Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pyracantha coccinea
(scarlet firethorn)

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Datasheet

Pyracantha coccinea (scarlet firethorn)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 29 June 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pyracantha coccinea
  • Preferred Common Name
  • scarlet firethorn
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Pyracantha coccinea is a thorny shrub, native to southern Europe and western Asia, which has been widely introduced, primarily as an ornamental plant. It is of some concern due to its potential effects on natural habitats and its being a...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Pyracantha coccinea (Scarlet firethorn); habit.
TitleHabit
CaptionPyracantha coccinea (Scarlet firethorn); habit.
Copyright©Robert Vidéki/Doronicum Kft./Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Pyracantha coccinea (Scarlet firethorn); habit.
HabitPyracantha coccinea (Scarlet firethorn); habit.©Robert Vidéki/Doronicum Kft./Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Pyracantha coccinea (Scarlet firethorn); habit.
TitleHabit
CaptionPyracantha coccinea (Scarlet firethorn); habit.
Copyright©Robert Vidéki/Doronicum Kft./Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Pyracantha coccinea (Scarlet firethorn); habit.
HabitPyracantha coccinea (Scarlet firethorn); habit.©Robert Vidéki/Doronicum Kft./Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Pyracantha coccinea (Scarlet firethorn); habit, as an ornamental. Poland. September2016.
TitleHabit
CaptionPyracantha coccinea (Scarlet firethorn); habit, as an ornamental. Poland. September2016.
Copyright©Niepokój Zbigniew/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Pyracantha coccinea (Scarlet firethorn); habit, as an ornamental. Poland. September2016.
HabitPyracantha coccinea (Scarlet firethorn); habit, as an ornamental. Poland. September2016.©Niepokój Zbigniew/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Pyracantha coccinea (Scarlet firethorn); fruits.
TitleFruits
CaptionPyracantha coccinea (Scarlet firethorn); fruits.
Copyright©Robert Vidéki/Doronicum Kft./Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Pyracantha coccinea (Scarlet firethorn); fruits.
FruitsPyracantha coccinea (Scarlet firethorn); fruits.©Robert Vidéki/Doronicum Kft./Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean); flowering habit. Bern, Switzerland. June 2010.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionPhaseolus lunatus (lima bean); flowering habit. Bern, Switzerland. June 2010.
Copyright©MurielBendel/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean); flowering habit. Bern, Switzerland. June 2010.
Flowering habitPhaseolus lunatus (lima bean); flowering habit. Bern, Switzerland. June 2010.©MurielBendel/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Pyracantha coccinea (Scarlet firethorn); habit, planted as hedge a. Bishop's Stortford, Hertfordshire, UK. September 2015.
TitleHabit
CaptionPyracantha coccinea (Scarlet firethorn); habit, planted as hedge a. Bishop's Stortford, Hertfordshire, UK. September 2015.
Copyright©Acabashi/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Pyracantha coccinea (Scarlet firethorn); habit, planted as hedge a. Bishop's Stortford, Hertfordshire, UK. September 2015.
HabitPyracantha coccinea (Scarlet firethorn); habit, planted as hedge a. Bishop's Stortford, Hertfordshire, UK. September 2015.©Acabashi/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Pyracantha coccinea (Scarlet firethorn); habit, appox 2m tall, trained against a wall. Thornbury, South Gloucestershire, UK. Septmber 2004.
TitleHabit
CaptionPyracantha coccinea (Scarlet firethorn); habit, appox 2m tall, trained against a wall. Thornbury, South Gloucestershire, UK. Septmber 2004.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Adrian Pingstone in 2004/via wikipedia
Pyracantha coccinea (Scarlet firethorn); habit, appox 2m tall, trained against a wall. Thornbury, South Gloucestershire, UK. Septmber 2004.
HabitPyracantha coccinea (Scarlet firethorn); habit, appox 2m tall, trained against a wall. Thornbury, South Gloucestershire, UK. Septmber 2004.Public Domain - Released by Adrian Pingstone in 2004/via wikipedia
Pyracantha coccinea (Scarlet firethorn); potted sapling, sold as an ornamental. USA.
TitlePotted sapling
CaptionPyracantha coccinea (Scarlet firethorn); potted sapling, sold as an ornamental. USA.
Copyright©Florida Division of Plant Industry/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Pyracantha coccinea (Scarlet firethorn); potted sapling, sold as an ornamental. USA.
Potted saplingPyracantha coccinea (Scarlet firethorn); potted sapling, sold as an ornamental. USA.©Florida Division of Plant Industry/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pyracantha coccinea M. Roem.

