp. Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 18(3):267-277; 16 ref.

Adams PB, 1971. Pythium aphanidermatum oospore germination as affected by time, temperature, and pH. Phytopathology, 61:1149-1150.

Adaskaveg JE; Stanghellini ME; Gilbertson RL; Egen NB, 1988. Comparative protein studies on several Pythium species, using isoelectric focusing. Mycologia, 80(5):665-672

Alam M; Sattar AZ; Janardhanan KK; Husain A, 1992. Lethal yellowing of Java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. Plant Disease, 76(10):1074-1076

Ali Anwar; Alam MM, 1998. Influence of Meloidogyne incognita infection on incidence of Pythium aphanidermatum in tomato cv. Pusa Ruby. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 6(1):28-32; 12 ref.

Ali SA; Saraf RK; Pathak RK, 1995. Varietal performance of ginger against rhizome rot. Plant Disease Research, 10(2):153-155; 1 ref.

Ali-Shtayeh MS, 1986. Seasonal variation in population levels of Pythium species in irrigated and non-irrigated fields in the West Bank of Jordan and the Gaza Strip. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 87(4):503-509

Al-Mahmooli IH; Al-Fahdi AR; Al-Sadi AM; Deadman ML, 2015. First report of root rot and crown necrosis caused by Pythium aphanidermatum on Phaseolus vulgaris in Oman. Plant Disease, 99(3):419. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Al-Sa'di AM; Drenth A; Deadman ML; Aitken EAB, 2008. Genetic diversity, aggressiveness and metalaxyl sensitivity of Pythium aphanidermatum populations infecting cucumber in Oman. Plant Pathology, 57(1):45-56. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Ayers WA; Lumsden RD, 1975. Factors affecting production and germination of oospores of three Pythium species. Phytopathology, 65(10):1094-1100

Bahraminejad S, 2012. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activities of Iranian plant species against Pythium aphanidermatum. Annals of Biological Research, 3(5):2134-2143. http://scholarsresearchlibrary.com/ABR-vol3-iss5/ABR-2012-3-5-2134-2143.pdf

Balagopal C; Devi SB; Indrasenan G; Wilson KI, 1974. Varietal reactions of ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) towards soft rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fetz. Agricultural Research Journal of Kerala, 12(2):113-116

Ben-Yephet Y; Nelson EB, 1999. Differential suppression of damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum, P. irregulare, and P. myriotylum in composts at different temperatures. Plant Disease, 83(4):356-360; 32 ref.

Berry LA; Deacon JW, 1992. Video-analysis of Gliocladium roseum in relation to mechanism of antagonism of plant pathogens. Bulletin OILB/SROP, 15(1):64-66

Berry LA; Jones EE; Deacon JW, 1993. Interaction of the mycoparasite Pythium oligandrum with other Pythium species. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 3(3):247-260.

Bimla Rai; Roy S; Jha MM; Ojha KL, 2000. Effect of different doses of nitrogen on the rhizome rot of ginger. Journal of Applied Biology, 10(2):169-171.

Bolboli Z; Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa R, 2015. Phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic characteristics of Pythium spp. isolates in cereal fields of Fars Province. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 51(4):Pe471-Pe492. http://www.ijpp.ir/article_19633_74d388886ab1842e2372acf6a8ad546f.pdf

Bolton AT, 1980. Control of Pythium aphanidermatum in poinsettia in a soilless culture by Trichoderma viride and a Streptomyces sp. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 2(2):93-95

Bolton AT, 1980. Effects of temperature and pH of soilless media on root rot of poinsettia caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 2(2):83-85

Brede AD; Willard WE, 1993. Registration of 'NuStar' Kentucky bluegrass. Crop Science, 33(6):1414-1415; 2 ref.

Bretzel P von; Stanghellini ME; Kronland WC, 1988. Epidemiology of Pythium root rot of mature sugar beets. Plant Disease, 72(8):707-709

Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. Land Grant Technical Report No. 44. Pago Pago, American Samoa: American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program.

Burr TJ, 1973. Population dynamics of Pythium aphanidermatum in field soil. PhD dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson.

Burr TJ; Stanghellini ME, 1973. Propagule nature and density of Pythium aphanidermatum in field soil. Phytopathology, 63:1499-1501.

Cara Mde; López V; Córdoba MC; Santos M; Jordá C; Tello JC, 2008. Association of Olpidium bornovanus and Melon necrotic spot virus with vine decline of melon in Guatemala. Plant Disease, 92(5):709-713. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Cara Mde; López V; Santos M; Tello Marquina JC, 2008. Association of Pythium aphanidermatum with root and crown rot of melons in Honduras. Plant Disease, 92(3):483. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Carrai C, 1993. Root-rot of lettuce grown in Nft cultivation. Colture Protette, 22(6):77-81

Chen ChunQuan; BTlanger RR; Benhamou N; Paulitz TC, 1998. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) by Pseudomonas spp. impairs pre- and post-infection development of Pythium aphanidermatum on cucumber roots. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 104(9):877-886; 30 ref.

