Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pueraria phaseoloides
(tropical kudzu)

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Datasheet

Pueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pueraria phaseoloides
  • Preferred Common Name
  • tropical kudzu
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • P. phaseoloides is a vigorous fast-growing vine included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012) and lis...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
P. phaseoloides foliage.
TitleFoliage
CaptionP. phaseoloides foliage.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
P. phaseoloides foliage.
FoliageP. phaseoloides foliage.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Flowers small, mauve to deep purple, borne in pairs on axillary racemes 10-30 cm long, on peduncles ca 15 cm long.
TitleFlowers
CaptionFlowers small, mauve to deep purple, borne in pairs on axillary racemes 10-30 cm long, on peduncles ca 15 cm long.
CopyrightNOVARTIS
Flowers small, mauve to deep purple, borne in pairs on axillary racemes 10-30 cm long, on peduncles ca 15 cm long.
FlowersFlowers small, mauve to deep purple, borne in pairs on axillary racemes 10-30 cm long, on peduncles ca 15 cm long.NOVARTIS

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth.

Preferred Common Name

  • tropical kudzu

Other Scientific Names

  • Dolichos phaseoloides Roxb.
  • Pueraria javanica (Benth.) Benth.

International Common Names

  • English: puero
  • Spanish: kudzu; kurzu; yerba kudzu
  • French: kudzu tropical
  • Chinese: san lie ye ye ge

Local Common Names

  • Cook Islands: kutu
  • Indonesia: krandang
  • Lesser Antilles: bwa mang
  • Malaysia: foea banga
  • Thailand: suak pied

EPPO code

  • PUEPH (Pueraria phaseoloides)

Summary of Invasiveness

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P. phaseoloides is a vigorous fast-growing vine included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012) and listed as one of the most aggressive weeds invading moist habitats in tropical and subtropical regions (USDA-ARS, 2012). It spreads by seeds and by runners (i.e., stolons) which are structures that enable plants to multiply rapidly and colonize entire forests very fast. This species has been extensively introduced in tropical and subtropical region of the world to be used as forage for livestock, to control soil erosion, and as a soil improvement species (Skerman et al., 1991; Cook et al., 2005). P. phaseoloides has the potential to degrade other plants by smothering them under a solid blanket of leaves, by girdling woody stems and tree trunks, and by breaking branches or uprooting entire trees and shrubs by the strength of its weight. Currently, this species is classified as a “noxious weed” in the United States (USDA-NRCS,2012) and as an invasive species in Costa Rica, Ecuador, Puerto Rico and Pacific Islands including Hawaii, Fiji, French Polynesia, Niue and New Caledonia (Soria et al., 2002; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Chacón and Saborio, 2012; PIER, 2012).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Faboideae
  •                                 Genus: Pueraria
  •                                     Species: Pueraria phaseoloides

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Fabaceae is one the largest families of flowering plants. The family includes about 745 genera and 19500 species that can be found throughout the world, growing in many different environments and climates (Stevens, 2012). The species within the subfamiliy Faboideae (also known as Papilionoideae) are usually herbs, shrubs, and vines and often have once-compound leaves. The genus Pueraria comprises six species native to Southern Asia (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005). This genus also includes the species Pueraria montana var. lobata which is a vigorous vine listed as one the most noxious weeds in the United States and one of the 100 world’s worst invasive alien species (Soria et al., 2002; ISSG, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2012).

Description

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Herbaceous vine, twining, much branched, attaining 15 m in length. Stems cylindrical; leaves alternate, trifoliolate; leaflets 3-12(14) × 2.9-8.7(13) cm, chartaceous, ovate or rhombic, the lateral ones asymmetrical, the apex acute, the base cuneate on the central leaflet, rounded-obtuse on the lateral ones, the margins entire; upper surface dark green, dull, pubescent, especially on the veins; lower surface pale green, strigose, with prominent venation; petiolules swollen, 4-5 mm long, pubescent; petioles sulcate, pubescent, up to 12 cm long, with the base swollen; stipules narrowly lanceolate, 3-5 mm long; stipels subulate, minute, persistent. Pseudo-racemes axillary, solitary, up to 25 cm long, with 2-3 mauve to deep purple flowers per node; bracts minute, persistent; peduncles pubescent and ca 15 cm long. Calyx campanulate, approximately 5 mm long. Fruit is a linear, flattened legume, 6-9 cm long, slightly curved, dehiscent by valves that open in a spiral, the valves septate between the seeds. Seeds are numerous, 8-25 per pod, approximately 3 mm long, oblong, dark brown to almost black (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005).

