Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pyrilla perpusilla
(sugarcane planthopper)

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Datasheet

Pyrilla perpusilla (sugarcane planthopper)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 29 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pyrilla perpusilla
  • Preferred Common Name
  • sugarcane planthopper
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Adult and final instar nymph of Pyrilla perpusilla.
TitleAdult and nymph
CaptionAdult and final instar nymph of Pyrilla perpusilla.
CopyrightN.C. Kumarasinghe
Adult and final instar nymph of Pyrilla perpusilla.
Adult and nymphAdult and final instar nymph of Pyrilla perpusilla.N.C. Kumarasinghe
Adults and a final instar nymph of Pyrilla perpusilla on sugarcane.
TitleAdults and nymph
CaptionAdults and a final instar nymph of Pyrilla perpusilla on sugarcane.
CopyrightN.C. Kumarasinghe
Adults and a final instar nymph of Pyrilla perpusilla on sugarcane.
Adults and nymphAdults and a final instar nymph of Pyrilla perpusilla on sugarcane.N.C. Kumarasinghe
Egg masses of P. perpusilla deposited on sugarcane leaves.
TitleEgg masses
CaptionEgg masses of P. perpusilla deposited on sugarcane leaves.
CopyrightN.C. Kumarasinghe
Egg masses of P. perpusilla deposited on sugarcane leaves.
Egg massesEgg masses of P. perpusilla deposited on sugarcane leaves.N.C. Kumarasinghe
High populations of P. purpusilla during an outbreak stage.  Egg masses, nymphs and adults are visible.
TitleInfestation
CaptionHigh populations of P. purpusilla during an outbreak stage. Egg masses, nymphs and adults are visible.
CopyrightN.C. Kumarasinghe
High populations of P. purpusilla during an outbreak stage.  Egg masses, nymphs and adults are visible.
InfestationHigh populations of P. purpusilla during an outbreak stage. Egg masses, nymphs and adults are visible.N.C. Kumarasinghe
Feeding punctures made by P. perpusilla on the main vein of sugarcane.
TitleFeeding punctures
CaptionFeeding punctures made by P. perpusilla on the main vein of sugarcane.
CopyrightN.C. Kumarasinghe
Feeding punctures made by P. perpusilla on the main vein of sugarcane.
Feeding puncturesFeeding punctures made by P. perpusilla on the main vein of sugarcane.N.C. Kumarasinghe
Honeydew exuded by P. perpusilla on sugarcane leaf during feeding.
TitleHoneydew
CaptionHoneydew exuded by P. perpusilla on sugarcane leaf during feeding.
CopyrightN.C. Kumarasinghe
Honeydew exuded by P. perpusilla on sugarcane leaf during feeding.
HoneydewHoneydew exuded by P. perpusilla on sugarcane leaf during feeding.N.C. Kumarasinghe
Leaf surfaces covered with 'sooty moulds' caused by honeydew exuded from P. perpusilla.
TitleSooty moulds
CaptionLeaf surfaces covered with 'sooty moulds' caused by honeydew exuded from P. perpusilla.
CopyrightN.C. Kumarasinghe
Leaf surfaces covered with 'sooty moulds' caused by honeydew exuded from P. perpusilla.
Sooty mouldsLeaf surfaces covered with 'sooty moulds' caused by honeydew exuded from P. perpusilla.N.C. Kumarasinghe
Yellowing of sugarcane leaves due to desapping by P. perpusilla.
TitleYellowing of leaves
CaptionYellowing of sugarcane leaves due to desapping by P. perpusilla.
CopyrightN.C. Kumarasinghe
Yellowing of sugarcane leaves due to desapping by P. perpusilla.
Yellowing of leavesYellowing of sugarcane leaves due to desapping by P. perpusilla.N.C. Kumarasinghe

