Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide







  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pythium
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Chromista
  •     Phylum: Oomycota
  •       Class: Oomycetes
  •         Order: Pythiales
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pythium

EPPO code

  • PYTHSP (Pythium sp.)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Chromista
  •         Phylum: Oomycota
  •             Class: Oomycetes
  •                 Order: Pythiales
  •                     Family: Pythiaceae
  •                         Genus: Pythium

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 May 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes


EgyptPresent, Only undercover/indoors
South AfricaPresent2012





North America

-British ColumbiaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
United StatesPresent


-New South WalesPresent, Widespread
-South AustraliaPresent, Widespread
-VictoriaPresent, Widespread
-Western AustraliaPresent, Widespread

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus subtilis Antagonist
Gliocladium catenulatum Antagonist
Gliocladium virens Antagonist


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Greathead DJ; Greathead AH, 1992. Biological control of insect pests by insect parasitoids and predators: the BIOCAT database. Biocontrol News and Information, 13(4):61N-68N.

Pivonia S; Cock AWAMde; Levita R; Etiel E; Cohen R, 2012. Low temperatures enhance winter wilt of pepper plants caused by Pythium sp. Phytoparasitica, 40(5):525-531.

Distribution References

Babai-Ahary A, Abrinnia M, Heravan I M, 2004. Identification and pathogenicity of Pythium species causing damping-off in sugarbeet in northwest Iran. Australasian Plant Pathology. 33 (3), 343-347. DOI:10.1071/AP04038

Bretag T W, Cunnington J H, 2005. First report of spring black stem and leaf spot in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) caused by Phoma pinodella in Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology. 34 (4), 619-620. DOI:10.1071/AP05072

Castillo Múnera J del, Swett C L, 2017. First report of Pythium aphanidermatum causing root rot and decline of Poinsettia in Maryland. Plant Disease. 101 (8), 1556. DOI:10.1094/pdis-11-16-1671-pdn

Castillo-Pando M, Somers A, Green C D, Priest M, Sriskanthades M, 2001. Fungi associated with dieback of Semillon grapevines in the Hunter Valley of New South Wales. Australasian Plant Pathology. 30 (1), 59-63. DOI:10.1071/AP00068

Dau V T, Burgess L W, Pham L T, Phan H T, Nguyen H D, Le T V, Nguyen D H, 2009. First report of Fusarium wilt of watermelon in Vietnam. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 4 (1), 1-3. DOI:10.1071/DN09001

Duy Phu Le, Smith M, Aitken E, 2014. First report of Pythiogeton ramosum (Pythiales) in Australia. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 9 (1), 130. DOI:10.1007/s13314-014-0130-5

Erol F Y, Tunalı B, 2009. Determination of root and crown rot diseases in tomato growing area of Samsun Province. Acta Horticulturae. 65-69.

Fattahi B, Rahanandeh H, Chavoshi S, Zamanizadeh H R, Bayat H, Moshayedi M, 2014. Report primary of Fusarium proliferatum and Fusarium solani agents of Dianthus caryophyllus wilting in Markazi province in Iran. International Journal of Biosciences (IJB). 4 (1), 143-148.

Fattahi B, Rahanandeh H, Chavoshi S, Zamanizadeh H R, Bayat H, Moshayedi M, 2014a. Report primary of Fusarium proliferatum and Fusarium solani agents of Dianthus caryophyllus wilting in Markazi province in Iran. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences (JBES). 4 (1), 143-148.

Foster K, You MingPei, Nietschke B, Edwards N, Barbetti M J, 2017. Soilborne root disease pathogen complexes drive widespread decline of subterranean clover pastures across diverse climatic zones. Crop & Pasture Science. 68 (1), 33-44. DOI:10.1071/cp16098

García-Jiménez J, Armengol J, Sales R, Jordá C, Bruton B D, 2000. Fungal pathogens associated with melon collapse in Spain. Bulletin OEPP. 30 (2), 169-173. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2338.2000.tb00873.x

Garibaldi A, Gilardi G, Matic S, Gullino M L, 2017. First report of stem rot caused by a pythium cluster B2a species on lettuce in Italy. Plant Disease. 101 (9), 1681-1682. DOI:10.1094/pdis-01-17-0124-pdn

Gautam J, Acharya B, 2014. Survey and monitoring of insect pest and disease of ginger in Nepal. Nepalese Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 118-123.

Greathead D J, Greathead A H, 1992. Biological control of insect pests by insect parasitoids and predators: the BIOCAT database. Biocontrol News and Information. 13 (4), 61N-68N.

Hilal A A, 2004. New diseases of ornamentals in Egypt: IV: Cut flower plant: Aster. Egyptian Journal of Phytopathology. 32 (1/2), 143-144.

Hilal A A, 2004a. New diseases of ornamentals in Egypt: V: Cut flower plant: Gardenia. Egyptian Journal of Phytopathology. 32 (1/2), 145-146.

Jensen C E de, Snyder V, Roman F M, Ramos R, Sánchez L, Morales R, Torres B, Palmateer A J, 2006. Integrated management of Phytophthora root rot in avocado in Puerto Rico. Proceedings of the Interamerican Society for Tropical Horticulture. 92-96.