Preferred Common Name

  • scarlet firethorn

Other Scientific Names

  • Cotoneaster pyracantha (L.) Spach
  • Crataegus pauciflora Andr.
  • Crataegus pyracantha (L.) Medik.
  • Gymnopyrenium pyracantha (L.) Dulac
  • Mespilus pauciflora Poir.
  • Mespilus pyracantha L.
  • Pyracantha lucida De Vos
  • Pyracantha pauciflora (Poir.) M.Roem.
  • Pyracantha spinosa De Vos
  • Pyracantha vulgaris Lothelier
  • Timbalia pyracantha (L.) Clos

International Common Names

  • English: firethorn; pyracanth
  • Spanish: espino de fuego; piracanta
  • French: buisson ardent
  • Portuguese: espinheiro-ardente; sarça-de-moisés

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: espinho-de-fogo; espino-perpétuo; piracanta
  • China: huo ji
  • Colombia: holly
  • Germany: Scharlach- Feuerdorn
  • Italy: agazzino
  • Portugal: sarça-ardente
  • Sweden: eldtorn
  • UK: ever-green thorn
  • USA: everlasting thorn; fiery thorn; pyracantha

EPPO code

  • PYECO (Pyracantha coccinea)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Pyracantha coccinea is a thorny shrub, native to southern Europe and western Asia, which has been widely introduced, primarily as an ornamental plant. It is of some concern due to its potential effects on natural habitats and its being a potential reservoir of the fruit-tree pathogen Erwinia amylovora, but is has only been recorded as invasive in a small number of countries, and in most of these sources differ as to how invasive it is.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Rosales
  •                         Family: Rosaceae
  •                             Genus: Pyracantha
  •                                 Species: Pyracantha coccinea

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Pyracantha is a genus of thorny shrubs in the Rosaceae family comprising about 10 species that are native to Asia and Europe (Csurhes et al., 2016). The genus name comes from the Greek pyr meaning fire and akantha meaning a thorn, referring to the thorny branches and the colour of the fruits. The specific epithet of Pyracantha coccinea comes from the Latin, meaning scarlet (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017a).

Description

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The following description is from Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2017):

Shrub with crowns spreading, 10–60 dm. Young twigs gray-hairy, glabrescent later. Leaves with stipules 4–8 mm; petiole 2–5 mm; blade elliptic or ovate to lanceolate or oblanceolate, 2–4 × 0.7–1.5 cm, base cuneate, margins finely crenulate-serrulate, apex acute, rarely obtuse, abaxial surface slightly hairy when young, glabrescent, adaxial glabrous. Inflorescences 3–4 cm diam.; bracteoles in distal axils 4–10 × 3–4 mm. Pedicels 3–10 mm, with coarse pale hairs. Flowers 6–8 mm diam.; hypanthium finely hairy; sepals triangular, 1.5–2 mm, apex acute; petals suborbiculate, 3–5 mm, apex rounded. Pomes bright red, 5–8 mm diam.; pedicels 5–12 mm.

Plant Type

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Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

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Pyracantha coccinea is native from southern Europe into the Caucasus Mountains in western Asia (Floridata, 2017). There are fossil records from the Pleistocene of the species extending into the north of Italy and into the UK, indicating that the temperature ranges were considerably warmer than at present (West et al., 1960; Sparks and West, 1970, Martinetto 2009). The species has been widely introduced and  is reported as present in Asia, Africa, North America, Central America, the Caribbean, South America, Europe and Oceania (see Distribution Table for details).

Pyracantha coccinea has been reported as invasive in Cuba, USA, Argentina and Japan, but not all sources agree on this. Vergara-Tabares et al. (2016) cite the species as being invasive at Japan, but it is not on the list of invasive species for that country, only reported as an alien species (National Institute for Environmental Studies, 2017). Oviedo Prieto et al. (2012) list it as invasive in Cuba, but no details are provided, the genus is not suited to hot tropical areas (Csurhes et al., 2016), and the species is not reported as present elsewhere in the West Indies by Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012).

In the USA the species is reported as invasive for Texas (Texas Invasives, 2017), but according to Nesom (2009) it is not invasive there as it falls under category F3 (“a species known from relatively few numbers, known from relatively few localities, usually in disturbed habitats, repeatedly introduced or perhaps merely long-persisting at some localities, not showing aggressively invasive tendencies, or perhaps incipiently invasive”). Although listed as invasive for Georgia in the Invasive Plant Atlas (Swearingen and Bargeron, 2017), it is listed there as a Category 4 exotic plant, defined “as being naturalized, but generally not posing a problem in natural areas or as a potentially invasive plant in need of additional information to determine its true status” (Georgia Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2017). Although listed as invasive in California (Swearingen and Bargeron, 2017), it is also considered as a “waif”, not being able to survive and reproduce without human help where not native (Plantright, 2017), and in 2016 its status in California was reconsidered and changed to being a species to watch, with a low risk of invasiveness as successful new introductions are rare, especially in areas that do not provide an ideal cool, moist climate (California Invasive Plant Council, 2017).

