Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Puccinia sorghi
(common rust of maize)

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Datasheet

Puccinia sorghi (common rust of maize)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Puccinia sorghi
  • Preferred Common Name
  • common rust of maize
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •         Class: Pucciniomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Leaf pustules on maize.
TitleSymptoms on maize leaf
CaptionLeaf pustules on maize.
CopyrightISU
Leaf pustules on maize.
Symptoms on maize leafLeaf pustules on maize.ISU
Rust pustules develop with approximately equal frequency on upper and lower surfaces of the leaf.
TitleInfected maize leaf
CaptionRust pustules develop with approximately equal frequency on upper and lower surfaces of the leaf.
Copyrightused by permission of the University of Illinois
Rust pustules develop with approximately equal frequency on upper and lower surfaces of the leaf.
Infected maize leafRust pustules develop with approximately equal frequency on upper and lower surfaces of the leaf.used by permission of the University of Illinois
Urediniospores measure 22-33 x 20-28 µm.
TitleUrediniospores
CaptionUrediniospores measure 22-33 x 20-28 µm.
Copyrightused by permission of the University of Illinois
Urediniospores measure 22-33 x 20-28 µm.
UrediniosporesUrediniospores measure 22-33 x 20-28 µm.used by permission of the University of Illinois
Teliospores are  two-celled and measure 27-53 µm.
TitleTeliospores
CaptionTeliospores are two-celled and measure 27-53 µm.
Copyrightused by permission of the University of Illinois
Teliospores are  two-celled and measure 27-53 µm.
TeliosporesTeliospores are two-celled and measure 27-53 µm.used by permission of the University of Illinois

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Puccinia sorghi Schwein.

Preferred Common Name

  • common rust of maize

Other Scientific Names

  • Aecidium oxalidis Thüm.
  • Dicaeoma sorghi (Schwein.) Kuntze
  • Puccinia maydis Bérenger
  • Puccinia zeae Bérenger
  • Telletia epiphylla Berk. & Broome

International Common Names

  • English: common corn rust; rust of maize
  • Spanish: roya común del maíz
  • French: rouille du maïs

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Rost: Mais

EPPO code

  • PUCCSO (Puccinia sorghi)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •                 Class: Pucciniomycetes
  •                     Order: Pucciniales
  •                         Family: Pucciniaceae
  •                             Genus: Puccinia
  •                                 Species: Puccinia sorghi

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 24 Mar 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
CameroonPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentUK, CAB International (1978)
EgyptPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
EthiopiaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
GhanaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
KenyaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
LibyaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
MalawiPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
MauritiusPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
MoroccoPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
MozambiquePresentUK, CAB International (1978)
NigeriaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
RéunionPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
RwandaPresentYamoah and Burleigh (1990)
Sierra LeonePresentUK, CAB International (1978)
SomaliaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
South AfricaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
SudanPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
TanzaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
UgandaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
ZambiaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)

Asia

AzerbaijanPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
CambodiaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
ChinaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
GeorgiaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
Hong KongPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
IndiaPresentJain and Kothan (1983)
-Arunachal PradeshPresentBag (2001)
-Himachal PradeshPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
-KarnatakaPresentHarlapur et al. (2000); UK, CAB International (1978)
-MaharashtraPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
-RajasthanPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: IMI, 1982
-Tamil NaduPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
IndonesiaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
IranPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
IraqPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
IsraelPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
JapanPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-HokkaidoPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Tajima, 1983
JordanPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Sharaiha et al., 1989
LebanonPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
MalaysiaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
NepalPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
OmanPresentDeadman et al. (2006)
PakistanPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
PhilippinesPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
Saudi ArabiaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
South KoreaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
Sri LankaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
TaiwanPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
ThailandPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
TurkeyPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
YemenPresentUK, CAB International (1978)

