Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Polyscias fruticosa
(ming aralia)

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Datasheet

Polyscias fruticosa (ming aralia)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 23 March 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Documented Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Polyscias fruticosa
  • Preferred Common Name
  • ming aralia
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Polyscias fruticosa is an evergreen shrub that is native to tropical areas from India to Polynesia. It is cultivated as an ornamental and medicinal plant and for culinary use. Currently, it is listed as invasive only in Anguilla, but no f...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Polyscias fruticosa (ming aralia); Foliage. Behnke Nurseries, Beltsville, Maryland, USA. January 2007.
TitleFoliage
CaptionPolyscias fruticosa (ming aralia); Foliage. Behnke Nurseries, Beltsville, Maryland, USA. January 2007.
Copyright©David J. Stang/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Polyscias fruticosa (ming aralia); Foliage. Behnke Nurseries, Beltsville, Maryland, USA. January 2007.
FoliagePolyscias fruticosa (ming aralia); Foliage. Behnke Nurseries, Beltsville, Maryland, USA. January 2007.©David J. Stang/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Polyscias fruticosa (ming aralia); Leaf detail. Behnke Nurseries, Beltsville, Maryland, USA. January 2007.
TitleLeaves
CaptionPolyscias fruticosa (ming aralia); Leaf detail. Behnke Nurseries, Beltsville, Maryland, USA. January 2007.
Copyright©David J. Stang/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Polyscias fruticosa (ming aralia); Leaf detail. Behnke Nurseries, Beltsville, Maryland, USA. January 2007.
LeavesPolyscias fruticosa (ming aralia); Leaf detail. Behnke Nurseries, Beltsville, Maryland, USA. January 2007.©David J. Stang/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Polyscias fruticosa (ming aralia); Foliage. Lincoln Park Conservatory, Chicago, Illinois, USA. September 2016.
TitleFoliage
CaptionPolyscias fruticosa (ming aralia); Foliage. Lincoln Park Conservatory, Chicago, Illinois, USA. September 2016.
Copyright©Krzysztof Ziarnek (Kenraiz)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Polyscias fruticosa (ming aralia); Foliage. Lincoln Park Conservatory, Chicago, Illinois, USA. September 2016.
FoliagePolyscias fruticosa (ming aralia); Foliage. Lincoln Park Conservatory, Chicago, Illinois, USA. September 2016.©Krzysztof Ziarnek (Kenraiz)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Polyscias fruticosa (ming aralia); Habit. Lincoln Park Conservatory, Chicago, Illinois, USA. September 2016.
TitleHabit
CaptionPolyscias fruticosa (ming aralia); Habit. Lincoln Park Conservatory, Chicago, Illinois, USA. September 2016.
Copyright©Krzysztof Ziarnek (Kenraiz)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Polyscias fruticosa (ming aralia); Habit. Lincoln Park Conservatory, Chicago, Illinois, USA. September 2016.
HabitPolyscias fruticosa (ming aralia); Habit. Lincoln Park Conservatory, Chicago, Illinois, USA. September 2016.©Krzysztof Ziarnek (Kenraiz)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Polyscias fruticosa (ming aralia); Trunk. Behnke Nurseries, Beltsville, Maryland, USA. January 2007.
TitleTrunk
CaptionPolyscias fruticosa (ming aralia); Trunk. Behnke Nurseries, Beltsville, Maryland, USA. January 2007.
Copyright©David J. Stang/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Polyscias fruticosa (ming aralia); Trunk. Behnke Nurseries, Beltsville, Maryland, USA. January 2007.
TrunkPolyscias fruticosa (ming aralia); Trunk. Behnke Nurseries, Beltsville, Maryland, USA. January 2007.©David J. Stang/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Polyscias fruticosa (L.) Harms

Preferred Common Name

  • ming aralia

Other Scientific Names

  • Aralia deleauana L.Linden
  • Aralia tripinnata Blanco
  • Nothopanax fruticosus (L.) Miq.
  • Panax aureus Sander
  • Panax diffusus W.Bull
  • Panax dumosus W.Bull
  • Panax fissus W.Bull
  • Panax fruticosus L.
  • Panax plumatus W.Bull ex W.Richards
  • Tieghemopanax fruticosus (L.) R.Vig.