Villalobos et al. (2010) report that despite the high seed production and Pyracantha coccinea being established in abandoned agricultural fields in the Montpellier region of southern France, it has not become a widespread invasive. Although the conditions in these fields may promote its establishment and growth, seed predation and the lack of summer dormancy prevent it becoming a widespread invasive.

In Australia, the different Pyracantha species can form dense thickets and compete with the native vegetation, but they are not considered as invasive, but rather as potentially high-risk weeds only in some areas (Csurhes et al., 2016).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 26 Jun 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

South AfricaPresentIntroducedAt 1400 to 1500 m elev.
ZimbabwePresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedOrnamental

Asia

ArmeniaPresentNative
AzerbaijanPresentNative
ChinaPresentIntroduced
GeorgiaPresentNative
IranPresentNative
JapanPresentIntroduced
LebanonPresentNative
SyriaPresentNative
TaiwanPresentIntroduced
TurkeyPresentNative
YemenPresentIntroduced

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNative
AustriaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced1623
BelgiumPresentIntroduced
BulgariaPresentNative
CroatiaPresentNative
CzechiaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
DenmarkPresentIntroduced
FrancePresentNative
-CorsicaPresentIntroduced
GermanyPresentIntroduced
GreecePresentNative
HungaryPresentIntroduced
IrelandPresentIntroduced
ItalyPresentNative
MontenegroPresentNative
North MacedoniaPresentNative
NorwayPresentIntroduced
PortugalPresentIntroduced
RussiaPresentNative
SlovakiaPresent
SpainPresentNative
SwedenPresentIntroduced
SwitzerlandPresentNative
UkrainePresentNative
United KingdomPresentIntroduced1629NaturalizedCultivated and naturalized

North America

BermudaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced1914Planted. Orange Valley. No recent reports.
CanadaPresentIntroduced
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroduced
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentIntroduced
-Nova ScotiaPresentIntroduced
-OntarioPresentIntroduced
-Prince Edward IslandPresentIntroduced
Costa RicaPresentIntroduced
CubaPresentIntroducedOne source says that it is invasive
MexicoPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedOrnamental in urban areas and public gardens in Monterrey
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced
United StatesPresentIntroducedInvasive
-AlabamaPresentIntroduced
-ArizonaPresentIntroduced
-ArkansasPresentIntroduced
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced
-ColoradoPresentIntroduced
-ConnecticutPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-District of ColumbiaPresentIntroduced
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-GeorgiaPresentIntroduced
-IndianaPresentIntroduced
-KansasPresentIntroduced
-KentuckyPresentIntroduced
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced
-MarylandPresentIntroduced
-MississippiPresentIntroduced
-MissouriPresentIntroduced
-NevadaPresentIntroduced
-New JerseyPresentIntroduced
-New MexicoPresentIntroduced
-New YorkPresentIntroduced
-North CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-OhioPresentIntroduced
-OklahomaPresentIntroduced
-OregonPresentIntroduced
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroduced
-South CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-TennesseePresentIntroduced
-TexasPresentIntroducedInvasive
-UtahPresentIntroduced
-VirginiaPresentIntroduced
-WashingtonPresentIntroduced

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedSource says that this species is naturalized only in South Australia but (in the context of Queensland) that 'most species of Pyracantha have been used in some way as garden ornamentals in Australia'.
-South AustraliaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedNaturalizedSource says that this species is naturalized only locally but (in the context of Queensland) that 'most species of Pyracantha have been used in some way as garden ornamentals in Australia'.
New ZealandPresentIntroduced

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedInvasiveBuenos Aires and Córdoba highlands; invasive in the latter
BoliviaPresentIntroducedLa Paz
BrazilPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-Minas GeraisPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-ParanaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-Rio Grande do SulPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-Sao PauloPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
ChilePresentIntroduced
PeruPresentIntroducedCajamarca; in disturbed areas and shrublands
VenezuelaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedAt the Botanical Garden in Caracas

History of Introduction and Spread

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Pyracantha coccinea has been in cultivation in Europe since the 16th century (Encyclopedia of Life, 2017). It was brought to Central Europe between 1600-1650 as an ornamental, being present in Austria in 1623 (Lesel, 1994). It is also reported as being cultivated in the 17th century in what is now the UK, by 1629 in London and in Scotland by 1683. It was introduced to North America as an ornamental during the 18th century (Encyclopedia of Life, 2017). A member of the genus is reported as cultivated in Australia in 1867 (Csurhes et al., 2016). There are collections from Bermuda from 1914 (New York Botanical Garden, 2017). Its spread in the Córdoba highlands region in Argentina is attributed to bird dispersion (Vergara-Tabares et al., 2016).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Bermuda 1914 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No ​New York Botanical Garden (2017​) No recent reports
Austria 1623 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No Lesel (1994)
UK 1629 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No Harvey (1998)
Australia 1867 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No Csurhes et al. (2016) 1867 record refers to the genus, not necessarily to this species

Risk of Introduction

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Pyracantha coccinea is a species with a low risk of introduction into hot tropical areas and a higher risk in temperate areas and high elevations in subtropical areas. It is adapted to temperate climates and will not do well in hot tropical areas (Csurhes et al., 2016; Dave's Garden, 2017). Its popularity as an ornamental has facilitated its introduction worldwide since the early 17th century (Lesel, 1994). Also, its suggested use to provide fruits to birds at the beginning of winter enhance its risk of introduction in temperate areas (Sallabanks, 1993).