Europe

AustriaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
BulgariaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
CroatiaPresentBrekalo et al. (1991)
CzechoslovakiaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
FrancePresentUK, CAB International (1978)
GermanyPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
GreecePresentUK, CAB International (1978)
HungaryPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
ItalyPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
LatviaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
LithuaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
MoldovaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Borovskaya & Matichuk, 1989
NetherlandsPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
PolandPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
PortugalPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
RomaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
SloveniaPresentPalaveršić et al. (2001)
SpainPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
SwitzerlandPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
UkrainePresentUK, CAB International (1978)
United KingdomPresentUK, CAB International (1978)

North America

BelizePresentUK, CAB International (1978)
CanadaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
Costa RicaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
CubaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
Dominican RepublicPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
GuatemalaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
HaitiPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
HondurasPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
JamaicaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
NicaraguaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
PanamaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
Puerto RicoPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
United StatesPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
-FloridaPresentPate et al. (2000)
-IllinoisPresentPataky et al. (2000)
-MichiganPresentPataky et al. (2000)
-MinnesotaPresentPataky et al. (2000)
-New YorkPresentPataky et al. (2000)
-TexasPresentPate et al. (2000); Machado et al. (2000)
-WisconsinPresentWychen et al. (2001); Pataky et al. (2000)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
FijiPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
New CaledoniaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
New ZealandPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
Norfolk IslandPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
Papua New GuineaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)

South America

ArgentinaPresentGuerra et al. (2016); UK, CAB International (1978)
BoliviaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
BrazilPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
-Minas GeraisPresentDuarte et al. (2009)
ChilePresentUK, CAB International (1978)
ColombiaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
EcuadorPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
GuyanaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
ParaguayPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
PeruPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
SurinamePresentUK, CAB International (1978)
UruguayPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
VenezuelaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / extensive mould
Inflorescence / lesions on glumes
Inflorescence / lesions; flecking; streaks (not Poaceae)
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Stems / mould growth on lesion

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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Bag TK, 2001. Effect of host nutrition on the severity of rust and leaf blight on maize. Indian Journal of Hill Farming, 14(2):53-56.

Brekalo J; Palaversic B; Rojc M, 1991. Monitoring the occurrence and severity of maize diseases in Croatia from 1985 to 1989. Zastita Bilja, 42(1):51-60

Crouch JA; Szabo LJ, 2011. Real-time PCR detection and discrimination of the southern and common corn rust pathogens Puccinia polysora and Puccinia sorghi. Plant Disease, 95(6):624-632. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Deadman ML; Al-Sa'di A; Al-Maqbali Y; Livingston S; Aime MC, 2006. First report of Puccinia sorghi on maize in Oman. Plant Disease, 90(6):826.

Dillard HR; Seem RC, 1990. Incidence-severity relationships for common maize rust on sweet corn. Phytopathology, 80(9):842-846

Dillard HR; Seem RC, 1990. Use of an action threshold for common maize rust to reduce crop loss in sweet corn. Phytopathology, 80(9):846-849

Duarte RP; Juliatti FC; Freitas PTde, 2009. Efficacy of different fungicides on maize crop. (Eficácia de diferentes fungicidas na cultura do milho.) Bioscience Journal, 25(4):101-111. http://www.biosciencejournal.ufu.br/include/getdoc.php?id=3778&article=685&mode=pdf

Groth JV; Davis DW; Zeyen RJ; Mogen BD, 1983. Ranking of partial resistance to common rust (Puccinia sorghi Schr.) in 30 sweet corn (Zea mays) hybrids. Crop Protection, 2(2):219-223

Groth JV; Zeyen RJ; Davis DW; Christ BJ, 1983. Yield and quality losses caused by common rust (Puccinia sorghi Schw.) in sweet corn (Zea mays) hybrids. Crop Protection, 2(1):105-111

Guerra FA; Brücher E; Rossi RLde; Plazas MC; Guerra GD; Ducasse DA, 2016. First report of Oxalis conorrhiza as alternate host of Puccinia sorghi, causal agent of common rust of maize. Plant Disease, 100(2):519-520. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Harlapur SI; Mruthunjaya CW; Anahosur KH; Muralikrishna S, 2000. A report survey and surveillance of maize diseases in North Karnataka. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 13(3):750-751; 2 ref.