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pyrilla perpusilla Walker

Preferred Common Name

  • sugarcane planthopper

Other Scientific Names

  • Dictyoptera pallida Stebbing (1903)
  • Fulgora pallida Donovan (1800)
  • Pyrops perpusilla
  • Zamila perpusilla Walker (1851)

International Common Names

  • English: Indian sugarcane Pyrilla; planthopper of sugarcane
  • Spanish: cicadela de la caña de azúcar
  • French: fulgoride de la canne à sucre

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Zikade, Indische Zuckerrohr-
  • India: Indian sugarcane planthopper; sugarcane Pyrilla
  • Sri Lanka: Pyrilla leafhopper; sugarcane planthopper

EPPO code

  • PYRLPE (Pyrilla perpusilla)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Auchenorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Fulgoroidea
  •                                 Family: Lophopidae
  •                                     Genus: Pyrilla
  •                                         Species: Pyrilla perpusilla

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentCotterell, 1954; EPPO, 2014
BangladeshWidespreadFennah, 1963; Miah et al., 1986; EPPO, 2014
CambodiaPresentVarma, 1986
ChinaPresentFennah, 1963; Liang, 1996
IndiaPresentBox, 1953; EPPO, 2014
-Andhra PradeshPresentMisra and Pawar, 1984
-AssamPresentButani, 1964; Misra and Pawar, 1984
-BiharPresentMisra, 1917; Rahman and Nath, 1940; Butani, 1964; Avasthy, 1973; EPPO, 2014
-DelhiPresentVinita et al., 2006
-GujaratRestricted distributionPrasana and Malavia, 1994; Pandya, 1997
-HaryanaWidespreadAvasthy, 1973; Pawar, 1981; Misra and Pawar, 1984
-Indian PunjabPresentRahman and Nath, 1940; Khanna et al., 1950; Avasthy, 1973; EPPO, 2014
-KarnatakaPresentMisra and Pawar, 1984; EPPO, 2014
-KeralaPresentAhmad, 1942; EPPO, 2014
-Madhya PradeshPresentChandra & Tiwari, 1978; Avasthy, 1973; Kalra, 1973; EPPO, 2014
-MaharashtraPresentKalra, 1973; Mogal et al., 1983; EPPO, 2014
-OdishaPresentMisra, 1917; Rahman and Nath, 1940
-RajasthanWidespreadAvasthy, 1973; Misra and Pawar, 1984
-Tamil NaduPresentMisra and Pawar, 1984; EPPO, 2014
-Uttar PradeshPresentKhanna et al., 1950; Gupta and Gupta, 1969; Avasthy, 1973; EPPO, 2014
-West BengalPresentRajak et al., 1987
IndonesiaPresentVarma, 1986; EPPO, 2014
LaosPresentVarma, 1986
MyanmarPresentFennah, 1963; Varma, 1986; EPPO, 2014
NepalPresentNeupane, 1976b; Varma, 1986
PakistanPresentRahim and Hashmi, 1984; Hamid et al., 1986; Mohyuddin and Hamid, 1987; EPPO, 2014
Sri LankaPresentRajendra, 1979; Kumarasinghe and Ranasinghe, 1988; Kumarasinghe and Wratten, 1996; EPPO, 2014
ThailandPresentFennah, 1963; EPPO, 2014
VietnamPresentVarma, 1986