Habitat

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P. coccinea is found in rocky and steep areas, woodlands, coastal scrub, riparian areas, roadsides and borders of grasslands (Olmez et al., 2007; California Invasive Plant Council, 2017; PFAF, 2017). Members of the genus can be found in disturbed sites (Csurhes et al., 2016).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRocky areas / lava flows Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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The Pyracantha species are hosts of Erwinia amylovora, which causes fireblight, a serious disease of apples and pears (Csurhes et al., 2016). Caution should be taken when members of the genus are present near apple and pear orchards (Csurhes et al., 2016).

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for Pyracantha coccinea is 2n = 34 (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2017). Germplasm resources are available at the USDA-ARS facilities (USDA-ARS, 2017). The species has DNA barcode information available at the Barcode of Life Data System (Barcode of Life Data System, 2017).

Cultivars and hybrids are available, varying by form, fruit colour and hardiness (Floridata, 2017).

Reproductive Biology

Pyracantha coccinea reproduces by seed and from stem cuttings and grafting (Dave’s Garden, 2017). In vitro propagation protocols are provided by Dong et al. (2017). The species is reported as being pollinated by bees (PFAF, 2017). The seeds germinate best after cold stratification for 90-120 days (Olmez et al., 2007; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017a).

Physiology and Phenology

Pyracantha coccinea flowers during the spring; the fruits begin to develop during the summer and mature in the late autumn (Villalobos et al., 2010; Dave’s Garden, 2017). Best seed germination is obtained after soaking the seeds in water for 24 hours and with cold stratification for 90-120 days (Olmez et al., 2007; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017a).The species is evergreen in mild climates, but semi-evergreen to deciduous in colder areas (Missouri Botanical Garden 2017a). It has a fast growth rate (Encyclopedia of Life, 2017).

Longevity

Pyracantha coccinea is reported as having a moderate life span, without further details (Encyclopedia of Life, 2017).

Environmental Requirements

Pyracantha species are best adapted to temperate Mediterranean climates (Csurhes et al., 2016). Although P. coccinea grows in areas with colder winters, it should be planted in areas sheltered from cold winds (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017a). The species can survive in areas with temperatures down to -28.8 °C, although it is best suited to areas that do not get as cold as this (Dave’s Garden, 2017; The Spruce, 2017). It does not do well in hot tropical climates; it does grow in regions with average warmest-month of 26° to 30°C (Csurhes et al., 2016). It is reported in areas with an annual precipitation between 950 mm and 1350 mm. It is drought-tolerant; it prefers full sun, but will grow in shaded conditions. Its soil pH preference is mildly acidic (6.1 to 6.5), but it will grow at acid, neutral and basic soils (Dave’s Garden, 2017; PFAF, 2017). It is adapted to fine to medium textured soils, but will grow in other soils, if they are well-drained. It tolerates strong winds, but not maritime exposure; it is not fire resistant (PFAF, 2017).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Tolerated > 60mm precipitation per month
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Tolerated Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
53 -36

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -28.8
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 30
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -20.5

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall950mm1350mmmm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Eriosoma lanigerum Herbivore Leaves/Stems not specific
Erwinia amylovora Pathogen not specific
Fusicladium pyracanthae Pathogen not specific
Phyllonorycter leucographella Herbivore Leaves not specific
Pseudomonas syringae Pathogen not specific
Venturia inaequalis Pathogen not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Fungi and bacteria reported as affecting Pyracantha coccinea include Erwinia amylovora, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, Spilocaea pyracanthae [Fusicladium pyracanthae] and Venturia inaequalis (Bobev et al., 2004, 2008; Gladieux et al., 2010; Encyclopedia of Life, 2017). According to Dave’s Garden (2017), the seedlings are susceptible to fungi in tropical climates.

Possible insect pests include aphids, lace bugs, mites and scales (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017a; The Spruce, 2017). Specific species reported to affecting Pyracantha coccinea are Phyllonorycter leucographella and Eriosoma lanigerum (Walczak et al., 2010; Ortiz-Martínez et al., 2013).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Pyracantha coccinea is dispersed by birds, being an important food source between late autumn and early spring (Debussche and Isenmann, 1985). For example, in Europe, seeds have been found in stomach contents and droppings of the European robin, Erithacus rubecula, with dispersion occurring less than 100 m from the maternal plants (Debussche and Isenmann, 1990, 1994).