Hawksworth D L; Sutton B C; Ainsworth GC, 1983. Dictionary of the Fungi, 7th edn. Kew, UK: CAB International.

Headrick JM; Pataky JK, 1986. Effects of night temperature and mist period on infection of sweet corn by Puccinia sorghi. Plant Disease, 70(10):950-953

Headrick JM; Pataky JK, 1987. Expression of partial resistance to common rust in sweet corn hybrids at various host growth stages. Phytopathology, 77(3):454-458

Headrick JM; Pataky JK, 1988. Spatial and temporal development of common rust in susceptible and partially resistant sweet corn hybrids. Phytopathology, 78(2):227-233

Hooker AL, 1962. Corn leaf diseases. In: American Seed Trade Assoc. Proc. 17th Annu. Hybrid Corn Ind. Res. Conf., 17:24-36

Hooker AL, 1969. Widely based resistance to rust in corn. In: Browning JA, ed. Disease Consequences of Intensive and Extensive Culture of Field Crops. Ames, IA, USA: Iowa Agric. Home Econ. Exp. Stn., 28-34.

Hooker AL, 1985. Corn and sorghum rusts. In: Bushnell WR, Roelfs AP, eds. The Cereal Rusts, vol. II. Orlando, USA: Academic Press, 207-236.

Hou HS; Tzeng JM; Sun MH, 1978. Occurrence of corn rusts in Taiwan. Plant Dis. Rep., 62:183-186.

Hulbert SH; Lyons PC; Bennetzen JL, 1991. Reactions of maize lines carrying Rp resistance genes to isolates of the common rust pathogen, Puccinia sorghi. Plant Disease, 75(11):1130-1133

Jain KL; Kothan KL, 1983. Record of common rust of maize from Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 13(1):128

Kim SK; Brewbaker JL, 1976. Effects of Puccinia sorghi rust on yield and several agronomic traits of maize in Hawaii. Crop Science, 16(6):874-877

Laundon GF; Waterston JM, 1964. C.M.I Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 3, Puccinia sorghi. Kew, UK: CAB International.

Machado S; Bynum ED Jr; Archer TL; Lascano RJ; Wilson LT; Bordovsky J; Segarra E; Bronson K; Nesmith DM; Xu W, 2000. Spatial and temporal variability of corn grain yield: site-specific relationships of biotic and abiotic factors. Precision Agriculture, 2(4):359-376.

Mahindapala R, 1978. Epidemiology of maize rust, Puccinia sorghi. Annals of Applied Biology, 90(2):155-161

Mahindapala R, 1978. Host and environment effects on the infection of maize by Puccinia sorghi I. Prepenetration development and penetration. Annals of Applied Biology, 89(3):411-416

Mahindapala R, 1978. Host and environment effects on the infection of maize by Puccinia sorghi II. Post-penetration development. Annals of Applied Biology, 89(3):417-421

Martines CA, 1977. Effects of Puccinia sorghi on yield of flint corn in Argentina. Plant Dis. Rep., 61:256-258.

Mederick FM; Sackston WE, 1972. Effects of temperature and duration of dew period on germination of rust urediospores on corn leaves. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 52(4):551-557

Melching JS, 1975. Corn rusts: types, races, and destructive potential. In: Loden HD, Wilkinson D, eds. Proc. 30th Res. Conf. Washington, DC, USA: American Seed Trade Assoc., 30:9-11.

Melkania NP, 1982. Studies on the occurrence of maize rust in Indo-Tibet Border region of Garhawal Himalaya. Indian Phytopathology, 35(4):680-681

MEYER WCVON, 1963. The influence of storage conditions on the longevity of uredospores of Puccinia polysora Underw. and Puccinia sorghi Schw. Plant Disease Reporter, 47(7):614-616 pp.

Mundt CC; Leonard KJ, 1986. Effect of host genotype unit area on development of focal epidemics of bean rust and common maize rust in mixtures of resistant and susceptible plants. Phytopathology, 76(9):895-900

Nemoto M, 1983. Occurrence of leaf rust on maize plants in Tohoku district. Annual Report of the Soc. of Plant Protection of North Japan, 34:111-112.