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Absidia corymbifera Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Agonatopoides pyrillae Parasite Nymphs
Anegleis cardoni Predator Eggs/Nymphs
Aprostocetus gala Parasite Eggs
Aspergillus flavus Antagonist
Brinckochrysa scelestes Predator India sugarcane
Brumoides suturalis Predator Eggs/Nymphs India sugarcane
Cheilomenes sexmaculata Predator Eggs/Nymphs India
Cheiloneurus pyrillae Parasite Eggs India; Delhi; Uttar Pradesh; Haryana; Punjab sugarcane
Clubiona drassodes Predator India sugarcane
Coccinella septempunctata Predator Eggs India sugarcane
Coccinella undecimpunctata Predator Eggs India; Punjab sugarcane
Coniopteryx exigua Predator India; Bihar; Uttar Pradesh sugarcane
Coniopteryx pusana Predator Eggs
Crematogaster walshi Predator India sugarcane
Dryinus indicus Parasite India; Bihar; Punjab sugarcane
Dryinus pyrillae Parasite
Entomophthora Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Epiricania melanoleuca Parasite Adults/Nymphs India; India; Delhi; Punjab; Haryana; Himachal Pradesh; Uttar; India; Haryana; Karnataka; Pakistan sugarcane
Fusarium Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Halictophagus compactus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Hirsutella citriformis Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Menemerus bivittatus Predator Bangladesh sugarcane
Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Micraspis allardi Predator Eggs
Nimboa basipunctata Predator Eggs/Nymphs
Ooencyrtus manii Parasite Delhi sugarcane
Ooencyrtus papilionis Parasite India; India; Haryana sugarcane
Ooencyrtus pyrillae Parasite Eggs India sugarcane
Parachrysocharis javensis Parasite Eggs India; Pakistan
Platygaster Parasite Eggs
Platygomphus dolobratus Predator India sugarcane
Plexippus paykullii Predator Bangladesh sugarcane
Proleuroceroides pyrillae Parasite Eggs India; Maharashtra sugarcane
Propylea fallax Predator Bangladesh sugarcane
Pseudogonatopus pyrillae Parasite India; Uttar Pradesh sugarcane
Rhopus fullawayi Parasite
Richardsidryinus pyrillae Parasite Nymphs

References

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Agarwal RA, 1969. Pyrilla infestation in Western Uttar Pradesh. Indian Sugar, 19:337-339.

Ahmad T, 1942. Summary of Scientific Work Done on Sugarcane Pests in India During 1940. Simla, India: Government of India Publications.

Appanna M; Usman S; Sastry; KSS, 1954. A note on the change in the status of the sugarcane leaf hopper, Dictyophora pallida (Don.) (Pyrilla perpusilla Walker) in Mysore. Mysore Agricultural Journal, 30:19-26.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Asre R; Gupta PK; Pawar AD, 1983. Control of sugarcane pyrilla by its natural enemies. Indian Farming, 33(6):37-38; [6 fig.].

Avasthy PN, 1973. Leaf hopper (Pyrilla perpusilla Walker) of sugarcane. Indian Sugar, 23:11-14.

Bagal SR; Patel GA, 1956. The Sugarcane Leaf Hopper or Pyrilla. Bombay, India: Maharashtra Publishing, 69-71.

Bains VK; Dilawari VK; Brar RS; Dhaliwal ZS, 1982. A model for prediction of sugarcane Pyrilla out break in relation to high temperature during pre monsoon period in the Punjab. Indian Journal of Ecology, 9:298-302.

Balikai RA; Hiremath IG; Lingappa S, 1996. Incidence of sugarcane pyrilla in Karnataka. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 9(3):535-535; 1 ref.

Bindra OS; Brar RS, 1978. Studies on the natural enemies of Pyrilla perpusilla Walker in the Punjab. Indian Sugar, 28:247-252.

Bindra OS; Singh H; Chaudhary JP, 1970. Ground application of ultra low volume sprays for the integrated control of sugarcane leaf hopper, Pyrilla perpusilla Walker. Indian Journal of Entomology, 32:4-6.

Box HE, 1953. List of sugar-cane Insects. London, UK: Commonwealth Institute of Entomology.

Brar RS, 1981. The natural enemy complex of Pyrilla perpusilla Walker at Dhuri, Punjab. Indian Journal of Entomology, 43(4):441-443

Brar RS; Bains SS, 1979. Population dynamics of Pyrilla perpusilla Walker.-Mortality factors. Indian Journal of Ecology, 6:110-121.