Chen J; Gao H; Zhu Y; Wu Y; Chen J; Gao HM; Zhu YG; Wu YS, 1996. On pathogenic mechanism of cucumber seedling damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 26:55-61.

Chen W, 1992. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms in enzymatically amplified ribosomal DNAs of three heterothallic Pythium species. Phytopathology, 82(12):1467-1472

Chen W; Hoy JW; Schneider RW, 1992. Species-specific polymorphisms in transcribed ribosomal DNA of five Pythium species. Experimental Mycology, 16(1):22-34.

Chen WD; Hoy JW, 1993. Molecular and morphological comparison of Pythium arrhenomanes and P. graminicola. Mycological Research, 97(11):1371-1378

Cherif M; Asselin A; Belanger RR, 1994. Defense responses induced by soluble silicon in cucumber roots infected by Pythium spp. Phytopathology, 84(3):236-242

Cherif M; Menzies JG; Ehret DL; Bogdanoff C; Belanger RR, 1994. Yield of cucumber infected with Pythium aphanidermatum when grown with soluble silicon. HortScience, 29(8):896-897

CMI, 1978. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases. Map No. 309. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Deacon JW; Donaldson SP, 1993. Molecular recognition in the homing responses of zoosporic fungi, with special reference to Pythium and Phytophthora. Mycological Research, 97(10):1153-1171

DeVay JE; Garber RH; Matheron D, 1982. Role of Pythium species in the seedling disease complex of cotton in California. Plant Disease, 66(2):151-154

Dick MW, 1990. Key to Pythium. Reading, UK: University of Reading Press.

Diwakar MC; Payak MM, 1975. Germplasm reaction to Pythium stalk rot of maize. Indian Phytopathology, 28(4):548-549

Donaldson SP; Deacon JW, 1992. Role of calcium in adhesion and germination of zoospore cysts of Pythium: a model to explain infection of host plants. Journal of General Microbiology, 138(10):2051-2059

Donaldson SP; Deacon JW, 1993. Changes in motility of Pythium zoospores induced by calcium and calcium-modulating drugs. Mycological Research, 97(7):877-883

Donaldson SP; Deacon JW, 1993. Differential encystment of zoospores of Pythium species by saccharides in relation to establishment on roots. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 42(3):177-184

Donaldson SP; Deacon JW, 1993. Effects of amino acids and sugars on zoospore taxis, encystment and cyst germination in Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp., P. catenulatum Matthews and P. dissotocum Drechs. New Phytologist, 123(2):289-295

Dow RL; Lumsden RD, 1975. Histopathology of infection of bean with Pythium myriotylum compared with infection with other Pythium species. Canadian Journal of Botany, 53(17):1786-1795

Duan CH; Tsai WH; Tu CC, 1992. Inoculum densities and survival of Pythium aphanidermatum in soils of corn fields. Plant Protection Bulletin (Taipei), 34(1):17-25

Eilert U; Constabel F; Kurz WGW, 1986. Elicitor-stimulation of monoterpene indole alkaloid formation in suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus. Journal of Plant Physiology, 126:11-22.

Eilert U; DeLuca V; Kurz WGW; Constabel F, 1987. Alkaloid formation by habituated and tumorous cell suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus. Plant Cell Reports, 6(4):271-274

El-Ghaouth A; Arul J; Grenier J; Benhamou N; Asselin A; Belanger R, 1994. Effect of chitosan on cucumber plants: suppression of Pythium aphanidermatum and induction of defense reactions. Phytopathology, 84(3):313-320

Estrada-Garcia MT; Callow JA; Green JR, 1990. Monoclonal antibodies to the adhesive cell coat secreted by Pythium aphanidermatum zoospores recognise 200 10 M glycoproteins stored within large peripheral vesicles. Journal of Cell Science, 95(2):199-206

Estrada-Garcia MT; Green JR; Booth JM; White JG; Callow JA, 1989. Monoclonal antibodies to cell surface components of zoospores and cysts of the fungus Pythium aphanidermatum reveal species-specific antigens. Experimental Mycology, 13(4):348-355

Estrada-Garcia T; Ray TC; Green JR; Callow JA; Kennedy JF, 1990. Encystment of Pythium aphanidermatum zoospores is induced by root mucilage polysaccharides, pectin and a monoclonal antibody to a surface antigen. Journal of Experimental Botany, 41(227):693-699

Feijó FM; Ramos Sobrinho R; Silva MJS; Barbosa LF; Pinho DB; Assunção IP; Lima GSA, 2016. First report of cladode and foot rots caused by Pythium aphanidermatum on cactus (Nopalea cochenillifera). Plant Disease, 100(8):1797. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Fernandez JA; Owen TG; Kurz WGW; Luca V; De-Luca V, 1989. Immunological detection and quantitation of tryptophan decarboxylase in developing Catharanthus roseus seedlings. Plant Physiology, 91:79-84.