Accidental Introduction

Pyracantha coccinea is found in disturbed areas near where it is cultivated (Csurhes et al., 2016). Movement of garden waste is one means by which it can be spread (California Invasive Plant Council, 2017)

Intentional Introduction

Ornamental use of Pyracantha coccinea, and its transport to new areas for this purpose, have been recorded since the 17th century (Lesel, 1994). It is sold locally and internationally at nurseries and over the internet (Dave’s Garden, 2017).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Breeding and propagationFor ornamental purposes. Yes Yes Dave’s Garden, 2017
Digestion and excretionIn stomach and droppings of birds. Yes Debussche and Isenmann, 1985
Escape from confinement or garden escapeAs a garden escape aided by bird dispersal. Yes Vergara-Tabares et al., 2016
Garden waste disposal Yes California Invasive Plant Council, 2017
Hedges and windbreaks Yes Yes Dave’s Garden, 2017
HorticulturePopular ornamental shrub. Yes Yes Dave’s Garden, 2017
Internet salesSeeds and plants sold over the internet Yes Yes
Nursery tradeSold in nurseries Yes Yes Dave’s Garden, 2017
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes Dave’s Garden, 2017
Seed tradeSeeds are sold online and traded by gardeners. Yes Yes Dave’s Garden, 2017

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesWaste from its cultivation. Yes California Invasive Plant Council, 2017
MailSold locally and internationally at various internet sites. Yes Yes
Soil, sand and gravelSeeds could be dispersed in soil debris associated with its cultivation. Yes California Invasive Plant Council, 2017

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Economic Impact

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The Pyracantha species are hosts of Erwinia amylovora, which causes fireblight, which seriously affect apples and pear crops (Csurhes et al., 2016).

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

Pyracantha coccinea can affect fire risk. It has a medium flammability; the litter is slow to ignite and although flame propagation is low, it can burn for a long time (Ganteaume et al., 2013).

Impact on Biodiversity

Pyracantha coccinea is reported as outcompeting native species in forest areas in Texas, USA (Texas Invasives, 2017).

Social Impact

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Csurhes et al. (2016) report that Pyracantha species have the potential to form thorny thickets in riparian habitats and nearby pastures in Australia, with the possible effect of reducing productivity and impeding the movement of grazing animals and people.

The species of Pyracantha are recorded as having a low toxicity due to cyanogenic glycosides, with the possibility of causing gastrointestinal problems in dogs (Cortinovis and Caloni, 2013).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Rapid growth
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Economic Value

Pyracantha coccinea is a popular ornamental shrub in domestic gardens and commercial landscapes (Floridata, 2016), and is widely grown and traded.

Social Benefit

Pyracantha coccinea is a popular ornamental species, used for hedges and screens, massed to cover slopes, and used in espaliers to cover walls or fences. Because of its spines, it is grown near windows and as hedges around properties for protection (Dave’s Garden, 2017; Floridata, 2017). It is used in arrangements and bouquets because its attractive foliage and berries (Gutiérrez et al., 2007; Floridata, 2017). The fruits are used for jellies, sauces and marmalades (PFAF, 2017).

Environmental Services

Pyracantha coccinea flowers attract bees and butterflies. The fruits are an important food source for birds during the winter (McPherson 1987; Dave’s Garden, 2017). Its branches are used by birds for nesting (California Invasive Plant Council, 2017).

The use of this species has been proposed by Akguc et al. (2010) for the biomonitoring of copper and nickel. It is also used to prevent soil erosion (Olmez et al., 2007).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Wildlife habitat

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo

Human food and beverage

  • Fruits

Ornamental

  • garden plant
  • Seed trade

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Chemical Control

Dikegulac-sodium (3000-6000 p.p.m.) and chlorflurenol treatments reduce shoot and foliage growth of Pyracantha coccinea (Cohen 1978). Simazin causes severe foliage injury (Ries et al., 1959).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Information about the seed germination requirements and seedling establishment of Pyracantha coccinea is needed, as is detailed information about its invasiveness and its effects on natural habitats, especially in tropical areas.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

African Plant Database, 2017. African Plant Database. http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/africa/

Akguc, N., Ozyigit, I. I., Yasar, U., Leblebici, Z., Yarci, C., 2010. Use of Pyracantha coccinea Roem. as a possible biomonitor for the selected heavy metals. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 7(3), 427-434. http://www.ceers.org/ijest/issues/abstract_result.asp?ID=703002

Barcode of Life Data System, 2017. Barcode of Life Data System. http://www.boldsystems.org/

Bobev, S. G., Baeyen, S., Crepel, C., Maes, M., 2004. First report of fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora on Pyracantha coccinea in Bulgaria. Plant Disease, 88(4), 427. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.4.427A

