Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Magnaporthe oryzae
(rice blast disease)

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Datasheet

Magnaporthe oryzae (rice blast disease)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Magnaporthe oryzae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • rice blast disease
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Lesions on leaves are elliptical or spindle-shaped (0.5-1.5 x 0.3-0.5 cm), with pointed ends and grey centres; dark-green to brown margins, often with a yellow halo.
TitleLesions on rice leaves
CaptionLesions on leaves are elliptical or spindle-shaped (0.5-1.5 x 0.3-0.5 cm), with pointed ends and grey centres; dark-green to brown margins, often with a yellow halo.
CopyrightChin Khoon Min
Lesions on leaves are elliptical or spindle-shaped (0.5-1.5 x 0.3-0.5 cm), with pointed ends and grey centres; dark-green to brown margins, often with a yellow halo.
Lesions on rice leavesLesions on leaves are elliptical or spindle-shaped (0.5-1.5 x 0.3-0.5 cm), with pointed ends and grey centres; dark-green to brown margins, often with a yellow halo.Chin Khoon Min
TitleLesions on rice leaves
Caption
CopyrightW.S. Dvorak, COMCORE
Lesions on rice leavesW.S. Dvorak, COMCORE
Abundant conidia are produced under humid, shaded conditions.
TitleSporulating lesion
CaptionAbundant conidia are produced under humid, shaded conditions.
CopyrightChin Khoon Min
Abundant conidia are produced under humid, shaded conditions.
Sporulating lesionAbundant conidia are produced under humid, shaded conditions.Chin Khoon Min
On panicles, all parts of the rachis or rachilla may be infected. Most often, the basal node of the panicle is infected, resulting in 'neck rot'. Bluish-grey fungal growth occurs over infected regions.
TitlePanicle blast
CaptionOn panicles, all parts of the rachis or rachilla may be infected. Most often, the basal node of the panicle is infected, resulting in 'neck rot'. Bluish-grey fungal growth occurs over infected regions.
CopyrightChin Khoon Min
On panicles, all parts of the rachis or rachilla may be infected. Most often, the basal node of the panicle is infected, resulting in 'neck rot'. Bluish-grey fungal growth occurs over infected regions.
Panicle blastOn panicles, all parts of the rachis or rachilla may be infected. Most often, the basal node of the panicle is infected, resulting in 'neck rot'. Bluish-grey fungal growth occurs over infected regions.Chin Khoon Min
Early infection results in white heads, late infection after grain filling, in 'broken necks'.
TitleNeck blast
CaptionEarly infection results in white heads, late infection after grain filling, in 'broken necks'.
CopyrightChin Khoon Min
Early infection results in white heads, late infection after grain filling, in 'broken necks'.
Neck blastEarly infection results in white heads, late infection after grain filling, in 'broken necks'. Chin Khoon Min
Infection of basal nodes of raches resulting in neck rot.
TitleSymptoms on basal nodes of raches
CaptionInfection of basal nodes of raches resulting in neck rot.
CopyrightChin Khoon Min
Infection of basal nodes of raches resulting in neck rot.
Symptoms on basal nodes of rachesInfection of basal nodes of raches resulting in neck rot.Chin Khoon Min
Stunting and death of infected plants. Leaf sheaths dry up and whole plants may be killed. Attacked fields have a scorched appearance.
TitleSymptoms on rice plants
CaptionStunting and death of infected plants. Leaf sheaths dry up and whole plants may be killed. Attacked fields have a scorched appearance.
CopyrightChin Khoon Min
Stunting and death of infected plants. Leaf sheaths dry up and whole plants may be killed. Attacked fields have a scorched appearance.
Symptoms on rice plantsStunting and death of infected plants. Leaf sheaths dry up and whole plants may be killed. Attacked fields have a scorched appearance. Chin Khoon Min
TitleSymptoms on rice
Caption
CopyrightRob Williams/CAB INTERNATIONAL
Symptoms on riceRob Williams/CAB INTERNATIONAL

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Magnaporthe oryzae B.C. Couch

