Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Puccinia triticina
(wheat brown rust)



Puccinia triticina (wheat brown rust)


  • Last modified
  • 04 October 2022
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Puccinia triticina
  • Preferred Common Name
  • wheat brown rust
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •         Class: Pucciniomycetes
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Leaf symptoms on wheat.
TitleSymptoms on wheat
CaptionLeaf symptoms on wheat.
Leaf symptoms on wheat.
Symptoms on wheatLeaf symptoms on wheat.ISU


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Puccinia triticina Eriks.

Preferred Common Name

  • wheat brown rust

Other Scientific Names

  • Puccinia dispersa Erikss. & Henn.
  • Puccinia dispersa f.sp. tritici Erikss. & Henn.
  • Puccinia persistens ssp. triticina (Erikss.) Z. Urb.
  • Puccinia recondita Rob. Ex Desm.
  • Puccinia recondita f.sp. tritici
  • Puccinia recondita f.sp. triticina (Erikss. & Henn.) D.M. Hend.
  • Puccinia rubigo-vera (DC) Wint.
  • Puccinia rubigo-vera f.sp. tritici (Erikss.) Carleton
  • Puccinia rubigo-vera f.sp. triticina Mains
  • Uredo rubigo-vera DC.

International Common Names

  • English: brown cereal rust; brown leaf cereal rust; brown rust; brown wheat rust; orange leaf wheat rust; orange rust; wheat leaf rust
  • Spanish: roya de la hoja del trigo; roya parda del trigo
  • French: rouille brune du ble; rouille des feuilles du ble

Local Common Names

  • Czechoslovakia (former): psenione rzi
  • Germany: braun rost; Braun-: Getreide Rost; Braun-: Weizen Rost; Rost: Wiesenraute
  • Italy: bruna ruggine
  • Netherlands: bruine roest

EPPO code

  • PUCCRT (Puccinia triticina)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •                 Class: Pucciniomycetes
  •                     Order: Pucciniales
  •                         Family: Pucciniaceae
  •                             Genus: Puccinia
  •                                 Species: Puccinia triticina

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 01 Dec 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes


AngolaPresent, Few occurrences
BotswanaPresent, Few occurrences
EswatiniPresent, Few occurrences
EthiopiaPresent, Widespread
MadagascarPresent, Few occurrences
MoroccoPresent, Widespread
South AfricaPresent, Widespread
TunisiaPresent, Widespread


AfghanistanPresent, Widespread
BangladeshPresent, Widespread
BhutanPresent, Widespread
CambodiaPresent, Few occurrences
ChinaPresent, Widespread
GeorgiaPresent, Widespread
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresent, Widespread
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IndonesiaPresent, Few occurrences
IranPresent, Widespread
IraqPresent, Widespread
IsraelPresent, Widespread
JapanPresent, Widespread
JordanPresent, Widespread
KazakhstanPresent, Widespread
KyrgyzstanPresent, Widespread
LebanonPresent, Widespread
MongoliaPresent, Widespread
NepalPresent, Widespread
North KoreaPresent, Widespread
OmanPresent, Few occurrences
PakistanPresent, Widespread
-Gaza StripPresent, Widespread
Saudi ArabiaPresent, Few occurrences
South KoreaPresent, Widespread
TurkeyPresent, Widespread
TurkmenistanPresent, Widespread
UzbekistanPresent, Widespread


BelarusPresent, Widespread
BelgiumPresent, Widespread
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresent, Widespread
BulgariaPresent, Widespread
CyprusPresent, Widespread
CzechiaPresent, Widespread
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent, Widespread
FrancePresent, Widespread
GermanyPresent, Widespread
GreecePresent, Widespread
HungaryPresent, Widespread
IrelandPresent, Widespread
ItalyPresent, Widespread
NetherlandsPresent, Widespread
North MacedoniaPresent
NorwayPresent, Widespread
PolandPresent, Widespread
PortugalPresent, Widespread
RomaniaPresent, Widespread
RussiaPresent, Widespread
Serbia and MontenegroPresent, Widespread
SpainPresent, Widespread
SwitzerlandPresent, Widespread
UkrainePresent, Widespread
United KingdomPresent, Widespread

North America

CanadaPresent, Widespread
MexicoPresent, Widespread
United StatesPresent, Widespread


AustraliaPresent, Widespread
New ZealandPresent, Widespread

South America

ArgentinaPresent, Widespread
BrazilPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: German et al. (2007)
Falkland IslandsPresent
UruguayPresent, Widespread

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Stems / mould growth on lesion

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Leaves fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)


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Distribution References

Afshan N S, Khalid A N, Niazi A R, Iqbal S H, 2011. Puccinia species new to Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan. Mycotaxon. 175-182. DOI:10.5248/116.175

Bhardwaj S C, Prashar M, Kumar S, Jain S K, Datta D, 2005. Lr19 resistance in wheat becomes susceptible to Puccinia triticina in India. Plant Disease. 89 (12), 1360. DOI:10.1094/PD-89-1360A

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Dadrezaie S T, Lababidi S, Nazari K, Goltapeh E M, Afshari F, Alo F, Shams-Bakhsh M, Safaie N, 2013. Molecular genetic diversity in Iranian populations of Puccinia triticina, the causal agent of wheat leaf rust. American Journal of Plant Sciences. 4 (7), 1375-1386.