International Common Names

  • English: panax; parsley panax; teatree
  • Chinese: nan yang shen

Local Common Names

  • Dominican Republic: gallego
  • Fiji: ndanindani
  • Haiti: paresseux; persillette
  • Indonesia: cikra cikri; daun berlangkas; kedondong cina; kedondong laut
  • Indonesia/Java: kedongdong alus
  • Indonesia/Moluccas: daun papeda papua; pagar pagar
  • Indonesia/Sumatra: orang aring
  • Japan: porusukiasu-furutikosa
  • Malaysia: daun girang; siku kluang
  • Philippines: papuá

EPPO code

  • PYJFR (Polyscias fruticosa)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Polyscias fruticosa is an evergreen shrub that is native to tropical areas from India to Polynesia. It is cultivated as an ornamental and medicinal plant and for culinary use. Currently, it is listed as invasive only in Anguilla, but no further information about economic and/or ecological impact has been provided.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Araliales
  •                         Family: Araliaceae
  •                             Genus: Polyscias
  •                                 Species: Polyscias fruticosa

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Polyscias with about 115-130 species is the second largest genus in Araliaceae (Lowry, 1989). This genus has been broadened extensively in recent decades, but its circumscription has often been applied inconsistently. Results from phylogenetic analyses have suggested that Polyscias is highly paraphyletic with three clades clearly centred in the western Indian Ocean basin and five others in the Pacific region. The data suggest that Polyscias may have arisen in tropical Australasia from where it may have migrated both east to the Pacific and west to the Indian Ocean, probably via long-distance dispersal after the breakup of Gondwanaland (Plunkett et al., 2001; Lowry and Plunkett, 2010; Plunkett and Lowry, 2010; Stevens, 2020).

Description

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The following description is from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2020):

Shrubs or treelets, to 3(-5) m tall, andromonoecious. Leaves 3-5-pinnate; petiole (2-)5-15 cm, clasping at base, with inconspicuous membranous wings; petiolules 1-5 cm; primary leaf divisions (7-)11-15, each further divided once or twice, sometimes variegated, usually lanceolate, (1-)2-18 × 0.2-5 cm, papery, base narrowly cuneate to attenuate, margin laciniate to spinulose-serrate, teeth 5-10 mm, apex long acuminate. Inflorescence terminal, erect, a panicle of umbels; primary axis 8-30(-60) cm; secondary axes 5-15, scattered or sub-whorled, 7-25(-30) cm; tertiary axes 5-15 per secondary axis, mostly grouped in 2-4 whorls, with a terminal umbellule of bisexual flowers and 2-6 lateral umbellules of staminate flowers; pedicels 1.5-5 mm (shorter in staminate flowers). Ovary 2- or 3(or 4)-carpellate; styles free nearly to base, 0.8-1.2 mm at anthesis, recurving, expanding in fruit to 1.5 mm. Fruit laterally compressed or trigonous (rarely quadrangular), orbicular to ovate-orbicular, 4-5 × 4.5-6 mm, base rounded.

Plant Type

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Perennial
Seed / spore propagated
Shrub
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

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Polyscias fruticosa is native to Central Malesia, northern Australia, New Caledonia and New Guinea. It has been introduced as an ornamental across tropical and subtropical regions and can now be found cultivated in southern China, tropical Asia, Africa, Central and South America and the Caribbean (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2020; POWO, 2020; USDA-ARS, 2020).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Mar 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

GhanaPresent
MauritiusPresentIntroduced
MozambiquePresentIntroduced
SeychellesPresentIntroduced

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroduced
IndonesiaPresent
-BorneoPresentIntroduced
-JavaPresentIntroducedCultivated
-Maluku IslandsPresentNative
-SulawesiPresentNative
BruneiPresentIntroduced
CambodiaPresentIntroducedCultivated
ChinaPresentIntroduced
-HainanPresentIntroducedCultivated
IndiaPresentIntroducedCultivated
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentIntroduced
-KeralaPresentIntroducedCultivated
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroducedCultivated
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedCultivated
-SabahPresentIntroduced
-SarawakPresentIntroduced
MyanmarPresentIntroduced
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced
SingaporePresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedCultivated only
ThailandPresentIntroduced
VietnamPresentIntroducedCultivated