Palaversic B; Rozman L; Milevoj L; Celar F, 2001. The investigation of incidence of some maize leaf diseases in Croatia and in Slovenia. Zbornik predavanj in referatov 5. Slovensko Posvetovanje o Varstvu Rastlin, C^hacek~atez^hacek~ ob Savi, Slovenija, 6. marec-8. marec 2001, 458-463; 8 ref.

Pataky JK, 1986. Partial rust resistance in sweet corn hybrid seedlings. Phytopathology, 76(7):702-707

Pataky JK, 1987. Quantitative relationships between sweet corn yield and common rust, Puccinia sorghi. Phytopathology, 77(7):1066-1071

Pataky JK, 1987. Reaction of sweet corn germ plasm to common rust and an evaluation of Rp resistance in Illinois. Plant Disease, 71(9):824-828

Pataky JK; Eastburn DM, 1993. Comparing partial resistance to Puccinia sorghi and applications of fungicides for controlling common rust on sweet corn. Phytopathology, 83(10):1046-1051

Pataky JK; Headrick JM, 1988. Relationships between common rust incidence and severity on a susceptible and a partially resistant sweet corn hybrid. Phytopathology, 78(9):1155-1160

Pataky JK; Headrick JM, 1989. Management of common rust on sweet corn with resistance and fungicides. Journal of Production Agriculture, 2(4):362-369

Pataky JK; Natti TA; Snyder EB; Kurowski CJ, 2000. Puccinia sorghi in Sinaloa, Mexico virulent on corn with the RpI-D gene. Plant Disease, 84(7):810.

Pataky; JK; Headrick JM; Suparyono, 1985. 1985 sweet corn disease nursery. Illinois Vegetable Research Report. Illinois Agric. Exp. Stn. Hortic. Ser., 56:10-14

Pate MC; Pataky JK; Houghton WC; Teyker RH, 2000. First report of Puccinia sorghi virulent on sweet corn with the Rp1-D gene in Florida and Texas. Plant Disease, 84(10):1154.

Paulus AO; Nelson J; Hall B, 1983. Effective control of sweet corn rust Puccinia sorghi. California Plant Pathology, No. 63:3-5

Peltz BF, 1971. Variability of uredospore germination of Puccinia sorghi in relation to mature-plant resistance in Zea mays. Master's Thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Raid RN, 1991. Fungicidal control of foliar sweet corn diseases in the presence of high inoculum levels. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., 104:267-270

Raid RN, 1994. Evaluation of fungicides for control of foliar diseases of sweet corn, 1993. Fungicide & Nematicide Tests, 49:108.

Randle WM; Davis DW; Groth JV, 1984. Improvement and genetic control of partial resistance in sweet corn to corn leaf rust. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci., 109:777-781.

Russell WA, 1965. Effect of corn leaf rust on grain yield and moisture in corn. Crop. Science, 5:95-96.

Sharma RC; Payak MM; Shankerlingam S; Laxminarayan C, 1982. A comparison of two methods of estimating yield losses in maize caused by common rust. Indian Phytopathology, 35(1):18-20

Sherf AF; MacNab AA, 1986. Vegetable Diseases and Their Control. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons.

Shurtleff MC ed., 1980. Compendium of Corn Diseases. St Paul, USA: American Phytopathological Society, 41-42.

Singh JP; Musymi ABK, 1979. Control of rusts and powdery mildews by a new systemic fungicide, Bayleton. Pesticides, 13(4):51-53

Sood GK, 1991. A note on efficacy of some fungicides to common rust (Puccinia sorghi) of maize (Zea mays L.). Himachal Journal of Agricultural Research, 17(1-2):89-90

Syamanada R; Dickson JG, 1959. The influence of temperature and light on rust reaction of inbred lines of corn inoculated with specific lines of Puccinia sorghi. Phytopathology, 49:102-106.