Fuller MS; Jaworski A, eds. , 1987. Zoosporic fungi in teaching and research. Athens, Georgia, USA: Southeastern Publishing Corporation, 303 pp.

Garibaldi A; Gilardi G; Ortu G; Gullino ML, 2013. First report of damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum on leaf beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris) in Italy. Plant Disease, 97(2):292. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Garibaldi A; Gilardi G; Ortu G; Gullino ML, 2014. First report of root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum on bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Italy. Plant Disease, 98(6):854. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Garibaldi A; Gilardi G; Ortu G; Gullino ML, 2015. Root rot of spinach in southern Italy caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. Plant Disease, 99(1):159. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Ghasemi S; Abbasi S; Bahraminejad S; Harighi B, 2012. Inhibitory effect of some plant crude extracts against cucumber damping-off agents. Australasian Plant Pathology, 41(3):331-338. http://www.springerlink.com/content/c47j74608760j17g/

Gilardi G; Ortu G; Gullino ML; Garibaldi A, 2015. Presence of Pythium aphanidermatum on spinach in Italy. (Attacchi di Pythium aphanidermatum su spinacio in Italia.) Protezione delle Colture, No.1:41-43.

Gill DL, 1972. Effect of gypsum and dolomite on Pythium diseases of seedlings. Journal of American Society Horticultural Science, 97:467-471.

Gold SE; Stanghellini ME, 1985. Effects of temperature on Pythium root rot of spinach grown under hydroponic conditions. Phytopathology, 75(3):333-337

Goldberg NP; Stanghellini ME, 1990. Ingestion-egestion and aerial transmission of Pythium aphanidermatum by shore flies (Ephydrinae: Scatella stagnalis). Phytopathology, 80(11):1244-1246.

Goldberg NP; Stanghellini ME; Rasmussen SL, 1992. Filtration as a method for controlling Pythium root rot of hydroponically grown cucumbers. Plant Disease, 76(8):777-779

Gow NAR; Morris BM; Reid B, 1992. The electrophysiology of root-zoospore interactions. In: Callow JA, Green JR, eds. Perspectives in plant cell recognition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 173-192.

Grove SN; Bracker CE, 1978. Protoplasmic changes during zoospore encystment and cyst germination in Pythium aphanidermatum. Experimental Mycology, 2(1):51-98

Grover RK; Dutt S, 1973. Morphological and pathological variability in Pythium aphanidermatum. Indian Phytopathology, 26:237-244.

Gu LiJun; Xu BingLiang; Liang QiaoLan; Xue YingYu, 2009. Occurrence of Pythium root rot in turf grass and identification of the pathogen. Acta Prataculturae Sinica, 18(4):175-180.

Gubler F; Hardham AR; Duniec J, 1989. Characterising adhesiveness of Phytophthora cinnamomi zoospores during encystment. Protoplasma, 149(1):24-30

Hadar Y; Mandelbaum R, 1986. Suppression of Pythium aphanidermatum damping-off in container media containing composted liquorice roots. Crop Protection, 5(2):88-92

Hall TJ; Larsen PO; Schmitthenner AF, 1980. Survival of Pythium aphanidermatum in golf course turfs. Plant Disease, 64(12):1100-1103

Hancock JG, 1981. Longevity of Pythium ultimum in moist soils. Phytopathology, 71(10):1033-1037

Hasan A, 1988. Interaction between Pratylenchus coffep and Pythium aphanidermatum and/or Rhizoctonia solani on Chrysanthemum. Journal of Phytopathology, 123(3):227-232

Hasan AK; Samir SH, 2007. Effect of copper and silicon nutrients and salicylic acid to induce systemic resistance for cucumber plants against Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitz. Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 25(2):171-174. http://www.asplantprotection.org/ASPP_Journal_Table.htm

Hasan MS, 1989. Soil sterilization by solar heating in Iraq. Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 7(2):122-125; 15 ref.

Hazarika BN, 2004. Effect of soil solarization with polythene mulch in tomato nursery. Advances in Plant Sciences, 17(2):525-527.

Herrero ML; Klemsdal SS, 1998. Identification of Pythium aphanidermatum using the RAPD technique. Mycological Research, 102(2):136-140; 27 ref.

Hickman GW; Michailides TJ, 1998. Control options for greenhouse cucumber damping-off disease. Journal of Vegetable Crop Production, 4:45-48.

Hirayama Y; Tojo M, 1999. Threshold level of oospore density of Pythium aphanidermatum and P. spinosum causing damping-off in spinach seedlings. Soil Microorganisms, 53(1):53-56; 12 ref.