North America

AnguillaPresentIntroducedReported as invasive but no record of impact
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced
HaitiPresentIntroduced
MexicoPresentIntroduced
NicaraguaPresentIntroduced
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedSt. Croix
United StatesPresentIntroduced
-CaliforniaPresent
-FloridaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedCultivated only

Oceania

AustraliaPresentNativeQueensland
-QueenslandPresentNative
Christmas IslandPresentIntroduced
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedRecent introduction
FijiPresentIntroduced
KiribatiPresentIntroduced
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroduced
New CaledoniaPresentNative
Papua New GuineaPresentNative
TongaPresentIntroduced
VanuatuPresentIntroduced

South America

BrazilPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
Ecuador
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroduced
PeruPresentIntroducedCultivated

Habitat

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Polyscias fruticosa can be found growing in urban thickets, lowlands, abandoned fields, roadsides and disturbed areas near villages. On islands in the Pacific, it grows at elevations from near sea level to about 450 m. It is frequently cultivated in villages and gardens ( Smith, 1985; McCormack, 2007). 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedBuildings Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedBuildings Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedBuildings Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for P. fruticosa is 2n = 22, 24 (Sharma and Chatterji, 1964; Zeven and De Wet, 1982; Yi et al., 2004).

Physiology and Phenology

In tropical climates, P. fruticosa produces flowers throughout the year (Whistler, 2000). In China, it produces flowers from August to September (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020). In Fiji, flowers are often seen between January and June (Smith, 1985).

Longevity

Polyscias fruticosa is a slow-growing perennial shrub or dwarf tree.

Environmental Requirements

Polyscias fruticosa prefers to grow in moist and wet habitats in tropical and subtropical climates. It grows best in open areas with full sunlight, but also tolerates partial shade and acid soils (Whistler, 2000; PFAF, 2020; Useful Tropical Plants, 2020).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
30 35

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Polyscias fruticosa is susceptible to polyscias mosaic virus (PoMV) (Alvarez-Quinto et al., 2019) and the mealybug (Planococcus citri)-transmitted schefflera ringspot virus (Lockhart and Olszewski, 1996). Severe leaf spotting caused by Alternaria panax, followed by defoliation has been reported in P. fruticosa in Florida nurseries (Atilano, 1983).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Polyscias fruticosa spreads by seed and vegetatively by air layering and cuttings. Some cultivars produce large numbers of root suckers that can be removed when their root system is developed (Whistler, 2000; PFAF, 2020; Useful Tropical Plants, 2020).

Intentional Introduction

Polyscias fruticosa has been intentionally introduced by human activities. It is widely cultivated as ornamental and hedge plants and for medicinal and culinary purposes (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020; PFAF, 2020; Useful Tropical Plants, 2020).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Garden waste disposalSeeds, stem and root fragments Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
Hedges and windbreaksOrnamental and hedge plant Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
HorticultureOrnamental and hedge plant Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
Intentional releaseOrnamental and hedge plant Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
Internet salesSeeds and plants for sale online Yes Yes
Medicinal useUsed in traditional medicine Yes Yes PFAF (2020)
Nursery tradeOrnamental and hedge plant Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
Ornamental purposesOrnamental and hedge plant Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
People foragingLeaves are consumed by humans Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
Seed tradeSeeds for sale online Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds, stem and root fragments Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
MailSeeds and plants for sale online Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive
Human health Positive

Impact: Environmental

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Currently, P. fruticosa is listed as invasive only in Anguilla, but no further information about economic and/or ecological impact has been provided (Connor, 2008).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact mechanisms
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Polyscias fruticosa is cultivated as an ornamental and hedge plant. The leaves are edible and can be consumed as a vegetable or culinary herb; in Java it is cultivated for its roots and leaves (Zeven and De Wet, 1982). P. fruticosa is also used in traditional medicine; in Ghana, it is used as a traditional remedy for asthma (Koffuor et al., 2016). Extracts from P. fruticosa are reported to possess hypoglycaemic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, insecticidal, diuretic and antibacterial activities (Chaboud et al., 1995Oliveros-Belardo et al., 1995Divakar and Bensita, 1998; Divakar et al., 2005Nguyen et al., 2018). In Cambodia, the plant is used by Buddhist monks to make joss sticks (Lowry, 1989; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020; Useful Tropical Plants, 2020).