Preferred Common Name

  • rice blast disease

Other Scientific Names

  • Dactylaria oryzae (Cav.) Sawada
  • Piricularia oryzae Cavara
  • Pyricularia oryzae Cavara
  • Pyricularia oryzae f. brachiariae P.G. Rao & D.K. Rao
  • Pyricularia oryzae f. rhynchelytri K.I. Wilson
  • Pyricularia oryzae f. stenotaphri K.I. Wilson & Preethamb.
  • Pyricularia oryzae var. commelinae Thirum., N.B. Kulk. & Patel
  • Pyricularia oryzae var. trachydis P.G. Rao & T.C.V. Reddy

International Common Names

  • English: blast of rice; gray leaf spot of perennial ryegrass; johnson spot of banana; neck blast; pitting disease; rice rotten neck; rice seedling blight; ryegrass blast; wheat blast
  • Spanish: anublo del arroz; mancha johnson del platano; piriculariosis; quema del arroz
  • French: brunissure du riz; pyriculariose du riz
  • Chinese: tao je ping
  • Portuguese: brusone

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: brusone
  • Germany: Brusone-Krankheit: Reis; Fleckenkrankheit: Reis; Reisbräune; Reisbrennen
  • India: jhulsa
  • Indonesia: blas
  • Iraq: shara
  • Italy: brusone
  • Japan: imochi
  • Korea, Republic of: byeo do yeol byung
  • Malaysia: karah
  • Vietnam: bênh dao ôn

EPPO code

  • PYRIOR (Magnaporthe oryzae)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Sordariomycetidae
  •                         Family: Magnaporthaceae
  •                             Genus: Magnaporthe
  •                                 Species: Magnaporthe oryzae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
Burkina FasoPresentSéré et al. (2007)
Cabo VerdePresentGreathead (Undated)
CameroonPresentShen Ying et al. (2004)
ChadPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
Côte d'IvoirePresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
EgyptPresentReddy and Bastawsi (1989); EPPO (2020)
EthiopiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
GabonPresentManser (1984)
GambiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
GhanaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
GuineaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
KenyaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
LiberiaPresent, LocalizedCarpenter (1977)
MadagascarPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
MalawiPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
MaliPresentShen Ying et al. (2004)
MauritiusPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
MoroccoPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
NigerPresentReckhaus and Adamou (1986); EPPO (2020)
NigeriaPresentAwoderu (1983); EPPO (2020)
SenegalPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
Sierra LeonePresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
South AfricaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
SudanPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
TanzaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
UgandaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
ZambiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
ZimbabwePresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
BangladeshPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
BruneiPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
CambodiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
ChinaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-AnhuiPresentEPPO (2020)
-ChongqingPresentHuang Fu et al. (2007)
-FujianPresentEPPO (2020)
-GansuPresentEPPO (2020)
-GuangdongPresentEPPO (2020)
-GuangxiPresentEPPO (2020)
-GuizhouPresentEPPO (2020)
-HebeiPresentEPPO (2020)
-HeilongjiangPresentEPPO (2020)
-HenanPresentEPPO (2020)
-HubeiPresentEPPO (2020)
-HunanPresentEPPO (2020)
-Inner MongoliaPresentEPPO (2020)
-JiangsuPresentEPPO (2020)
-JiangxiPresentEPPO (2020)
-JilinPresentEPPO (2020)
-LiaoningPresentEPPO (2020)
-NingxiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-QinghaiPresentEPPO (2020)
-ShaanxiPresentEPPO (2020)
-ShandongPresentEPPO (2020)
-ShanghaiPresentShen Ying et al. (2002)
-ShanxiPresentEPPO (2020)
-SichuanPresentEPPO (2020)
-XinjiangPresentEPPO (2020)
-YunnanPresentEPPO (2020)
-ZhejiangPresentEPPO (2020)
Hong KongPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
IndiaPresent, WidespreadPadmanabhan (1965); EPPO (2020)
-Andhra PradeshPresentVeluswamy Karthikeyan and Gnanamanickam (2008)
-DelhiPresentDubey (2003)
-Himachal PradeshPresentRathour et al. (2005)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentSharma et al. (2002); EPPO (2020)
-KarnatakaPresentVeluswamy Karthikeyan and Gnanamanickam (2008); Yashoda Hegde et al. (2000)
-KeralaPresentVeluswamy Karthikeyan and Gnanamanickam (2008)
-Tamil NaduPresentVeluswamy Karthikeyan and Gnanamanickam (2008); EPPO (2020)
-UttarakhandPresentBijender Kumar (2016); Sharma et al. (2002)
IndonesiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-JavaPresentEPPO (2020)
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresentEPPO (2014)
IranPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
IraqPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
JapanPresent, WidespreadKushibuchi (1987); EPPO (2020)
KazakhstanPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Baimataeva & Kuzhantaeva, 1979
LaosPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
MalaysiaPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-SabahPresentEPPO (2020)
-SarawakPresentKueh et al. (1985); EPPO (2020)
MyanmarPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
NepalPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
North KoreaPresentEPPO (2020)
PakistanPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
PhilippinesPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
South KoreaPresentZhang et al. (2010); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
Sri LankaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
TaiwanPresentEPPO (2020)
ThailandPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
TurkeyPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
VietnamPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)

