Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Puccinia triticina
(wheat brown rust)

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Datasheet

Puccinia triticina (wheat brown rust)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 04 October 2022
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Puccinia triticina
  • Preferred Common Name
  • wheat brown rust
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •         Class: Pucciniomycetes
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Leaf symptoms on wheat.
TitleSymptoms on wheat
CaptionLeaf symptoms on wheat.
CopyrightISU
Leaf symptoms on wheat.
Symptoms on wheatLeaf symptoms on wheat.ISU

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Puccinia triticina Eriks.

Preferred Common Name

  • wheat brown rust

Other Scientific Names

  • Puccinia dispersa Erikss. & Henn.
  • Puccinia dispersa f.sp. tritici Erikss. & Henn.
  • Puccinia persistens ssp. triticina (Erikss.) Z. Urb.
  • Puccinia recondita Rob. Ex Desm.
  • Puccinia recondita f.sp. tritici
  • Puccinia recondita f.sp. triticina (Erikss. & Henn.) D.M. Hend.
  • Puccinia rubigo-vera (DC) Wint.
  • Puccinia rubigo-vera f.sp. tritici (Erikss.) Carleton
  • Puccinia rubigo-vera f.sp. triticina Mains
  • Uredo rubigo-vera DC.

International Common Names

  • English: brown cereal rust; brown leaf cereal rust; brown rust; brown wheat rust; orange leaf wheat rust; orange rust; wheat leaf rust
  • Spanish: roya de la hoja del trigo; roya parda del trigo
  • French: rouille brune du ble; rouille des feuilles du ble

Local Common Names

  • Czechoslovakia (former): psenione rzi
  • Germany: braun rost; Braun-: Getreide Rost; Braun-: Weizen Rost; Rost: Wiesenraute
  • Italy: bruna ruggine
  • Netherlands: bruine roest

EPPO code

  • PUCCRT (Puccinia triticina)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •                 Class: Pucciniomycetes
  •                     Order: Pucciniales
  •                         Family: Pucciniaceae
  •                             Genus: Puccinia
  •                                 Species: Puccinia triticina

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 01 Dec 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent
AngolaPresent, Few occurrences
BotswanaPresent, Few occurrences
EgyptPresent
EritreaPresent
EswatiniPresent, Few occurrences
EthiopiaPresent, Widespread
GhanaPresent
KenyaPresent
LesothoPresent
LibyaPresent
MadagascarPresent, Few occurrences
MalawiPresent
MoroccoPresent, Widespread
MozambiquePresent
NamibiaPresent
NigeriaPresent
SomaliaPresent
South AfricaPresent, Widespread
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent
TunisiaPresent, Widespread
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

AfghanistanPresent, Widespread
ArmeniaPresent
AzerbaijanPresent
BangladeshPresent, Widespread
BhutanPresent, Widespread
CambodiaPresent, Few occurrences
ChinaPresent, Widespread
GeorgiaPresent, Widespread
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresent, Widespread
-GujaratPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IndonesiaPresent, Few occurrences
IranPresent, Widespread
IraqPresent, Widespread
IsraelPresent, Widespread
JapanPresent, Widespread
JordanPresent, Widespread
KazakhstanPresent, Widespread
KyrgyzstanPresent, Widespread
LebanonPresent, Widespread
MongoliaPresent, Widespread
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresent, Widespread
North KoreaPresent, Widespread
OmanPresent, Few occurrences
PakistanPresent, Widespread
Palestine
-Gaza StripPresent, Widespread
PhilippinesPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent, Few occurrences
South KoreaPresent, Widespread
SyriaPresent
TaiwanPresent
TajikistanPresent
ThailandPresent
TurkeyPresent, Widespread
TurkmenistanPresent, Widespread
UzbekistanPresent, Widespread
YemenPresent