Plant Type

Top of page Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vine / climber

Distribution

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P. phaseoloides is native to wet tropical areas in southern China, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Brunei, Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands. It has been extensively introduced in tropical and subtropical areas to be used as a forage and soil improvement species and it can be found naturalized throughout the humid-tropics (Cook et al., 2005; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2012; PIER, 2012). It is well adapted to Northern Australia, the Pacific Islands and tropical regions of Africa, North, Central and South America.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

LiberiaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Hepper, 1958
MauritiusPresentIntroducedILDIS (2013)
RéunionPresentIntroducedILDIS (2013)
SeychellesPresentIntroducedILDIS (2013)
Sierra LeonePresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Hepper, 1958

Asia

BangladeshPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
BhutanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
BruneiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
CambodiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
ChinaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-GuangdongPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2012)
-GuangxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2012)
-HainanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2012)
-YunnanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2012)
-ZhejiangPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2012)
Hong KongPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2012)
IndiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012); CABI (Undated)
IndonesiaPresentNativeWaterhouse (1993); USDA-ARS (2012); CABI (Undated)
LaosPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
MalaysiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012); CABI (Undated)
MyanmarPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012); Waterhouse (1993)
NepalPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
PhilippinesPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012); Waterhouse (1993)
SingaporePresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009); Waterhouse (1993)
Sri LankaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
TaiwanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
ThailandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012); Waterhouse (1993)
VietnamPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)

North America

BelizePresentIntroducedDwyer and Spellman (1981)
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012)
CubaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
GuadeloupePresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAdams (1972)
MartiniquePresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
MexicoPresentIntroducedVillaseñor and Espinosa-Garcia (2004)
PanamaPresentIntroducedCorrea et al. (2004)
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedInvasiveAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedGraveson (2012)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)St. John
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasiveWagner et al. (1999)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2013)
Christmas IslandPresentIntroducedSwarbrick (1997)
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedMcCormack (2007)
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasiveSmith (1985)
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveFlorence et al. (2011)
GuamPresentIntroducedRaulerson (2006)
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveMacKee (1994)
NiuePresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace et al. (2004)
PalauPresentIntroducedRaulerson (2006)
Papua New GuineaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
SamoaPresentIntroducedPIER (2012)
Solomon IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)

South America

BoliviaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2013)
BrazilPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-AcrePresentIntroducedForzza RC et al. (2012)Subspontaneous
-AmazonasPresentIntroducedForzza RC et al. (2012)
-BahiaPresentIntroducedForzza RC et al. (2012)
-GoiasPresentIntroducedForzza RC et al. (2012)Subspontaneous
-ParaPresentIntroducedForzza RC et al. (2012)
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedForzza RC et al. (2012)Subspontaneous
ColombiaPresentIntroducedIdárraga-Piedrahita et al. (2011)
EcuadorPresentIntroducedJørgensen and León-Yànez (1999)
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveSoria et al. (2002)
French GuianaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFunk et al. (2007)naturalized
GuyanaPresentIntroducedFunk et al. (2007)
PeruPresentIntroducedILDIS (2013)
SurinamePresentIntroducedNaturalizedFunk et al. (2007)naturalized

History of Introduction and Spread

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P. phaseoloides has been deliberately introduced into moist tropical and subtropical regions of the world to be used as a forage legume species (Skerman et al., 1991; Cook et al., 2005). In Puerto Rico, this species was apparently originally introduced on lands of the Agricultural Experiment Station in Mayagüez in 1940 from material from Malaya (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005). At the Smithsonian Herbarium, the first record of this species for the West Indies comes from a collection made in 1945 in La Vega, Dominican Republic (Smithsonian Herbarium Collection).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of P. phaseoloides is very high. This species is an aggressive invasive vine widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions of the world and it has the capability to spread rapidly into natural forest, climbing into the canopy of mature trees and forming dense colonies (Cook et al., 2005; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2012; PIER, 2012).

Habitat

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P. phaseoloides grows in semi-open to completely open areas at lower and middle elevations. It prefers annual rainfall regimes of >1500 mm, but will grow in the sub-humid tropics in 1000-1500 mm/year rainfall environments, particularly where temporary waterlogging occurs. It is an aggressive weed and can be found growing in pastures, grassland with a scattered shrub layer, riverbanks, coastal forests, disturbed forests, forest edges, along roadsides, waste sites, and even on fences (Soria et al., 2002; Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; PIER, 2012; Randall, 2012).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number for P. phaseoloides is 2n = 22 (Kumar and Hymowitz, 1989).