Uses List

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Drugs, stimulants, social uses

  • Religious

Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Boundary, barrier or support

Human food and beverage

  • Spices and culinary herbs
  • Vegetable

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • garden plant
  • Potted plant
  • Seed trade

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Alvarez-Quinto, R. A., Lockhart, B. E. L., Olszewski, N., 2019. Complete genome sequence of a previously undescribed badnavirus occurring in Polyscias fruticosa L. (Ming aralia). Archives of Virology, 164(9), 2371-2374. doi: 10.1007/s00705-019-04307-9

Atilano, R. A., 1983. A foliar blight of Ming aralia caused by Alternaria panax. Plant Disease, 67(2), 224-226. doi: 10.1094/PD-67-224

Chaboud, A., Rougny, A., Proliac, A., Raynaud, J., Cabalion, P., 1995. A new triterpenoid saponin from Polyscias fruticosa. Pharmazie, 50(5), 371.

Connor, RA, 2008. Anguilla Invasive Species Strategy (draft). http://www.gov.ai/documents/Anguilla%20Invasive%20Species%20Strategy%202008%20(2).pdf

Divakar, M. C., Bensita, M. B., 1998. Screening of various leaf extracts of Polyscias fruticosa Harms for their antidiabetic activity. Indian Journal of Natural Products, 14(2), 24-28.

Divakar, M. C., Pillai, N. R., Rao, S. B., 2005. Isolation and biological activity studies of two triterpene glycosides from leaves and roots of Polyscias fruticosa. Indian Journal of Natural Products, 21(3), 7-14.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Koffuor, G. A., Boye, A., Kyei, S., Ofori-Amoah, J., Asiamah, E. A., Barku, A., Acheampong, J., Amegashie, E., Awuku, A. K., 2016. Anti-asthmatic property and possible mode of activity of an ethanol leaf extract of Polyscias fruticosa. Pharmaceutical Biology, 54(8), 1354-1363. doi: 10.3109/13880209.2015.1077465

Lockhart, B. E. L., Olszewski, N. E., 1996. Schefflera ringspot virus, a widely distributed mealybug-transmitted badnavirus occurring in Schefflera and Aralia. In: Acta Horticulturae [Ninth international symposium on virus diseases of ornamental plants, Herzliya, Israel, 17-22 March, 1996], (No. 432) [ed. by Loebenstein, G., Hammond, J., Gera, A., Derks, A. F. L. M., Zaayen, A. van]. 196-202.

Lowry PP, Plunkett GM, 2010. Recircumscription of Polyscias (Araliaceae) to include six related genera, with a new infrageneric classification and a synopsis of species. Plant Diversity and Evolution, 128(1-2), 55-84. doi: 10.1127/1869-6155/2010/0128-0003

Lowry, P. P., II, 1989. A revision of Araliaceae from Vanuatu. Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia, 11(2), 117-155.

McCormack, G., 2007. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. In: Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2 , Rarotonga: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust.http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2020. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/

Nguyen Thi Luyen, Nguyen Hai Dang, Phung Thi Xuan Binh, Nguyen Thi Hai, Nguyen Tien Dat, 2018. Hypoglycemic property of triterpenoid saponin PFS isolated from Polyscias fruticosa leaves. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, 90(3), 2881-2886. doi: 10.1590/0001-3765201820170945

Oliveros-Belardo, L., Smith, R. M., Collins, L., Minard, R., 1995. The leaf volatile oil of Nothopanax fruticosum (L.) Miq. Philippine Journal of Science, 124(2), 141-160.

