Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Punctodera chalcoensis



Punctodera chalcoensis


  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Punctodera chalcoensis
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Class: Secernentea
  •         Order: Tylenchida

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Light microscope J2 showing shape of stylet/stylet knob.
TitleDetail of stylet/stylet knob
CaptionLight microscope J2 showing shape of stylet/stylet knob.
CopyrightJanet A. Rowe
Light microscope J2 showing shape of stylet/stylet knob.
Detail of stylet/stylet knobLight microscope J2 showing shape of stylet/stylet knob.Janet A. Rowe


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Punctodera chalcoensis Stone, Sosa-Moss & Mulvey, 1976

Other Scientific Names

  • Heterodera punctata Thorne 1928

Local Common Names

  • Mexico: mexican corn cyst nematode; nematodo enquistado del maiz

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Class: Secernentea
  •                 Order: Tylenchida
  •                     Family: Heteroderidae
  •                         Genus: Punctodera
  •                             Species: Punctodera chalcoensis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

North America

MexicoWidespreadMundo-Ocampo et 1987; Baldwin and Mundo-Ocampo, 1991; EPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

Top of page Seedling stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Roots / cysts on root surface
Roots / reduced root system
Whole plant / dwarfing

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsCarrying host plants. Yes
Containers and packaging - woodWith host plants. Yes
Land vehiclesIn soil. Yes
Soil, sand and gravel Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes adults; cysts; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Growing medium accompanying plants adults; cysts; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots adults; cysts; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; cysts; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Fruits (inc. pods)
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)


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Baldwin JG; Mundo-Ocampo M, 1991. Heteroderinae, cyst and non-cyst forming nematodes. In: Nickle WR, ed. Manual of Agricultural Nematology. New York, USA: Marcel Dekker, 275-362.

Baldwin JG; Schouest LPJr, 1990. Comparative detailed morphology of the Heteroderinae Filip'ev & Schuurmans Stekhoven, 1941, sensu Luc et al (1988): phylogenetic systematics and revised classification. Systematic Parasitology, 15(2):81-106; 56 ref.

Becerra LEN; Sosa-Moss C, 1978. Relacion del Nematodo enquistado del maiz Punctodera chalcoensis (Stone, Sosa-Moss y Mulvey) con otros microorganismo fitopatogenos del suelo. Tesis de Maestria en ciencias agricolas del primer autor. Chapingo, Mexico: Colegio de Postgraduados.

de Santiago SA; Sosa-Moss C; Garcia-Gomez FA, 1984. Control de nemátodos del maiz Zea mays L., Crillo chalque±o, mediante immersfon de semillas en nematicidas sistemicos. Revista Chapingo, 43-44, 93-96.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

Franklin MT, 1949. The cyst-forming species of Heterodera. Bucks, UK: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux.

Hernandez AL, 1965. Comportamiento de tres variedades de maiz al ataque de Heterodera punctata Thorne, Tesis de Maestria. Mexico: Escuela Nacional de Agriculture. Chapingo, Estado de Mexico.

Jeronimo J, 1988. El nematodo enquistado del maiz Punctodera sp. y su expresion en 17 municipios del estado de Michoacan, Thesis. Uruapan, Michoacan, Mexico: Universidad Michoacana de san Nicolas de Hidalgo.

Mu±oz RC; Sosa-Moss C, 1983. Ciclo de vida de Punctodera chalcoensis Stone, Sosa Moss y Mulvey, 1976. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae), Tesis. Mexico: Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas.

Mulvey RH; Stone AR, 1976. Description of Punctodera matadorensis n.gen., n.sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from Saskatchewan with lists of species and generic diagnoses of Globodera (n. rank), Heterodera, and Sarisodera. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 54(5):772-785

Mundo-Ocampo M; Baldwin JG; Jeronimo RJ, 1987. Distribution, morphological variation and host range of Punctodera chalcoensis (abstract). Journal of Nematology, 19:545-546.

Netscher C; Seinhorst JW, 1969. Propionic acid better than acetic acid for killing nematodes. Nematologica, 15:286.

Sabo A; Reis LGL; Krall E; Mundo-Ocampo M; Ferris VR, 2002. Phylogenetic relationships of a distinct species of Globodera from Portugal and two Punctodera species. Journal of Nematology, 34(3):263-266.

Santa Cruz UH, 1982. Identificacion de generas de nematodos y evaluacion de sus poblaciones en quinze Municipos del Estado de Michoacan, Tesis professional. Michoacan, Mexico: Dpto de Parasitologia agricola, Fac. de Agrobiologia, Presidente Juarez Uruapan.

Sosa-Moss C, 1963. Exploración nematológica en la región papera del Valle de Toluca, Tesis de Moestria en Ciencias agricolas. Chapingo, Mexico: Colegio de Postgraduados, Escuela Nacional de Agriculture.

Sosa-Moss C, 1965. Recherches sur Heterodera punctata Thorne, parasite du mais au Mexique. Comptes Rendus de HuitiFme Symposium International de Nématologie, Antibes, France, September 8-14. Leiden: EJ Brill.

Sosa-Moss C, 1977. Situación taxonómica actual del nemátodo enquistado que ataca al maiz en México. Memorias del Séptimo Congreso Nacional de Fitopatologia, Sociedad Mexicana de Fitopatologia, Mexico, D.F.

Sosa-Moss C, 1987. Cyst nematodes in Mexico, Central and South America. Nematologia Mediterranea, 15(1):1-12.

Sosa-Moss C; Gonzales CP, 1973. Respuesta del maiz chalquenó fertilizado y no fertilizado a cuatro diferentes niveles de Heterodera punctata raza Mexicana (Nematoda: Heteroderidae). Nematropica, 3:13-14.

Stone AR; Sosa Moss C; Mulvey RH, 1976. Punctodera chalcoensis n.sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) a cyst nematode from Mexico parasitising Zea mays. Nematologica, 22(4):381-389

Thorne G, 1928. Heterodera punctata n.sp. a nematode parasite on wheat roots from Saskatchewan. Scientific Agriculture, 8:707-710.

Usher G, 1974. A dictionary of plants used by man. A dictionary of plants used by man. Constable and Company Ltd. London UK, 619pp.

Vazquez JT, 1971. Principales problemas nematológicos en México. Nematropica, 1(1):30.

Vazquez JT, 1976. Infestations of parasitic nematodes as a factor limiting the production of maize in the Mexican altiplano. Infestaciones de nematodes fitoparasitos como factor limitante en la produccion de maiz en el altiplano Mexicano. DGEM. Xalapa, Veracruz Mexico, 79 pp.

Villanueva RMJ; Sosa-Moss C, 1974. Comparacion morformetrica entre una poblacion inglesa y una Mexicana de Heterodera punctata radiculares en la eclosión de huevecillo en la poblacion Mexicana, Tesis Profesional del primer autor. Mexico: Instituto Politécnico Nacional de México D.F.

Distribution Maps

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