Europe

BulgariaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
FrancePresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
GreecePresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
HungaryPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
ItalyPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
PortugalPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
RomaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
RussiaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-Russia (Europe)PresentEPPO (2020)
-Russian Far EastPresentEPPO (2020)
SerbiaPresentEPPO (2020)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
SpainPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
UkrainePresentEPPO (2020)

North America

BelizePresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
BermudaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2016); EPPO (2020)
Costa RicaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
CubaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
Dominican RepublicPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
El SalvadorPresentEPPO (2020)
GuadeloupePresentEPPO (2014); EPPO (2020)
GuatemalaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
HaitiPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
HondurasPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
JamaicaAbsent, Formerly presentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
MartiniquePresentEPPO (2020)
MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
NicaraguaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
PanamaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
Puerto RicoPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-AlabamaPresentEPPO (2020)
-ArkansasPresentLee and Templeton (1988); TeBeest and Guerber (1998)
-DelawarePresentEPPO (2020)
-FloridaPresentEPPO (2020)
-GeorgiaPresentTredway et al. (2005)
-HawaiiPresentEPPO (2020)
-LouisianaPresentEPPO (2020)
-MarylandPresentEPPO (2020)
-MississippiPresentEPPO (2020)
-MissouriPresentWrather et al. (1996)
-OhioPresentEPPO (2020)
-TexasPresentEPPO (2020)

Oceania

American SamoaPresentBrooks (2002)
AustraliaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-Northern TerritoryPresentEPPO (2020)
-QueenslandPresentEPPO (2020)
-Western AustraliaPresentIPPC (2011); EPPO (2020)
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentEPPO (2020)
FijiPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
New CaledoniaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)

South America

ArgentinaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
BoliviaPresentCruz et al. (2015); EPPO (2020)
BrazilPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
-Distrito FederalPresentEPPO (2020)
-Espirito SantoPresentEPPO (2020)
-GoiasPresentSilva et al. (2007); EPPO (2020)
-Mato GrossoPresentEPPO (2020)
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentUrashima et al. (2004); EPPO (2020)
-Minas GeraisPresentSantana et al. (2011); EPPO (2020)
-ParaPresentVerzignassi et al. (2012); EPPO (2020)
-ParanaPresentUrashima et al. (2004); EPPO (2020)
-PernambucoPresentEPPO (2020)
-PiauiPresentEPPO (2020)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentEPPO (2020)
-RondoniaPresentEPPO (2020)
-Santa CatarinaPresentEPPO (2020)
-Sao PauloPresentEPPO (2020)
-TocantinsPresentEPPO (2020)
ColombiaPresentGuimaraes and Correa-Victoria (1994); EPPO (2020)
French GuianaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
GuyanaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
ParaguayPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
PeruPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
SurinameAbsent, Formerly presentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
UruguayPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)
VenezuelaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2020)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Inflorescence / discoloration panicle
Inflorescence / lesions on glumes
Inflorescence / rot
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / rot
Seeds / lesions on seeds
Seeds / rot
Stems / internal red necrosis
Stems / mould growth on lesion
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Whole plant / damping off
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae Pathogen
Aspergillus niger Antagonist
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist
Trichoderma koningii Antagonist
Trichoderma pseudokoningii Antagonist

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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Anon, 1992. Nohyaku-Yoran (Statistics of agro-chemicals in Japan). Japan Plant Protection Association, Tokyo.

Anon, 1994. Nohyaku-Yoran (Statistics of agro-chemicals in Japan) Japan Plant Protection Association, Tokyo.