Physiology and Phenology

In Puerto Rico, P. phaseoloides has been observed flowering and fruiting from November to March (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005). In Brazil it has been observed flowering from April to May (Cook et al., 2005).

Associations

P. phaseoloides is widespread in moist open and semi-open areas, often degraded, at lower and middle elevations including pastures, grassland with a scattered shrub layer, and disturbed forests (Soria et al., 2002; PIER, 2012; Randall, 2012). In Puerto Rico, this species is a component of the weed community in roadsides, disturbed areas, and pastures in lower and middle elevations (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005). Like many legumes, P. phaseoloides is a nitrogen-fixing species and has root nodules housing Rhizobium bacteria (Skerman et al., 1991; Cook et al., 2005).

Environmental Requirements

P. phaseoloides grows in moist areas at low to middle elevations (from sea level to 1600m asl) with temperatures ranging from 15°C to 30°C, and high precipitation (>1500 mm annual rainfall). Ludlow and Wilson (1970) obtained only 8.3% of the dry matter, 24% of the relative growth rate, and 4% of the leaf area at 20°C as was produced at 30°C. This species grows well in a great variety of soil types (from sands to clay) with pH ranging from 4 to 6.5, but does not perform well on heavy clays (Cook et al., 2005). Landrau et al. (1953) found good growth at pH 4.5 on a lateritic soil, and at pH 4.6-5.1 in a clay soil. It is able to grow in very wet soils and it can survive short periods of flooding. P. phaseoloides does not tolerate salinity or frost conditions and it is not adapted to drought (Skerman et al., 1991; Cook et al., 2005). This species prefers to grow in fully sunlit open areas, but it is also adapted to partially shaded conditions (Cook et al., 2005).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 30

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall8504000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • shallow

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Leaf spot (Pseudocercospora puerariae) is common throughout tropical America, causing defoliation under humid conditions. Anthracnose (Glomerella cingulata) has been reported in P. phaseoloides plants growing in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, and on some islands in the Caribbean. Under prolonged humid conditions P. phaseoloides can be defoliated by the foliar blight Thanatephorus cucumeris (Skerman et al., 1991; Cook et al., 2005).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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P. phaseoloides reproduces sexually by seeds and also vegetatively by runners (i.e., stolons) forming dense colonies in a short time period (Skerman et al., 1991). Plants produce a prolific amount of viable seeds (10-20 seeds/pod) which can be dispersed by animals and by water (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005). Plant fragments may be broken off and dispersed to new locations by humans, wild animals, livestock, vehicles, and/or floodwaters (Skerman et al., 1991; Cook et al., 2005).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Animal productionForage legume Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
ForageForage legume Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Habitat restoration and improvementPlanted to control erosion Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
HorticultureNitrogen fixing plant used for soil improvement Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005

Pathway Vectors

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Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Economic Impact

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P. phaseoloides has economic value as a forage and cover crop, and is frequently deliberately used to suppress other weed growth, but it can also get out of control and itself become a problem. This has been the case especially in West Africa, e.g. in oil palm, where it has been listed as one of the three dominant weed species requiring control (Gill and Onyibe, 1988). Waterhouse (1993) lists P. phaseoloides as a widespread and important weed in Thailand and Singapore, and as present as a weed in Indonesia, Myanmar and the Philippines.

Environmental Impact

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P. phaseoloides is an aggressive invasive vine that grows rapidly forming dense colonies that engulf native vegetation, climbing high into mature tree canopies and shading-out trees and shrubs in the understory (Randall, 2012). This species has the potential to completely out-compete vegetation communities and degrade other plants by smothering them under a solid blanket of leaves, by girdling woody stems and tree trunks, and by breaking branches or uprooting entire trees and shrubs by the strength of its weight (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; PIER, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2012).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Competition - strangling
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally

Uses

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P. phaseoloides is grown as a cover crop in oil palm, rubber and coconut. When it is grown with other legume species, it suppresses weed infestation, controls erosion on hilly slopes, enriches the soil by fixation of atmospheric nitrogen by the root nodules, and also adds organic matter from its leaf litter. It also serves as an excellent soil cover. Horrell (1958) found P. phaseoloides to be self-mulching and to add considerable nitrogen by mineralization of leaf litter.

P. phaseoloides is also planted as a pasture legume together with other grass species. Teitzel (1969) reported that Puero-based mixed pastures were some of the most productive areas under grazing in the wet tropics of North Queensland, Australia. In the tropical Americas this species is considered a valuable fodder plant and it is intentionally planted to be used as cut and carry forage (Skerman et al., 1991; Cook et al., 2005). 