Huang JH; Lin YS, 1998. Root rot of vegetable pea seedlings in soilless cultural system caused by Pythium aphanidermatum and P. ultimum. Plant Protection Bulletin (Taipei), 40(4):397-408; 14 ref.

Huang JW, 1991. Control of soilborne crop diseases by soil amendments. Plant Protection Bulletin (Taipei), 33(1):113-123; 64 ref.

Huang JW; Kuhlman EG, 1991. Formulation of a soil amendment to control damping-off of slash pine [Pinus elliottii] seedlings. Phytopathology, 81(2):163-170; 32 ref.

Huang JW; Kuhlman EG, 1991. Mechanisms inhibiting damping-off pathogens of slash pine [Pinus elliottii] seedlings with a formulated soil amendment. Phytopathology, 81(2):171-177

Irving HR; Griffith JM; Grant BR, 1984. Calcium efflux associated with encystment of Phytophthora palmivora zoospores. Cell Calcium, 5:487-500.

Jacob S; Vilasini TN; Suja G; Alexander D, 2002. Preliminary studies on the management of rhizome rot of ginger. Insect Environment, 8(4):170-172.

Jarvis WR; Shipp JL; Gardiner RB, 1993. Transmission of Pythium aphanidermatum to greenhouse cucumber by the fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae). Annals of Applied Biology, 122(1):23-29

Jenkins SFJr; Averre CW, 1983. Root diseases of vegetables in hydroponic culture systems in North Carolina greenhouses. Plant Disease, 67(9):968-970; [1 fig., 2 tab.]; 14 ref.

Johnson AW; Burton GW; Sumner DR; Handoo Z, 1997. Coastal Bermudagrass rotation and fallow for management of nematodes and soilborne fungi on vegetable crops. Journal of Nematology, 29(4 Supp):710-716; 28 ref.

Johnson DJ; Halloin JM, 2001. Metalaxyl resistance in MI isolates of Pythium spp. and the development of a seedling disease nursery. In: Proceedings from the 31st Biennial Meeting (Agriculture) of the American Society of Sugar Beet Technologists, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 28 February-3 March, 2001. Denver, USA: American Society of Sugar Beet Technologists, 156-160.

Jones EE; Deacon JW, 1995. Mycoparasite-like behaviour of the plant pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum in vitro. Plant Pathology, 44(2):396-405; 28 ref.

Jones SW; Donaldson SP; Deacon JW, 1991. Behaviour of zoospores and zoospore cysts in relation to root infection by Pythium aphanidermatum. New Phytologist, 117(2):289-301

Karthikeyan G; Sabitha Doraisamy; Sivakumar CV, 2001. Biological control of Pythium aphanidermatum - Meloidogyne incognita disease complex in brinjal with organic amendments. Madras Agricultural Journal, 88(1/3):40-42.

Kassim NA; Taha KH; Seddyk IAS, 1989. Effect of different concentrations of sodium chloride on some fungi causing damping-off of tomato seedlings. Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 21(2):343-351; 3 ref.

Kaushik JC; Sanjay Arya; Gupta PP; Arya S, 2002. Management of damping-off disease in forest nurseries by soil solarization and biocontrol agents. Forage Research, 28:29-31.

Kaushik JC; Sanjay Arya; Gupta PP; Arya S, 2002. Management of damping-off disease in forest nurseries by soil solarization and biocontrol agents. Forage Research, 28:29-31.

Khan NI; Filonow AB; Singleton LL; Payton ME, 1993. Parasitism of oospores of Pythium spp. by strains of Actinoplanes spp. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 39(10):964-972

Kim SH; Kantzes JG, 1972. Species, cultivars, and lines of Phaseolus resistant to Pythium aphanidermatum. Phytopathology, 62:769.

Kobayashi Y; Kimishima E; Goto M, 1991. Preparation of antisera for four Pythium species and their serological specificity. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No. 27:1-6

Koleosho B; Ikotun T; Faboya O, 1987. The role of oxalic acid and polygalacturonase in the pathogenicity of Pythium aphanidermatum on different cowpea varieties. Phytoparasitica, 15(4):317-323

Kraft JM; Endo RM; Erwin DC, 1967. Infection of primary roots of bentgrass by zoospores of Pythium aphanidermatum. Phytopathology, 57:86-90.

Kulkarni RN; Kalra A; Ravindra NS, 1992. Integration of soil solarization with host resistance in the control of dieback and collar and root rot diseases of periwinkle. Tropical Agriculture, 69(3):217-222

Kumar KVK; Rao KC, 2006. Efficacy of Trichoderma harzianum in controlling tomato damping-off disease and promoting seedling vigour. Journal of Plant Protection and Environment, 3(1):104-109.

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