Brar RS; Bains SS, 1980. Dispersion of eggs of Pyrilla perpusilla Walker during different seasons. Indian Journal of Ecology, 7(1):161-163

Brar RS; Bains SS, 1981. The response of Tetrastichus pyrillp Crawford in oviposition on different egg stages of Pyrilla perpusilla Walker. Indian Journal of Entomology, 43(4):447-448

Butani DK, 1961. Insect pests of sugarcane in Bihar - Part II. Indian Sugar, 10:765-768, 779-781.

Butani DK, 1964. Sugarcane leaf hopper Pyrilla perpusilla Walker - A review. Indian Sugarcane Journal, 9:60-75.

Chandra J; Tewari NK, 1978. Biology, behaviour and fecundity of Epipyrops melanoleuca Fletcher (Lepidoptera: Epipyropidae) an ectoparasite of sugarcane leaf hopper (Pyrilla sp.). Indian Sugar, 28:333-335.

Chaudhary JP; Sharma SK, 1988. Biological control of Pyrilla using parasites and predators. In: David H, Easwaramoorthy S, eds. Biological Technology for Sugarcane Pest Management. Coimbatore, India: Sugarcane Breeding Institute, 186-206.

Chaudhry NA; Ansari MA, 1988. Insect pests of sugarcane in Pakistan. Progressive Farming, 8(4):10-18

Cheema PS, 1942. Effect of food on the longevity of Tetrastichus pyrillae Craw. Indian Journal of Entomology, 4:94-95.

Clausen CP, 1940. Entomophagous Insects. London, UK: McGraw-Hill Book Company.

Common IFB, 1990. Moths of Australia. Leiden, Netherlands: E. J. Brill, v + 535 pp.

Cotterell GS, 1954. Notes on insects injuries to crops in Afganistan. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 2:53-55.

Dhaliwal ZS; Bains SS, 1983. A laboratory technique for rearing sugarcane leafhopper, Pyrilla perpusilla (Walker). Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology, 3(2):164-165

Dhaliwal ZS; Bains SS, 1983. Relative role of various parasitoids in limiting the population of sugarcane pyrilla in the monsoon and post-monsoon seasons in Punjab. Indian Journal of Ecology, 10(2):294-302

Dhaliwal ZS; Bains SS, 1985. Parasitoid induced developmental anomalies in Pyrilla perpusilla (Walker). Annals of Biology, 1:98-99.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fennah RG, 1963. The species of Pyrilla (Fulgoroidea: Lophopidae) in Ceylon and India. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 53:715-735.

Fletcher TB, 1939. A new Epipyrops from India (Lepidoptera: Epipyropidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 30:293-294.

Francis CB, 1933. A note on the sugarcane leaf hopper (Pyrilla) in South Arcot district. Madras Agricultural Journal, 21:510-524.

Garg AK; Sethi GR, 1982. Parasitization of Pyrilla perpusilla Walker by Epipyrops melanoleuca Fletcher. Indian Journal of Entomology, 44(1):92-97

Ghauri MSK, 1966. Zophiuma lobulata sp.n. (Lophopidae: Homoptera), a new pest of coconut in New Guinea. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 13(9):557-561.

Gholap MS; Chandele AG, 1985. Incidence of sugarcane leaf hopper and parasitization by its natural enemies in western Maharashtra. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities, 10(2):235-236

Gupta BD, 1948. Control of sugarcane leaf hopper (Pyrilla spp.) in the Uttar Pradesh. Indian Farming, 9:401-406.

Gupta BD; Avasthy PN, 1954. Some recommendations for the control of sugarcane pests in India. Indian Sugar, 4:387-405.

Gupta BD; Avasthy PN, 1954. The alternate host plants and their role in the propagation of sugarcane pests. Proceedings of Sugar Technologists Association, 23:147-152.

Gupta BD; Avasthy PN, 1956. Recent advances in sugarcane entomology in India. Indian Sugar, 5:541-548.

Gupta BD; Avasthy PN, 1959. Some recommendations for the control of sugarcane pests in India -Part I: Sugarcane leaf hopper Pyrilla perpusilla Wlk. Indian Journal of Sugarcane Research and Development, 3:78-83.