Europe

AlbaniaPresent
AndorraPresent
AustriaPresent
BelarusPresent, Widespread
BelgiumPresent, Widespread
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresent, Widespread
BulgariaPresent, Widespread
CroatiaPresent
CyprusPresent, Widespread
CzechiaPresent, Widespread
CzechoslovakiaPresent
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent, Widespread
DenmarkPresent
EstoniaPresent
FinlandPresent
FrancePresent, Widespread
GermanyPresent, Widespread
GreecePresent, Widespread
HungaryPresent, Widespread
IrelandPresent, Widespread
ItalyPresent, Widespread
LatviaPresent
LiechtensteinPresent
LithuaniaPresent
LuxembourgPresent
MoldovaPresent
NetherlandsPresent, Widespread
North MacedoniaPresent
NorwayPresent, Widespread
PolandPresent, Widespread
PortugalPresent, Widespread
RomaniaPresent, Widespread
RussiaPresent, Widespread
Serbia and MontenegroPresent, Widespread
SlovakiaPresent
SloveniaPresent
SpainPresent, Widespread
SwedenPresent
SwitzerlandPresent, Widespread
UkrainePresent, Widespread
United KingdomPresent, Widespread

North America

CanadaPresent, Widespread
-ManitobaPresent
-SaskatchewanPresent
GuatemalaPresent
HondurasPresent
MexicoPresent, Widespread
NicaraguaPresent
United StatesPresent, Widespread
-KansasPresent
-NebraskaPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, Widespread
New ZealandPresent, Widespread

South America

ArgentinaPresent, Widespread
BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: German et al. (2007)
ChilePresent
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent
Falkland IslandsPresent
ParaguayPresent
PeruPresent
UruguayPresent, Widespread
VenezuelaPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Stems / mould growth on lesion

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Leaves fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Abdel-Hak, T. M., El-Sherif, N. A., Bassiouny, A. A., Shafik, E. L., Dauadi, Y., 1980. Control of wheat leaf rust by systemic fungicides. In: Proceedings of 5th European and Mediterranean cereal rusts conference, Bari, Italy . 255–266.

Afshan NS, Khalid AN, Niazi AR, Iqbal SH, 2011. Puccinia species new to Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan. Mycotaxon, 116:175-182. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/mtax/mt

Anikster Y, Bushnell WR, Eilam T, Manisterski J, Roelfs AP, 1997. Puccinia recondita causing leaf rust on cultivated wheats, wild wheats, and rye. Canadian Journal of Botany, 75(12):2082-2096; 34 ref

Appel, J. A., DeWolf, E., Bockus, W. W., Todd, T., 2009. Kansas cooperative plant disease survey report preliminary Kansas wheat disease loss estimates. August 11, 2009 . http://www.ksda.gov/includes/document_center/plant_protection/Plant%20Disease20Reports/2009KSWheatDiseaseLossEstimates.pdf

Barcellos AL, 1982. As ferrugens do trigo no Brasil. In: Fundacao Cargill, Campinas, SP. Trigo no Brasil. Campinas, V. 2, 375-419

Bartos P, Samborski DJ, Dyck PL, 1969. Leaf rust resistance of some European varieties of wheat. Canadian Journal of Botany, 47:543-546

Bartos P, Valkoun J, 1988. Rust resistance genes in Czechoslovak wheats. Cereal Rusts and Powdery Mildews Bulletin, 16(2):36-40

Bartoš, P., Stuchlíková, E., Hanušová, R., 1996. Adaptation of wheat rusts to the wheat cultivars in former Czechoslovakia. In: Euphytica [XIV EUCARPIA Congress on Adaptation in Plant Breeding, held on 31 July-4 August, 1995, Jyväskylä, Finland], 92(1/2) [ed. by Tigerstedt, P. M. A.]. 95-103. doi: 10.1007/BF00022834

Bolton, M. D., Kolmer, J. A., Garvin, D. F., 2008. Wheat leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina. Molecular Plant Pathology, 9(5), 563-575. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/mpp doi: 10.1111/j.1364-3703.2008.00487.x

Brennan JP, Murray GM, 1988. Australian wheat diseases: assessing their economic importance. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 29(2):247-252

Brizgalova, V. A., 1937. On a new intermediate host of brown rust of wheat, Puccinia triticina Erikss. Sbornik Trudov Zashch. Rast. Vostochn. Sibiri, (no 5 (s. d.)), 75-87.