PFAF, 2020. Plants For A Future Database. In: Plants For A Future Database Dawlish, UK: Plants For A Future.http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Default.aspx

Plunkett GM, Lowry II PP, Burke MK, 2001. The phylogenetic status of Polyscias (Araliaceae) based on nuclear ITS sequence data. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 88(2), 213-230.

Plunkett GM, Lowry PP, 2010. Paraphyly and polyphyly in Polyscias sensu lato: molecular evidence and the case for recircumscribing the "pinnate genera" of Araliaceae. Plant Diversity and Evolution, 128(1-2), 23-54. doi: 10.1127/1869-6155/2010/0128-0002

POWO, 2020. Plants of the World Online. In: Plants of the World Online London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org

Sharma AK, Chatterji AK, 1964. Cytological study as an aid in the interpretation of the systematic status of the different genera of Araliaceae. Cytologia, 29, 1-12.

Smith, A. C., 1985. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Volume 3: Angiospermae: Dicotyledones, families 117-163, Lawai, Hawaii, USA: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden.vi + 758 pp.

Stevens, P. F., 2020. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14. In: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14 . St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

USDA-ARS, 2020. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Useful Tropical Plants, 2020. Useful tropical plants database. In: Useful tropical plants database : K Fern.http://tropical.theferns.info/

Whistler WA, 2000. Tropical ornamentals: a guide, Portland, Oregon, USA: Timber Press.542 pp.

Yi TS, Lowry PP, Plunkett PM, Wen J, 2004. Chromosomal evolution in Araliaceae and close relatives. Taxon, 53(4), 987-1005. doi: https://doi.org/10.2307/4135565

Zeven, A. C., Wet, J. M. J. de, 1982. Dictionary of cultivated plants and their regions of diversity: excluding most ornamentals, forest trees and lower plants, (Ed.2) . Wageningen, Netherlands: Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation.263pp.

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2020. Galapagos Species Checklist. In: Galapagos Species Checklist, Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundatio. http://darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/#plants

Chong K Y, Tan H T W, Corlett R T, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Connor RA, 2008. Anguilla Invasive Species Strategy (draft)., http://www.gov.ai/documents/Anguilla%20Invasive%20Species%20Strategy%202008%20(2).pdf

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2020. Australia's virtual herbarium. In: Australia's virtual herbarium, Australia: Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria. http://avh.ala.org.au

Flora Mesoamericana, 2020. Flora Mesoamericana. In: Flora Mesoamericana, St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/fm

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020. Flora of China. In: Flora of China, St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

GBIF, 2020. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. In: Global Biodiversity Information Facility, http://www.gbif.org/species

India Biodiversity Portal, 2020. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity, http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Institute for Regional Conservation, 2021. The floristic inventory of South Florida: database online., Delray Beach, Florida, USA: Institute for Regional Conservation. https://www.regionalconservation.org/ircs/database/plants/SFPlantListByL.asp?Letter=A

Koffuor G A, Boye A, Kyei S, Ofori-Amoah J, Asiamah E A, Barku A, Acheampong J, Amegashie E, Awuku A K, 2016. Anti-asthmatic property and possible mode of activity of an ethanol leaf extract of Polyscias fruticosa. Pharmaceutical Biology. 54 (8), 1354-1363. DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1077465

Lowry P P II, 1989. A revision of Araliaceae from Vanuatu. Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia. 11 (2), 117-155.

McCormack G, 2007. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. In: Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2, Rarotonga: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust. http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2020. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database, St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Pereira T B C, Dally E L, Davis R E, Banzato T C, Bedendo I P, 2016. Ming Aralia (Polyscias fruticose), a new host of a phytoplasma subgroup 16SrVII-B strain in Brazil. Plant Disease. 100 (3), 645. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-15-0254-PDN

POWO, 2020. Plants of the World Online. In: Plants of the World Online, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org

Rooney-Latham S, Soriano M C, Nolan P A, 2017. First report of Lasiodiplodia theobromae associated with collar rot and dieback on Polyscias fruticosa in California. Plant Disease. 101 (8), 1552. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-16-1717-PDN

USDA-ARS, 2020. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database, Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

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13/07/2020 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Institute of the Environment, University of Connecticut, USA

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