Gupta M; Ahmad I, 1983. Morphology of the Indian sugarcane leaf hopper, Pyrilla perpusilla Walker. Folia Morphologica, 31:325-330.

Gupta M; Ahmed I, 1983. The effect of temperature and humidity on different nymphal instars of Pyrilla perpusilla Walker. Entomon, 8(1):19-22

Gupta RL; Nath H; Pandey BN; Vishwakarma SL; Dayal R, 1971. Some observations on the causes leading to the severe multiplication of sugarcane leaf hopper, Pyrilla perpusilla Wlk. and suggestions for its control. Indian Sugar, 21:327-332.

Gupta SC; Gupta AP, 1969 The loss of sugar production in Western Uttar Pradesh due to Pyrilla in 1968-69 season. Indian Sugar, 19:159-167.

Hamid A; Mohyuddin I; Mohammad A, 1986. Present status of biological control of sugarcane Pyrilla perpusilla (Walk.) in the NWFP. In: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Convention of Pakistan Society for Sugar Technologists, Peshawar, Pakistan, 19-21 Sept 1986, 279-288.

Holloway JD, 1986. The moths of Borneo. Part I. Key to families; Families Cossidae, Metarbelidae, Ratardidae, Dudgeoneidae, Epipyropidae and Limacodidae. Malayan Nature Journal, 40(1/2):165pp.

Inayatullah C; Rahim A, 1991. Management of sugarcane pyrilla Pyrilla perpusilla Walk. from Sind. Indian Sugar, 40(10):739-742

Jagtap AP, 1958. Studies in the entomogenous fungus Metarrahizium anisopliae (Metsch) Sorok. Current Science, 27:99-100.

Kalra AN, 1967. Studies on incidence and behaviour of some major sugarcane pests in relation to weather and climatic conditions. Indian Sugar, 17:175-180.

Kalra AN, 1973. Pyrilla, a menace to sugarcane and sugar industry. Indian Sugar, 23:737-739.

Khan MQ; Murthy DV, 1956. Insecticidal trials against Pyrilla. Annual Report of Sugarcane Pest Scheme, Rudrur, 1955-56, 9.

Khan MR; Khan S, 1966. Bionomics and control of Pyrilla pusana Distant in Peshawar region. Agriculture Pakistan, 17:385-414.

Khan MY; Shafee SA, 1979. Taxonomic studies on some Indian eulophid parasites (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 76(2):324-334

Khanna KL; Sharma L; Hussain MZ, 1950. On Pyrilla infestation and varietal resistance in sugarcane. Current Science, 19:251-253.

Khanzada AG, 1992. A comprehensive review of research work on sugarcane leaf hopper, Pyrilla perpusilla Wlk. Journal of Agricultural Research (Lahore), 30(2):271-282; 58 ref.

Khanzada AG, 1996. Epiricania (Epipyrops) melanoleuca (F), a nymphal/adult parasite of sugarcane leaf hopper (Pyrilla perpusilla Walk.). Pakistan Sugar Journal, 10(3):19-20; 4 ref.

Krampl F; Dlabola J, 1983. A new genus and species of Epipyropid moth from Iran ectoparasitic on a new Mesophantia species, with a revision of the host genus (Lepidoptera, Epipyropidae; Homoptera, Flatidae). Acta Entomologica Bohemoslov, 80:451-472.

Kulashreshtha RC; Gursahani KA, 1961. An observation on Entomogenous fungus, Metarahizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sor. Indian Journal of Sugarcane Research, Development Workers, 5:163-164.

Kumarasinghe NC; Ranasinghe MASK, 1985. Life history and monthly incidence of sugarcane leaf hopper Pyrilla perpusilla singhalensis (Homoptera: Lophopidae) in Kantale. In: Proceedings of the 41st Annual Session of the Sri Lanka Association of Advancement of Science, 1985, Wijerama Mawatha, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka: 38.