Browder LE, 1971. Pathogenic specialization in cereal rust fungi, especially Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici: Concepts, methods of study, and application. U.S. Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin, 1432:51 pp

Browder LE, Young HC Jr, 1975. Further development of an infection-type coding system for the cereal rusts. Plant Disease Reporter, 59(12):964-965

Browning JA, 1988. Current thinking on the use of diversity to buffer small grains against highly epidemic and variable foliar pathogens. Problems and future prospects. In: Simmonds NW, Faharam S, (eds). Breeding strategies for resistance to the rusts of wheat. Mexico: CIMMYT, 76-90

Browning JA, Simons MD, Frey KJ, Murphy HC, 1969. Regional deployment for conservation of oat crown rust resistance genes. Special report. Iowa Agriculture Home Economics Experimental Station, 64:49-56

Buchenauer, H., 1976. Studies on the systemic activity of bayleton (triadimefon) and its effect against certain fungal diseases of cereals. Pflanzenschutz-Nachrichten Bayer, 29(3), 266-280.

Burleigh JR, Roelfs AP, Eversmeyer MG, 1972. Estimating damage to wheat caused by Puccinia recondita tritici. Phytopathology, 62(9):944-946

Cao LiHua, Xu ShiChang, Chen WanQuan, Liu TaiGuo, Lin RuiMing, 2007. Molecular diagnosis and detection of Puccinia triticina in China. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 34(6):561-566. http://www.wanfangdata.com.cn

Casulli F, 1988. Overseasoning of wheat leaf rust in Southern Italy. Proceedings of Seventh European and Mediterranean Cereal Rusts Conference, Vienna, Austria, 166-168

Chester KS, 1946. The nature and prevention of the cereal rusts as exemplified in the leaf rust of wheat. Waltham, Massachussetts, USA: Chronica Botanica, 269

Cobb NA, 1892. Contributions to an economic knowledge of the Australian rusts (Uredineae). Agricultural Gazette, New South Wales, Australia. 3:44-48

Cummins GB, Caldwell RM, 1956. The validity of bionomials in the leaf rust fungus complex of cereals and grasses. Phytopathology, 46:81-82

Daamen RA, 1981. Surveys of diseases and pests of winter wheat in the Netherlands, 1979-1980. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 46(3):933-937

Deghais, M., El-Faleh, M., Gharbi, M. S. , 1999. (Acquis de la recherche en amélioration des céréales en Tunisie). Ann INRAT, 26, 33–40.

d'Oliveira, B., Samborski, D.J. , 1966. Aecial stage of Puccinia recondita on Ranunculaceae and Boraginaceae in Portugal. [Proceedings of First European Brown Rust Conference, Cereal Rusts Conferences, June 29 - July 24, 1964, Cambridge, U.K. Plant Breeding Institute, Cambridge, U.K], 133- 150.

Duan, X., Enjalbert, J., Vautrin, D., Solignac, M., Giraud, T., 2003. Isolation of 12 microsatellite loci, using an enrichment protocol, in the phytopathogenic fungus Puccinia triticina. Molecular Ecology Notes, 3(1), 65-67. doi: 10.1046/j.1471-8286.2003.00350.x

Dubin HJ, Torres E, 1981. Causes and consequences of the 1976-77 wheat leaf rust epidemic in North West Mexico. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 19:41-49

Dyck PL, Samborski DJ, 1982. The inheritance of resistance to Puccinia recondita in a group of common wheat cultivars. Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology, 24(3):273-283

Eversmeyer MG, Burleigh JR, 1970. A method of predicting development of wheat leaf rust. Phytopathology, 60:805-811

Eversmeyer MG, Kramer CL, 1998. Models of early spring survival of wheat leaf rust in the Central Great Plains. Plant Disease, 82(9):987-991; 20 ref