Tajimi A, 1983. Two rusts of corn in Japan, 1982. Journal of Japanese Society of Grassland Science, 29(3):261-262

UK CAB International, 1978. Puccinia sorghi. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, October (Edition 4). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 279.

Wychen LRvan; Harvey RG; Wedberg JL, 2001. Interactions among weed, insect, and common rust treatments in sweet corn. Weed Science, 49(2):209-216.

Yamoah CF; Burleigh JR, 1990. Alley cropping Sesbania sesban (L.) Merill with food crops in the highland region of Rwanda. Agroforestry Systems, 10(2):169-181; 22 ref.

Distribution References

Bag T K, 2001. Effect of host nutrition on the severity of rust and leaf blight on maize. Indian Journal of Hill Farming. 14 (2), 53-56.

Brekalo J, Palaveršić B, Rojc M, 1991. Monitoring the occurrence and severity of maize diseases in Croatia from 1985 to 1989. Zaštita Bilja. 42 (1), 51-60.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Deadman M L, Al-Sa'di A, Al-Maqbali Y, Livingston S, Aime M C, 2006. First report of Puccinia sorghi on maize in Oman. Plant Disease. 90 (6), 826. DOI:10.1094/PD-90-0826C

Duarte R P, Juliatti F C, Freitas P T de, 2009. Efficacy of different fungicides on maize crop. (Eficácia de diferentes fungicidas na cultura do milho.). Bioscience Journal. 25 (4), 101-111. http://www.biosciencejournal.ufu.br/include/getdoc.php?id=3778&article=685&mode=pdf

Guerra F A, Brücher E, Rossi R L de, Plazas M C, Guerra G D, Ducasse D A, 2016. First report of Oxalis conorrhiza as alternate host of Puccinia sorghi, causal agent of common rust of maize. Plant Disease. 100 (2), 519-520. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-15-0506-PDN

Harlapur S I, Mruthunjaya C W, Anahosur K H, Muralikrishna S, 2000. A report survey and surveillance of maize diseases in North Karnataka. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 13 (3), 750-751.

Jain K L, Kothan K L, 1983. Record of common rust of maize from Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology. 13 (1), 128.

Machado S, Bynum E D Jr, Archer T L, Lascano R J, Wilson L T, Bordovsky J, Segarra E, Bronson K, Nesmith D M, Xu W, 2000. Spatial and temporal variability of corn grain yield: site-specific relationships of biotic and abiotic factors. Precision Agriculture. 2 (4), 359-376. DOI:10.1023/A:1012352032031

Palaveršić B, Rozman L, Milevoj L, Celar F, 2001. The investigation of incidence of some maize leaf diseases in Croatia and in Slovenia. (Primerjava pojava listnih bolezni koruze v Sloveniji in na Hrvaškem.). In: Zbornik predavanj in referatov 5. Slovensko Posvetovanje o Varstvu Rastlin, Čatež ob Savi, Slovenija, 6. marec-8. marec 2001. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Društvo za varstvo rastlin Slovenije. 458-463.

Pataky J K, Natti T A, Snyder E B, Kurowski C J, 2000. Puccinia sorghi in Sinaloa, Mexico virulent on corn with the RpI-D gene. Plant Disease. 84 (7), 810. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2000.84.7.810A

Pate M C, Pataky J K, Houghton W C, Teyker R H, 2000. First report of Puccinia sorghi virulent on sweet corn with the Rp1-D gene in Florida and Texas. Plant Disease. 84 (10), 1154. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2000.84.10.1154A

UK, CAB International, 1978. Puccinia sorghi. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 279.

Wychen L R van, Harvey R G, Wedberg J L, 2001. Interactions among weed, insect, and common rust treatments in sweet corn. Weed Science. 49 (2), 209-216. DOI:10.1614/0043-1745(2001)049[0209:IAWIAC]2.0.CO;2

Yamoah C F, Burleigh J R, 1990. Alley cropping Sesbania sesban (L.) Merill with food crops in the highland region of Rwanda. Agroforestry Systems. 10 (2), 169-181. DOI:10.1007/BF00115365

Distribution Maps

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