Anon, 2000. Blast, biotech and big business. Implications of corporate strategies on rice research in Asia. Blast, biotech and big business. Implications of corporate strategies on rice research in Asia. Grain. http://www.grain.org/publications/reports/blast

Anon, 2008. Belegala adika iluvarige sudaritha besaya paddathigalu:19-20.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Asuyama H, 1965. Morphology, taxonomy, host range, and life cycle of Piricularia oryzae. In: The Rice Blast Disease. Baltimore, Maryland, USA: John Hopkins Press, 119-122.

Aulakh KS; Mathur SB; Neergaard P, 1974. Seed health testing of rice and comparison of field incidence with laboratory counts of Drechslera oryzae and Pyricularia oryzae. Seed Science and Technology, 2(3):393-398

Awoderu VA, 1983. Technical Service Support: Pathology. Annual Rice Review Meeting, 23-27 May, 1983. Monrovia, Liberia: West Africa Rice Development Association.

Ballini E; Morel JB; Droc G; Price A; Courtois B; Notteghem JL; Tharreau D, 2008. A genome-wide meta-analysis of rice blast resistance genes and quantitative trait loci provides new insights into partial and complete resistance. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 21(7):859-868. HTTP://www.APSnet.org

Ballini E; Thuy Thu Thi Nguyen; Morel JB, 2013. Diversity and genetics of nitrogen-induced susceptibility to the blast fungus in rice and wheat. Rice, 6(32):(20 November 2013). http://www.thericejournal.com/content/pdf/1939-8433-6-32.pdf

Barr ME, 1977. Magnaporthe, Telimenella, and Hyponectria (Physosporellaceae). Mycologia, 69(5):952-966

Bastiaans L; Rabbinge R; Zadoks; JC, 1994. Understanding and modeling leaf blast effects on crop physiology and yield. In: Rice Blast Disease [ed. by Zeigler R S, Leong S, Teng P]. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 87-110.

Bernaux P, 1981. Evolution of the susceptibility of rice glumes to Pyricularia oryzae Cav. and Drechslera oryzae (Br. de Haan) Sub. & Jain: consequences for disease transmission. Agronomie, 1(4):261-264

Bhatt JC; Singh RA; Singh US, 1994. Uptake, translocation and persistence of pyroquilon in rice plant after seed treatment. Indian Phytopathology, 47(3):260-262.

Bijender Kumar, 2016. Status of small millets diseases in Uttarakhand. International Journal of Plant Protection, 9(1):256-263. http://www.researchjournal.co.in/online/IJPP.htm

Bisht IS; Pant SK; Bisht KKS, 1988. Effect of neck blast on grain yield of ragi. Indian Phytopathology, 41(3):457-461

Bonman JM; Khush GS; Nelson RJ, 1992. Breeding rice for resistance to pests. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 30:507-528; 137 ref.

Borromeo ES; Nelson RJ; Bonman JM; Leung H, 1993. Genetic differentiation among isolates of Pyricularia infecting rice and weed hosts. Phytopathology, 83(4):393-399

Bourett TM; Howard RJ, 1990. In vitro development of penetration structures in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea.. Canadian Journal of Botany, 68(2):329-342.

Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. Land Grant Technical Report No. 44. Pago Pago, American Samoa: American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program.

Bua B; Adipala E, 1995. Relationship between headblast severity and yield of finger millet. International Journal of Pest Management, 41(1):55-59

Bussaban B; Lumyong S; Lumyong P; Seelanan T; Park DC; McKenzie EHC; Hyde KD, 2005. Molecular and morphological characterization of Pyricularia and allied genera. Mycologia, 97(5):1002-1011.

Calvero SBJr; Coakley SM; Teng PS, 1996. Development of empirical forecasting models for rice blast based on weather factors. Plant Pathology, 45(4):667-678; 54 ref.

Candole BL; Siebenmorgen TJ; Lee FN; Cartwright RD, 1999. The effect of panicle blast on the physical properties and milling quality of rice cultivar 'M202'. Research Series - Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, No. 468:142-147; 8 ref.

Carpenter AJ, 1977. Crop losses affecting rice in Liberia. In: Plant Protection for the Rice Crop, Seminar Proceedings No. 4. Monrovia, Liberia: West Africa Rice Development Association, 160-173.

Cavara F, 1891. Fungi Longobardia exsiccati. No. 49. (Cited by Padwick, 1950)

Chen DH; Vina Mdela; Inukai T; Mackill DJ; Ronald PC; Nelson RJ, 1999. Molecular mapping of the blast resistance gene, Pi44(t), in a line derived from a durably resistant rice cultivar. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 98(6/7):1046-1053; 34 ref.