Bobev, S. G., Baeyen, S., Vaerenbergh, J. van, Maes, M., 2008. First record of bacterial blight caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae on Pyracantha coccinea and an Amelanchier sp. in Bulgaria. Plant Disease, 92(8), 1251. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-92-8-1251C

California Invasive Plant Council, 2017. Plants A to Z. Berkeley, California, USA: California Invasive Plant Council.https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profiles/

Cohen, M. A., 1978. Effect of growth inhibitors on three ornamental species. Scientia Horticulturae, 9(3), 279-283. doi: 10.1016/0304-4238(78)90010-9

Conover, MR, Kania, GS, 1988. Browsing preference of white-tailed deer for different ornamental species. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 16(2), 175-179. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3782186

Cortinovis, C., Caloni, F., 2013. Epidemiology of intoxication of domestic animals by plants in Europe. Veterinary Journal, 197(2), 163-168. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.03.007

Csurhes, S, Weber, J, Zhou, Y, 2016. Invasive plant risk assessment: Firethorn: Pyracantha species. Queensland, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Biosecurity Queensland.26 pp. https://www.daf.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/55776/IPA-Firethorn-Risk-Assessment.pdf

Dave's Garden, 2017. Dave's Garden. In: Dave's Garden El Segundo, California, USA: Internet Brands.http://davesgarden.com

Debussche M, Isenmann P, 1985. Frugivory of transient and wintering European Robins Erithacus rubecula in a Mediterranean region and its relationship with ornithochory. Holartic Ecology, 8(2), 157-163.

Debussche M, Isenmann P, 1990. Introduced and cultivated fleshy-fruited plants: consequences of a mutualistic Mediterranean plant-bird system. In: Biological Invasions in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin, [ed. by Castri F di, Hansen AJ, Debussche M]. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-1876-4_26 [Monographiae Biologicae, vol 65]

Debussche, M., Isenmann, P., 1994. Bird-dispersed seed rain and seedling establishment in patchy Mediterranean vegetation. Oikos, 69(3), 414-426. doi: 10.2307/3545854

Dong Chao, Li Xue, Xi Yue, Cheng ZongMing, 2017. Micropropagation of Pyracantha coccinea. HortScience, 52(2), 271-273. doi: 10.21273/HORTSCI11301-16

Encyclopedia of Life, 2017. Encyclopedia of Life. In: Encyclopedia of Life . http://www.eol.org

Euro+Med, 2017. Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. In: Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity . http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed

Flora do Brasil, 2017. Brazilian flora 2020. In: Brazilian flora 2020 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden.http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br

Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2017. Flora of North America North of Mexico. In: Flora of North America North of Mexico St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1

Floridata, 2017. Floridata. In: Floridata Tallahassee, Florida, USA: Floridata.http://www.floridata.com/

Ganteaume, A., Jappiot, M., Lampin, C., 2013. Assessing the flammability of surface fuels beneath ornamental vegetation in wildland-urban interfaces in Provence (south-eastern France). International Journal of Wildland Fire, 22(3), 333-342. doi: 10.1071/WF12006

Georgia Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2017. List of Non-native Invasive Plants in Georgia. Tifton, Georgia, USA: Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.https://www.gaeppc.org/list/

Gladieux, P., Caffier, V., Devaux, M., Cam, B. le, 2010. Host-specific differentiation among populations of Venturia inaequalis causing scab on apple, pyracantha and loquat. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 47(6), 511-521. doi: 10.1016/j.fgb.2009.12.007

Gutiérrez, I. C., Guarín, S., Rodríguez, L. E., 2007. Prospecting and evaluation of promising foliage species to include in bouquets. (Prospección y evaluación de especies con potencial de follaje para la elaboración de bouquets). Agronomía Colombiana, 25(1), 176-188.

Harvey, JH, 1998. The English nursery flora, 1677-1723. Garden History, 26(1), 60-101.

Lasser, T, Braun, A, Steyermark, J, 1974. Catalogue of plants growing in the Botanical Garden of the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, Caracas. (Catálogo de las plantas que crecen en el Jardín Botánico del Ministerio de Agricultura y Cría, Caracas). In: Acta Botánica Venezuélica , 9(1/4) . 9-61. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41740621

Lesel, A, 1994. Neugebäude Palace and its gardens: The green dream of Maximilian II. Ekistics, 61(364/365), 59-67.

Maroyi, A, 2008. Preliminary checklist of introduced and naturalized plants in Zimbabw. Kirkia, 18(2), 177-247. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23502330

Martinetto E, 2009. Palaeoenvironmental significance of plant macrofossils from the Piànico Formation, Middle Pleistocene of Lombardy, North Italy. Quaternary International, 204, 20-30.