The tuberous roots are edible and the stems can be used as ropes. In traditional medicine, it is used to control boils and ulcers.

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

Environmental

  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Soil improvement

Materials

  • Fibre

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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P. phaseoloides is very similar to the real kudzu Pueraria montana var. lobata. These two species can be differentiated by their capability to produce underground tubers. The species P. phaseoloides does not produce any underground tubers and its fruits are relative narrow (about 5mm across). P. montana var. lobata produce large underground tubers (up to 1.8 m long and 15 cm wide) and its fruits are relatively wide (about 12 mm across; Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

While most growers are concerned to control other weeds to assist the establishment of P. phaseoloides, it can become necessary to control P. phaseoloides itself where it is a weed or invasive plant. This can be achieved with 2,4-D and related compounds. It is also susceptible to paraquat (Riepma, 1962). It recovers from glyphosate at 0.75 kg/ha and from mixtures of asulam with dalapon, triclopyr, etc. (Ikuenobe and Utulu, 1992). Chikoye et al. (2009) describe control in maize by atrazine, a mixture of atrazine and metolachlor, and a mixture of mesotrione, S-metolachlor and atrazine.

Tye (2007) reports the successful eradication of P. phaseoloides from Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos, in a programme that began within one year of its introduction at a single site. Most of the cost of eradication was for labour involved in searching for infestations.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2005. Vines and climbing plants of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 51:483 pp.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Adams CD, 1972. Flowering Plants of Jamaica. University of the West Indies, 267.

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Chacón E; Saborío G, 2012. Red Interamericana de Información de Especies Invasoras, Costa Rica ([English title not available]). San José, Costa Rica: Asociación para la Conservación y el Estudio de la Biodiversidad. http://invasoras.acebio.org

Chee YK, 1983. Establishment of legume cover crops on flat land. Rubber Research Institute, Malaysia Planters Bulletin, 177.

Chee YK; Chin TV; Rashid A, 1979. Legume seeds in rubber cultivation. Proceedings Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia Planters Conference, 1979.

Chee YK; Liu S; Rosley A, 1981. Logume cover crops and weed control in rubber smallholding. Proceedings Smallholders Social and Economic Conference, University of Agriculture, Malaysia.

Chikoye D; Lum AF; Ekeleme F; Udensi UE, 2009. Evaluation of Lumax(r) for preemergence weed control in maize in Nigeria. International Journal of Pest Management, 55:275-283.

Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore. National University of Singapore, Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, 273 pp.

Cook B; Pengelly B; Brown S; Donnelly J; Eagle D; Franco A; Hanson J; Mullen B; Partridge I; Peters M; Schultze-Kraft R, 2005. Tropical Forages: an interactive selection tool. Brisbane, Australia: CSIRO, DPI&F (Qld), CIAT and ILRI. http://www.tropicalforages.info/

Correa A; Galdames MDC; Stapf MNS, 2004. Catalogue of vascular plants of Panama (Catalogo de Plantas Vasculares de Panama.), Panama: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 599 pp.

Dwyer JD; Spellman DL, 1981. A list of the Dicotyledoneae of Belize. Rhodora, 83:161-236.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012. Flora of China Web. Cambridge, USA: Harvard University Herbaria. http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/

Florence J; Chevillotte H; Ollier C; Meyer JY, 2011. [English title not available]. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP).) . http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Forzza RC; Leitman PM; Costa AF; Carvalho Jr AA, et al. , 2012. List of species of the Flora of Brazil (Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2012/

Funk V; Hollowell T; Berry P; Kelloff C; Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp.

Graveson R, 2012. Plants of Saint Lucia. http://www.saintlucianplants.com

Horrell CR, 1958. Herbage plants at Serere Experiment Station, Uganda, 1954-57. East Africa Agricultural Journal, 24:133-138.

Idárraga-Piedrahita A; Ortiz RDC; Callejas Posada R; Merello M, 2011. Flora of Antioquia. (Flora de Antioquia.) Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares, vol. 2. Listado de las Plantas Vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia:939 pp.

Ikuenobe CE; Utulu SN, 1992. Evaluation of formulations of glyphosate and asulam for post-emerged weed control in oil palm. Tests of Agrochemicals and Cultivars, No. 13:52-53.

ILDIS, 2013. International Legume Database & Information Service. Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, Unversity of Reading. http://www.ildis.org/

Jørgensen PM; León-Yànez S, 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard, 75. i-viii, 1-1182.

Kumar PS; Hymowitz T, 1989. Where are the diploid (2n = 2x = 20) genome donors of Glycine Willd. (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae)? Euphytica, 40(3):221-226.