Chin KM, 1974. Collar rot, a new symptom of the rice blast disease. MARDI Research Bulletin, 2(2):82-84

Chin KM, 1975. Fungicidal control of the rice blast disease. Malaysian Agricultural Journal, 50(2):221-228

Chin KM, 1985. Virulence analysis as a tool in disease management. In: Progress in Upland Rice Research. Manila, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute, 393-402.

Chin KM; Amin SM, 1986. Diseases of Rice in Malaysia. Malaysia: MARDI.

Chin KM; Husin AN, 1982. Rice variety mixtures in disease control. Proceedings of the international conference on plant protection in the tropics Malaysian Plant Protection Society Kuala Lumpur Malaya, 241-246

Chin KM; Wolfe MS, 1984. The spread of Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei in mixtures of barley varieties. Plant Pathology, 33(1):89-100

Choi HC; Kim YG; Ahn SN; Hong HC; Han SS; Ra DS; Moon HP, 1997. Development of multi-line variety resistant to blast disease in rice. Harmonizing agricultural productivity and conservation of biodiversity: breeding and ecology. Proceedings of the 8th SABRAO General Congress and Annual Meeting of the Korea Breeding Society, 24-28 September 1997, Seoul, Korea Republic., 154-156; 3 ref.

Choi J; Park SY; Kim BR; Roh JH; Oh IS; Han SS; Lee YH, 2013. Comparative analysis of pathogenicity and phylogenetic relationship in Magnaporthe grisea species complex. PLoS One, 8(2):e57196.

Chung HS; Lee CU, 1983. Detection and transmission of Pyricularia oryzae in germinating rice seed. Seed Science Technology, 11:625-637.

CMI, 1981. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 51. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Couch BC; Fudal I; Lebrun MH; Tharreau D; Valent B; Pham van Kim; Nottéghem JL; Kohn LM, 2005. Origins of host-specific populations of the blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae in crop domestication with subsequent expansion of pandemic clones on rice and weeds of rice. Genetics, 170(2):613-630. http://www.genetics.org/cgi/content/abstract/170/2/613

Couch BC; Kohn LM, 2002. A multilocus gene genealogy concordant with host preference indicates segregation of a new species, Magnaporthe oryzae, from M. grisea. Mycologia, 94(4):683-693.

Cruz CD; Kiyuna J; Bockus WW; Todd TC; Stack JP; Valent B, 2015. Magnaporthe oryzae conidia on basal wheat leaves as a potential source of wheat blast inoculum. Plant Pathology, 64(6):1491-1498. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ppa.12414/full

Disthaporn S, 1994. Current rice blast epidemics and their management in Thailand. In: Rice Blast Disease [ed. by Zeigler R S, Leong S, Teng P]. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 333-342.

Dubey SC, 2003. Influence of weather factors on the development of blast (Magnaporthe grisea) of rice in Jharkhand. Plant Disease Research (Ludhiana), 18(2):101-105.

El Refaei MI, 1977. Epidemiology of rice blast disease in the tropics with special reference to leaf wetness in relation to disease development. PhD Thesis. New Delhi: Indian Agricultural Research Institute.

Ellis MB, 1971. Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

EPPO, 2016. EPPO Global database (available online). Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

Faivre-Rampant O; Geniès L; Piffanelli P; Tharreau D, 2013. Transmission of rice blast from seeds to adult plants in a non-systemic way. Plant Pathology, 62(4):879-887. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ppa.12003/full

Filippi MC; Prabhu AS, 1997. Integrated effect of host plant resistance and fungicidal seed treatment on rice blast control in Brazil. Plant Disease, 81(4):351-355; 29 ref.

Fomba SN; Taylor DR, 1994. Rice blast in West Africa: its nature and control. In: Rice Blast Disease [ed. by Zeigler R S, Leong S, Teng P]. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 343-356.

Geetha D; Sivaprakasam K, 1993. Treating rice seeds with fungicides and antagonists to control seedborne diseases. International Rice Research Notes, 18(3):30-31

Gill M; Bonman JM, 1988. Effects of water deficit on rice blast. I. Influence of water deficit on components of resistance. Journal of Plant Protection in the Tropics, 5:61-66.

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