McPherson JM, 1987. A field study of winter fruit preferences of Cedar Waxwings. The Condor, 89(2), 293-306.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017. Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder. In: Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/plantfinder/plantfindersearch.aspx

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/

National Institute for Environmental Studies, 2017. Invasive Species of Japan. Tsukuba, Japan: National Institute for Environmental Studies.http://www.nies.go.jp/biodiversity/invasive/index-en.html

Nesom, GL, 2009. Assessment of invasiveness and ecological impact in non-native plants of Texas. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 3(2), 971-991.

New York Botanical Garden, 2017. The C. Starr Virtual Herbarium. In: The C. Starr Virtual Herbarium New York, USA: New York Botanical Garden.http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/vh/

Olmez Z, Temel F, Gokturk A, Yahyaogiu Z, 2007. Effect of cold stratification treatments on germination of drought tolerant shrubs seeds. Journal of Environmental Biology, 28(22), 447-453.

Online Atlas of the British & Irish Flora, 2020. Online Atlas of the British & Irish Flora. In: Online Atlas of the British & Irish Flora : Botanical Society of the British Isles; Biological Records Centre; Joint Nature Conservation Committee; Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.http://www.brc.ac.uk/plantatlas/

Ortiz-Martínez, S. A., Ramírez, C. C., Lavandero, B., 2013. Host acceptance behavior of the parasitoid Aphelinus mali and its aphid-host Eriosoma lanigerum on two Rosaceae plant species. Journal of Pest Science, 86(4), 659-667. doi: 10.1007/s10340-013-0518-6

Oviedo Prieto, R., Herrera Oliver, P., Caluff, M. G., et al., 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

PFAF, 2017. Plants For A Future Database. In: Plants For A Future Database Dawlish, UK: Plants For A Future.http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Default.aspx

Plantright, 2017. Plantright. Sacramento, California, USA: Plantright.https://plantright.org/

Ries, S. K., Grigsby, B. H., Davidson, H., 1959. Evaluation of herbicides for several species of ornamentals. Weeds, 7, 409-17.

Robertson, FW, 2001. James Sutherland’s “Hortus Medicus Edinburgensis” (1683). Garden History, 29(2), 121-151.

Rocha Estrada, A, Torres Cepeda, TE, González de la Rosa, MC, Martínez Lozano, SJ, Alvarado Vázquez, MA, 1988. (Flora ornamental en plazas y jardines públicos del área metropolitan de Monterrey, México). Sida, 18(2), 579-586.

Sallabanks, R., 1993. Fruiting plant attractiveness to avian seed dispersers: native vs. invasive Crataegus in western Oregon. Madroño, 40(2), 108-116.

Sparks BW, West RG, 1970. Late Pleistocene deposits at Wretton, Norfolk. I. Ipswichian interglacial deposits. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 258(818), 1-30. doi: https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1970.0030

Swearingen, J., Bargeron, C., 2017. Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States. In: Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States . Tifton, Georgia, USA: University of Georgia Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.http://www.invasiveplantatlas.org/

Swearingen, J., Bargeron, C., 2018. Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States. In: Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States . Tifton, Georgia, USA: University of Georgia Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.http://www.invasiveplantatlas.org/

Texas Invasives, 2017. Texas Invasives. https://www.texasinvasives.org/

The Spruce, 2017. Growing Trees & Shrubs. New York, New York, USA: The Spruce.https://www.thespruce.com/trees-and-shrubs-4127746

USDA-ARS, 2017. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Vergara-Tabares, D. L., Badini, J., Peluc, S. I., 2016. Fruiting phenology as a "triggering attribute" of invasion process: do invasive species take advantage of seed dispersal service provided by native birds?. Biological Invasions, 18(3), 677-687. doi: 10.1007/s10530-015-1039-4

Villalobos, A. E. de, Vázquez, D. P., Martin, J. L., 2010. Soil disturbance, vegetation cover and the establishment of the exotic shrub Pyracantha coccinea in southern France. Biological Invasions, 12(5), 1023-1029. doi: 10.1007/s10530-009-9519-z

Walczak, U., Baraniak, E., Jerzak, E., 2010. Host range of an invasive moth, Phyllonorycter leucographella. Journal of Applied Entomology, 134(9/10), 714-717. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0418.2010.01513.x

West RG, Sparks BW, Sutcliffe AT, 1960. Coastal interglacial deposits of the English Channel. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 243(701), 95-133. doi: https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1960.0006

ZipcodeZoo, 2017. ZipcodeZoo. Bethesda, Maryland, USA: The Bayscience Foundation, Inc.http://zipcodezoo.com/

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

African Plant Database, 2017. African Plant Database., http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/africa/

CABI, 2020. CABI Distribution Database: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

California Invasive Plant Council, 2017. Plants A to Z., Berkeley, California, USA: California Invasive Plant Council. https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profiles/

Conover MR, Kania GS, 1988. Browsing preference of white-tailed deer for different ornamental species. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 16 (2), 175-179. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3782186