Kumarasinghe NC; Ranasinghe MASK, 1988. Effect of environmental factors on populations of the sugarcane leaf hopper Pyrilla perpusilla singhalensis. In: Proceedings of the 44th Annual Session of the Sri Lanka Association of Advancement of Science, 1988, Wijerama Mawatha, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka: 70.

Kumarasinghe NC; Wratten SD, 1996. The sugarcane lophopid planthopper Pyrilla perpusilla (Homoptera: Lophopidae): a review of its biology, pest status and control. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 86(5):485-498; 5 pp. of ref.

Liang AiPing, 1996. Taxonomic changes in Chinese Lophopidae with a check list of Chinese species (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea). Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 72(3):145-151; 38 ref.

Madan YP; Chaudhary JP; Yadav SR; Sharma SK, 1988. Biology of Chrysopa (Anisochrysa) sp. a predator of Pyrilla perpusilla Walker eggs, under laboratory conditions. Agricultural Science Digest (Karnal), 8(3):170-172

Mani MS, 1939. Description of new and record of some known Chalcidoid and other Hymenopterous parasites from India. Indian Journal of Entomology, 1:69-99.

Mani MS, 1942. Studies on Indian parasitic Hymenoptera II. Indian Journal of Entomology, 4:153-162.

Mathur RN, 1941. Certain physiological considerations in the damage caused to sugarcane by Pyrilla. In: Proceedings of 10th Annual Convention of Sugar Technologists, India, 134-139.

Miah MAH; Qudrat-E-Khuda AKM; Shahjahan M, 1986. The problems of Pyrilla perpusilla and the impact of its natural enemies. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology, 14(1):9-13

Misra CS, 1917. The Indian Sugarcane leaf hopper, Pyrilla aberrans Kirby. Memoir of Department of Agriculture India (Entomology series), 5:73-133.

Misra MP; Pawar AD, 1984. Use of Epipyrops melanoleuca Fletcher (Lepidoptera: Epipyropidae) for the biocontrol of sugarcane pyrilla, Pyrilla perpusilla (Walker) (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 54(9):742-750

Mogal BH; Rajput SG; Mali AR, 1983. Effect of relative humidity on hatching of sugarcane Pyrilla (Pyrilla perpusilla perpusilla Walker) eggs. Indian Sugar, 32:773-774.

Mohyuddin AI; Rahim A; Irshad M, 1982. Studies on population dynamics of Pyrilla perpusilla (walk.), its natural enemies in Pakistan and possibilities of its control. In: Proceedings of the 18th Annual Convention of Pakistan Society of Sugar Technologists, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, 4-5 September 1982, 157-171.

Mohyuddin I; Hamid A, 1987. Effect of post harvest burning of sugarcane trash on the incidence of Tetrastichus pyrillae (Crawford.) an egg parasitoid of Pyrilla perpusilla (Walk.) in Sind. In: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Convention of Pakistan Society of Sugar Technologists, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, 25-27 July, 1987, 292-306.

Narayanan ES, 1948. On the bionomics and life history of Coniopteryx pusana Withycombe, a predator on the eggs of Pyrilla species. Indian Journal of Entomology, 4:15.

Narayanan ES, 1953. Seasonal pests of crops. The mustard sawfly Athalia proxima Klug. a pest in the nurseries of the cabbage family. Indian Farming, 3(8-9):30-31.

Narayanan ES; Kundan Lal, 1953. Studies on Chalcid egg parasites of Pyrilla spp.occurring in Delhi. Part 1 Bionomics of Tetrastichus pyrillae Craw., Ageniaspis pyrillae Mani and Cheiloneurus pyrillae Mani. Indian Journal of Entomology, 15:173-179.

Nasir MM, 1947. Biology of Chrysopa scelestis Banks. Indian Journal of Entomology, 9:177.