Deadman M L, Al-Sa'di A, Al-Maqbali Y, Aime M C, 2007. First report of leaf rust by Puccinia triticina on wheat in Oman. Plant Disease. 91 (1), 113. DOI:10.1094/PD-91-0113A

El-Jarroudi M, Giraud F, Vrancken C, Junk J, Tychon B, Hoffmann L, Delfosse P, 2009. First report of wheat leaf rust in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and the progress of its appearance over the 2003-2008 period. Plant Disease. 93 (9), 971. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-93-9-0971A

Fetch T G Jr, 2009. Races of Puccinia graminis on barley, oat, and wheat in Canada in 2005. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 31 (1), 74-79.

German S, Kohli M, Chaves M, Barcellos A, et al, 2004. Breakdown of resistance of wheat cultivars and estimated losses caused by recent changes in the leaf rust population in South America. [Proceedings of 11th international cereal rusts and powdery mildews conference abstract], Norwich, UK: John Innes Centre. A2.21.

Huerta-Espino J, Singh R P, Herrera-Foessel S A, Pérez-López J B, Figueroa-López P, 2009. First detection of virulence in Puccinia triticina to resistance genes Lr27+Lr31 present in durum wheat in Mexico. Plant Disease. 93 (1), 110. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-93-1-0110C

Kassem M, El-Ahmed A, Hazzam H, Nachit M, 2015. Physiologic specialization of Puccinia triticina in Syria. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 54 (3), 446-452.

Kolmer J A, 2001. Physiologic specialization of Puccinia triticina in Canada in 1998. Plant Disease. 85 (2), 155-158. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.2.155

Kolmer J A, 2015. First report of a wheat leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) phenotype with high virulence to durum wheat in the Great Plains region of the United States. Plant Disease. 99 (1), 156-157. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-14-0667-PDN

Long D L, Leonard K J, Hughes M E, 2002. Virulence of Puccinia triticina on wheat in the United States in 1999. Plant Disease. 86 (1), 15-19. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2002.86.1.15

McVey D V, Nazim M, Leonard K J, Long D L, 2004. Patterns of virulence diversity in Puccinia triticina on wheat in Egypt and the United States in 1998-2000. Plant Disease. 88 (3), 271-279. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.3.271

Rashtra Vardhana, 2017. Plant's diseases of district Ghaziabad and adjacent areas. Plant Archives. 17 (1), 727-732.

Salazar Yepes M, Carvalho Júnior A A de, 2013. Uredinales (rust fungi) biota of the Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, Brazil: an analysis of composition, species diversity and altitudinal distribution. Caldasia. 35 (1), 165-176.

Singh R P, Huerta-Espino J, Pfeiffer W, Figueroa-Lopez P, 2004. Occurrence and impact of a new leaf rust race on durum wheat in Northwestern Mexico from 2001 to 2003. Plant Disease. 88 (7), 703-708. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.7.703

Terefe T, Visser B, Herselman L, Selinga T, Pretorius Z A, 2014. First report of Puccinia triticina (leaf rust) race FBPT on wheat in South Africa. Plant Disease. 98 (7), 1001. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-13-1195-PDN

Tesfaye H, Ayele Badebo, Dejene M, 2019. Characterization of wheat leaf rust pathogen (Puccinia triticina) in some parts of Ethiopia and seedling evaluation of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum) cultivars to the pathogen. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 15 (2), 291-296. DOI:10.5897/AJAR2019.14026

UK, CAB International, 1979. Puccinia recondita. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 226. DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20056500226

Watkins J E, Schimelfenig J, Baenziger P S, Eskridge K M, 2001. Virulence of Puccinia triticina on wheat in Nebraska during 1997 and 1998. Plant Disease. 85 (2), 159-164. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.2.159

Woldeab G, Girma B, Hundie B, Badebo A, Kassa B, Bacha N, Degefu M, Baze S, Handoro F, Bitew B, Temesgen S, Husein T, 2009. Wheat rusts survey and virulence of Puccinia graminis in Ethiopia. In: Proceedings, oral papers and posters, 2009 Technical Workshop, Borlaug Global Rust Initiative, Cd. Obregón, Sonora, Mexico, 17-20 March, 2009. [ed. by McIntosh R]. Ithaca, USA: Borlaug Global Rust Initiative. 229.

Yahyaoui A H, Hovmoller M, Brahim Ezzahiri, Ahmed Jahoor, Maatougui M H, Asmelash Wolday, 2004. Survey of barley and wheat diseases in the central highlands of Eritrea. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 43 (1), 39-43.

Yehuda P B, Eilam T, Manisterski J, Shimoni A, Anikster Y, 2004. Leaf rust on Aegilops speltoides caused by a new forma specialis of Puccinia triticina. Phytopathology. 94 (1), 94-101. DOI:10.1094/PHYTO.2004.94.1.94

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