Csurhes S, Weber J, Zhou Y, 2016. Invasive plant risk assessment: Firethorn: Pyracantha species., Queensland, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Biosecurity Queensland. 26 pp. https://www.daf.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/55776/IPA-Firethorn-Risk-Assessment.pdf

Dave's Garden, 2017. Dave's Garden. In: Dave's Garden. El Segundo, California, USA: Internet Brands. http://davesgarden.com

Encyclopedia of Life, 2017. Encyclopedia of Life. In: Encyclopedia of Life. http://www.eol.org

Euro+Med, 2017. Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. In: Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed

Flora do Brasil, 2017. Brazilian flora 2020. In: Brazilian flora 2020. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br

Georgia Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2017. List of Non-native Invasive Plants in Georgia., Tifton, Georgia, USA: Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. https://www.gaeppc.org/list/

Gladieux P, Caffier V, Devaux M, Cam B le, 2010. Host-specific differentiation among populations of Venturia inaequalis causing scab on apple, pyracantha and loquat. Fungal Genetics and Biology. 47 (6), 511-521. DOI:10.1016/j.fgb.2009.12.007

Harvey JH, 1998. The English nursery flora, 1677-1723. Garden History. 26 (1), 60-101.

Lasser T, Braun A, Steyermark J, 1974. Catalogue of plants growing in the Botanical Garden of the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, Caracas. (Catálogo de las plantas que crecen en el Jardín Botánico del Ministerio de Agricultura y Cría, Caracas). In: Acta Botánica Venezuélica, 9 (1/4) 9-61. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41740621

Lesel A, 1994. Neugebäude Palace and its gardens: The green dream of Maximilian II. Ekistics. 61 (364/365), 59-67.

Maroyi A, 2008. Preliminary checklist of introduced and naturalized plants in Zimbabw. Kirkia. 18 (2), 177-247. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23502330

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

National Institute for Environmental Studies, 2017. Invasive Species of Japan., Tsukuba, Japan: National Institute for Environmental Studies. http://www.nies.go.jp/biodiversity/invasive/index-en.html

Nesom GL, 2009. Assessment of invasiveness and ecological impact in non-native plants of Texas. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 3 (2), 971-991.

New York Botanical Garden, 2017. The C. Starr Virtual Herbarium. In: The C. Starr Virtual Herbarium. New York, USA: New York Botanical Garden.

Online Atlas of the British & Irish Flora, 2020. Online Atlas of the British & Irish Flora. In: Online Atlas of the British & Irish Flora, Botanical Society of the British Isles; Biological Records Centre; Joint Nature Conservation Committee; Centre for Ecology and Hydrology. http://www.brc.ac.uk/plantatlas/

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

Robertson FW, 2001. James Sutherland’s “Hortus Medicus Edinburgensis” (1683). Garden History. 29 (2), 121-151.

Rocha Estrada A, Torres Cepeda TE, González de la Rosa MC, Martínez Lozano SJ, Alvarado Vázquez MA, 1988. (Flora ornamental en plazas y jardines públicos del área metropolitan de Monterrey, México). Sida. 18 (2), 579-586.

Swearingen J, Bargeron C, 2017. Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States. In: Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States. Tifton, Georgia, USA: University of Georgia Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. http://www.invasiveplantatlas.org/

Swearingen J, Bargeron C, 2018. Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States. In: Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States. Tifton, Georgia, USA: University of Georgia Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. http://www.invasiveplantatlas.org/

Texas Invasives, 2017. Texas Invasives., https://www.texasinvasives.org/

USDA-ARS, 2017. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Vergara-Tabares D L, Badini J, Peluc S I, 2016. Fruiting phenology as a "triggering attribute" of invasion process: do invasive species take advantage of seed dispersal service provided by native birds? Biological Invasions. 18 (3), 677-687. DOI:10.1007/s10530-015-1039-4

ZipcodeZoo, 2017. ZipcodeZoo. Bethesda, Maryland, USA: The Bayscience Foundation, Inc. http://zipcodezoo.com/

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
African Plant Databasehttp://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/africa/recherche.php
California Invasive Plant Councilhttp://www.cal-ipc.org/
Dave’s Gardenhttps://davesgarden.com
Encyclopedia of Lifehttp://eol.org/
Euro + Med PlantBasehttp://www.emplantbase.org/home.html
Flora do Brasilhttp://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
Floridatahttps://floridata.com
Georgia Exotic Pest Plant Councilhttps://www.gaeppc.org/list/
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States https://www.invasiveplantatlas.org/
New York Botanical Garden databasehttp://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/vh/
Plant Finderhttp://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/plantfinder/plantfindersearch.aspx
Plantrighthttps://plantright.org
Plants for a Futurehttp://www.pfaf.org
Texas Invasiveshttps://texasinvasives.org
The Barcode of Life Data Systemshttp://www.boldsystems.org/index.php/TaxBrowser_Home

Contributors

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29/12/17: Original text by:

Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán, Universidad de Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico

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