Jönsson U, Lundberg L, Sonesson K, Jung T, 2003. First records of soilborne Phytophthora species in Swedish oak forests. Forest Pathology. 33 (3), 175-179. DOI:10.1046/j.1439-0329.2003.00320.x

Mathews C, Ogola J B O, Botha W, Magongwa M, Pooran Gaur, 2016. First report of root rot caused by Pythium spp. on chickpea in South Africa. Acta Agriculturæ Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science. 66 (4), 379-380. DOI:10.1080/09064710.2015.1101484

Medhanie E, Mussie G, Selamawit A, Rao G S, Danish N S, 2017. Occurrence and identification of rhizosphere mycoflora of selected vegetable crops grown in zoba Anseba, Eritrea. Trends in Biosciences. 10 (33), 7099-7104.

Merzoug A, Belabid L, Youcef-Benkada M, Benfreha F, Bayaa B, 2014. Pea Fusarium wilt races in western Algeria. Plant Protection Science. 50 (2), 70-77.

Mohammadi A, 2012. A simple method for detection of Phytophthora nicotianae from soybean soil. Journal of Agrobiology. 29 (1), 29-32.

Moreira A C, Martins J M S, 2005. Influence of site factors on the impact of Phytophthora cinnamomi in cork oak stands in Portugal. Forest Pathology. 35 (3), 145-162. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0329.2005.00397.x

Ochoa Fuentes Y M, Hernández Pérez A, Delgado Ortiz J C, Beltrán Beache M, Tapia Vargas L M, Hernández Bautista O, Cerna Chávez E, 2018. First report of avocado tree wilt by Pythium sp. amazonianum in Mexico. Ciencia e Investigación Agraria. 45 (3), 301-305. DOI:10.7764/rcia.v45i3.1905

O'Hanlon R, Choiseul J, Corrigan M, Catarame T, Destefanis M, 2016. Diversity and detections of Phytophthora species from trade and non-trade environments in Ireland. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin. 46 (3), 594-602. DOI:10.1111/epp.12331

Osswald W, Jung T, Nechwatal J, Schlenzig A, Fleischmann F, 2001. Significance of Phytophthoras and Pythium for oak, alder and spruce decline. Journal of Forest Science. 47 (Special Issue), 96-103.

Palmero Llamas D, Gálvez Patón L, Gil-Serna J, Benito Sáez S, 2012. Short communication. Rhizoctonia solani as causal agent of damping off of Swiss chard in Spain. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research. 10 (4), 1117-1120.

Pantelides I S, Tsolakidou M D, Chrysargyris A, Tzortzakis N, 2017. First report of root rot of hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa) caused by a Pythium species from the cluster B2a species complex in Cyprus. Plant Disease. 101 (4), 636. DOI:10.1094/pdis-07-16-0972-pdn

Pérez-Acevedo C E, Carrillo-Rodríguez J C, Chávez-Servia J L, Perales-Segovia C, Enríquez del Valle R, Villegas-Aparicio Y, 2017. Diagnosis of symptoms and pathogens associated with pepper wilt in Central Valleys of Oaxaca. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Agrícolas. 8 (2), 281-293.

Pivonia S, Cock A W A M de, Levita R, Etiel E, Cohen R, 2012. Low temperatures enhance winter wilt of pepper plants caused by Pythium sp. Phytoparasitica. 40 (5), 525-531.

Rytkönen A, Lilja A, Vercauteren A, Sirkiä S, Parikka P, Soukainen M, Hantula J, 2012. Identity and potential pathogenicity of Phytophthora species found on symptomatic Rhododendron plants in a Finnish nursery. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 34 (2), 255-267.

Sabaratnam S, DiCarlo A, Fitzpatrick S, Forge T, 2009. Cranberry dieback disorder: a new and emerging threat to cranberry production in British Columbia. Acta Horticulturae. 417-424.

Santoso P J, Aryantha I N P, Pancoro A, Suhandono S, 2015. Identification of Pythium and Phytophthora associated with durian (Durio sp.) in Indonesia: their molecular and morphological characteristics and distribution. Asian Journal of Plant Pathology. 9 (2), 59-71. DOI:10.3923/ajppaj.2015.59.71

Stirling A M, 2002. Erwinia chrysanthemi, the cause of soft rot in ginger (Zingiber officinale) in Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology. 31 (4), 419-420. DOI:10.1071/AP02046

Tunali B, Nicol J M, Hodson D, Uçkun Z, Büyük O, Erdurmuș D, Hekİmhan H, Aktaș H, Akbudak M A, Bağcı S A, 2008. Root and crown rot fungi associated with spring, facultative, and winter wheat in Turkey. Plant Disease. 92 (9), 1299-1306. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-92-9-1299

Vargas L I R, Negron-Ortiz V, 2013. Root and soil-borne oomycetes (heterokontophyta) and fungi associated with the endangered conifer, Torreya taxifolia Arn. (Taxaceae) in Georgia and Florida, USA. Life: The Excitement of Biology. 1 (4), 202-223. DOI:10.9784/LEB1(4)RiveraVargas.03

Weiland J E, 2011. Influence of isolation method on recovery of Pythium species from forest nursery soils in Oregon and Washington. Plant Disease. 95 (5), 547-553. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-10-0242

Distribution Maps

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