Laudrau P; Samuels G; Rodriguez P, 1953. Influence of fertilizers, minor elements and soil pH on the growth and protein content of tropical Kuzu. Journal Agricultural University, Puerto Rico, 37:81-95.

Ludlow MM; Wilson GL, 1970. Growth of some tropical grasses and legumes at two temperatures. Journal Australian Institute Agricultural Science, 36:43-45.

MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue of introduced and cultivated plants in New Caledonia. (Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie.) Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, unpaginated.

McCormack G, 2007. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Rarotonga: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust. http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org

PIER, 2012. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry . http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011. Special edition of Environmental Weeds of Australia for Biosecurity Queensland., Australia: The University of Queensland and Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/Index.htm

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Raulerson L; Rinehart AF; Falanruw MC, 1996. A botanical reconnaissance of the proposed Compact-impact road alignment on Babeldaob Island, Republic of Palau. Mangilao, Guam: University of Guam, 78 pp. [University of Guam Herbarium Contribution no. 32.]

Riepma P, 1962. The effect of paraquat on some grasses and other weeds commonly found in rubber plantations. Journal of the Rubber Research Institute of Malaya, 17:141-149.

Skerman PJ; Cameron DG; Riveros F, 1991. Tropical forage legumes (Leguminosas forrajeras tropicales). Rome, Italy: FAO, 707 pp.

Smith AC, 1985. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanic Gardens, 758 pp.

Soria MC; Gardener MR; Tye A, 2002. Eradication of potentially invasive plants with limited distribution in the Galapagos Islands. In: Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species [ed. by Veitch, C. R. \Clout, M. N.]. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN, 287-292.

Space JC; Waterhouse BM; Newfield M; Bull C, 2004. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive Plant Species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. 76 pp. http://www.hear.org/pier/pdf/niue_report_20041217.pdf

Sripath R, 1965. Pests of Hevea Plantation in Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia.

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Swarbrick JT, 1997. Environmental weeds and exotic plants on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Report to Parks Australia. J.T. Swarbrick, Weed Science Consultancy, 131 pp.

Teitzet K, 1969. Pastures for the tropical coast. Queensland Agricultural Journal, 95:304-314, 380-385, 464-471, 532-537.

Tye A, 2007. Cost of rapid-response eradication of a recently introduced plant, tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides), from Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. Plant Protection Quarterly, 22(1):33-34.

USDA-ARS, 2012. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

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Villaseñor JL; Espinosa-Garcia FJ, 2004. The alien flowering plants of Mexico. Diversity and Distributions, 10(2):113-123.

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii, Revised ed. Honolulu, USA: University of Hawaii Press.

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

Distribution References

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Idárraga-Piedrahita A, Ortiz RDC, Callejas Posada R, Merello M, 2011. Flora of Antioquia. (Flora de Antioquia). In: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares, 2 Vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia. 939 pp.

ILDIS, 2013. International Legume Database & Information Service., Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, Unversity of Reading. http://www.ildis.org/

MacKee H S, 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. unpaginated.

McCormack G, 2007. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. In: Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2, Rarotonga: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust. http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org

PIER, 2012. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Raulerson L, 2006. Checklist of Plants of the Mariana Islands. In: University of Guam Herbarium Contribution, 37 1-69.

Smith AC, 1985. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji., Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanic Gardens. 758 pp.

Soria MC, Gardener MR, Tye A, 2002. Eradication of potentially invasive plants with limited distribution in the Galapagos Islands. In: Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species, [ed. by Veitch CR, Clout MN]. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. 287-292.

Space JC, Waterhouse BM, Newfield M, Bull C, 2004. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive Plant Species on Niue following Cyclone Heta., 76 pp. http://www.hear.org/pier/pdf/niue_report_20041217.pdf

Swarbrick JT, 1997. Environmental weeds and exotic plants on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Report to Parks Australia. In: Weed Science Consultancy, [ed. by Swarbrick JT]. 131 pp.

USDA-ARS, 2012. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Villaseñor J L, Espinosa-Garcia F J, 2004. The alien flowering plants of Mexico. Diversity and Distributions. 10 (2), 113-123. DOI:10.1111/j.1366-9516.2004.00059.x

Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii, Revised ed., Honolulu, USA: University of Hawaii Press.

Waterhouse D F, 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. v + 141 pp.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Agroforestree Databasehttp://www.worldagroforestry.org/resources/databases/agroforestree
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
International Legume Database and Information Servicehttp://www.ildis.org/
Tropical Forages: An Interactive Selection Toolhttp://www.tropicalforages.info/

Contributors

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22/07/13 Updated by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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