Eversmeyer MG, Kramer CL, 2000. Epidemiology of wheat leaf and stem rust in the central Great Plains of the USA. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 38:491-513; 58 ref

Eversmeyer MG, Kramer CL, Browder LE, 1980. Effect of temperature and host : parasite combination on the latent period of Puccinia recondita in seedling wheat plants. Phytopathology, 70(10):938-941

Galich AN, Galich MTV de, 1996a. Enfermedades del trigo en el area central norte de la región cerealera argentina (1982-1994). Informe técnico 121. Marcos Juárez, Argentina: INTA EEA, 23

Galich AN, Galich MTV de, Legasa A, Musso G, 1986. Estimación de pérdidas por enfermedades foliares en cultivares de trigo. Cap IV. Congreso Nacional de Trigo. Pergamino, Buenos Aires, Argentina: AIANBA, 41-50

Galich AN, Galich MTV de, Nisi JE, 1983. Enfermedades y adversidades climáticas del cultivo de trigo en el área central de la subregión II Norte. A±o Agrfcola 1982/83. Informe especial 25. Serie: Producción Vegetal. Marcos Juárez, Argentina: INTA EEA, 5

Galich MTV de, Galich AN, 1996b. Enfermedades del trigo en el area sur de Córdoba y Santa Fe. Experiencias en control qufmico. Primera jornadas de control qufmico de enfermedades del trigo en sistemas de manejo de alta productividad. Buenos Aires, Argentina: INTA-CIMMYT, Centro Internacional de Capacitación "Dr Norman Borlaug"

Germán, S., Barcellos, A., Chaves, M., Kohli, M., Campos, P., Viedma, L. de, 2007. The situation of common wheat rusts in the Southern Cone of America and perspectives for control. In: Australian Journal of Agricultural Research [Global landscapes in cereal rust control. Proceedings of a conference to celebrate the contribution of Prof. Bob McIntosh, Sydney, Australia, September 2005], 58(6) . Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing. 620-630. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/40.htm doi: 10.1071/AR06149

German, S., Kohli, M., Chaves, M., Barcellos, A., et al., 2004. Breakdown of resistance of wheat cultivars and estimated losses caused by recent changes in the leaf rust population in South America. In: Proceedings of 11th international cereal rusts and powdery mildews conference abstract . Norwich, UK: John Innes Centre. A2.21.

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Goyeau, H., Park, R., Schaeffer, B., Lannou, C., 2006. Distribution of pathotypes with regard to host cultivars in French wheat leaf rust populations. Phytopathology, 96(3), 264-273. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-96-0264

Hanzalová, A., Bartoš, P., 2006. Physiologic specialization of wheat leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks.) in the Czech Republic in 2001-2004. Czech Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding, 42(4), 126-131. http://www.cazv.cz

Hassan, S. F., Hussain, M., Rizvi, S. A. , 1973. Wheat disease situation in Pakistan. In: Proceedings of national farmers and wheat research production, Islamabad. August 6–9 . 231–234.

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Huerta-Espino, J., Singh, R. P., Germán, S., McCallum, B. D., Park, R. F., Chen, W. Q., Bhardwaj, S. C., Goyeau, H., 2011. Global status of wheat leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina. Euphytica, 179(1), 143-160. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=102881 doi: 10.1007/s10681-011-0361-x

Hussain M, Hassan SF, Kirmani MAS, 1980. Virulences in Puccinia recondita Rob. Ex. Desm. f. sp. tritici in Pakistan during 1978 and 1979. Proceedings of Fifth European and Mediterranean Cereal Rusts Conference, Prague, Czechoslovakia, 179-184

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James C, 1971. A manual of assessment keys for plant diseases. Canada Department of Agriculture, Pub., 1458

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Singh RP, 1991. Pathogenicity variations of Puccinia recondita f.sp. tritici and P. graminis f.sp. tritici in wheat-growing areas of Mexico during 1988 and 1989. Plant Disease, 75(8):790-794

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Distribution References

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