Neupane FP, 1971. Studies on the effectiveness of different insecticides against the nymphs of sugarcane leaf hopper, Pyrilla perpusilla Walker. Nepalese Journal of Agriculture, 6/11:131-137

Neupane FP, 1971. Study on the distribution of sugarcane leaf hopper (Pyrilla perpusilla Walker) nymphs on sugarcane plants during summer. Nepalese Journal of Agriculture, 6/11:171-172

Pandey AK; Pandey KP; Verma KP; Singh SB, 1993. Pyrilla perpusilla - a new host of Absidia corymbifera. National Academy Science Letters, 16(7 & 8):211

Pandya HV, 1997. Population status of sugarcane pyrilla (Pyrilla perpusilla Walker) and its ectoparasite (Epiricania melanoleuca Fletcher) in Gujarat. Cooperative Sugar, 28(12):899-902; 9 ref.

Parsana GJ; Malavia DD, 1994. Survey of sugarcane pests in Saurashtra region. Gujarat Agricultural University Research Journal, 20(1):143-145; 4 ref.

Patil AS; Hapase DG, 1992. Sugarcane pests management under drought conditions in Maharashtra. Cooperative Sugar, 23(8):531-533

Pawar AD, 1981. Sugarcane pyrilla attacking rice, and its biological control in India. International Rice Research Newsletter, 6(3):17

Pawar AD, 1987. Biological control of sugarcane pests in India. Plant Protection Bulletin, India, 39(1-2):1-6

Pawar AD; Prasad J; Singh R; Yadav KP; Asre R, 1981. Introduction and establishment of an ectoparasite, Epipyrops melanoleuca Fletcher (Epipyropidae: Lepidoptera) in Bundi District (Rajasthan) for the biocontrol of sugarcane Pyrilla, Pyrilla perpusilla (Walker). Indian Sugar, 30:745-749.

Pierce WD, 1914. Description of two new species of Strepsiptera parasitic on sugarcane insects. Proceedings of Entomological Society of Washington, Washington DC, 16:126-129.

Prasad J; Ravendra Singh; Pawar AD, 1988. Augmentation of Epiricania melanoleuca for the control of Pyrilla perpusilla in western Uttar Pradesh. Plant Protection Bulletin, India, 40(1):29-31

Pruthi HS, 1937. On the Pyrilla pest of sugarcane in India. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science, 7:511-512.

Quadri MAH; Aziz MA, 1950. On Indian insect types - II Biology, life history and external and internal anatomy of Pyrilla perpusilla Walker. India: Aligarh Muslim University Publications.

Qureshi JA; Mohyuddin AI, 1995. Effect of augmentation of Parachrysocharis javensis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and redistribution of Epiricania melanoleuca (Lepidoptera: Epipyropidae) against sugarcane pyrilla at Khanpur. Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology, 15:71-79; 15 ref.

Radha K; Nirula KK; Menon; KVP, 1956. The Green Muscardine disease of Orycles rhinocerus L. II-The causal organisms. Indian Cocoon Journal, 9:83-89.

Rahim A, 1989. Abiotic factors influencing development and longevity of Tetrastichus pyrillae Craw. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an egg parasite of Pyrilla perpusilla Walk. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 32(12):820-822

Rahim A, 1989. Efficacy of different organophosphorus insecticides against sugarcane leafhopper, Pyrilla perpusilla Walk. (Fulgoridae: Hemiptera) outbreak in Sind, Pakistan. Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology, No. 9:15-18

Rahim A; Hashmi AA, 1984. Biological control of Pyrilla perpusilla Walker in Sind, Pakistan. International Pest Control, 26(5):124-126

Rahman KA, 1941. Parasites of the insect pests of sugarcane in the Punjab. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science, 11:119-128.

Rahman KA; Nath R, 1940. Bionomics and the control of the Indian sugarcane leaf hopper Pyrilla perpusilla Wlk. (Rhynchota, Fulg) in the Punjab. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 31:179-190.

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