Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Puccinia polysora
(American corn rust)

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Datasheet

Puccinia polysora (American corn rust)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Puccinia polysora
  • Preferred Common Name
  • American corn rust
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •         Class: Pucciniomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Rust pustules (0.2-2.0 mm) on upper surface of maize leaf.
TitleInfected maize leaf
CaptionRust pustules (0.2-2.0 mm) on upper surface of maize leaf.
CopyrightMauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute
Rust pustules (0.2-2.0 mm) on upper surface of maize leaf.
Infected maize leafRust pustules (0.2-2.0 mm) on upper surface of maize leaf.Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute
P. polysora on maize leaf.
TitleHeavily infected maize leaf
CaptionP. polysora on maize leaf.
CopyrightWu-Hsiung Tsai
P. polysora on maize leaf.
Heavily infected maize leafP. polysora on maize leaf.Wu-Hsiung Tsai
Urediniospores (26-41 x 18.5-30 µm) of P. polysora (magnification x132).
TitleUrediniospores
CaptionUrediniospores (26-41 x 18.5-30 µm) of P. polysora (magnification x132).
CopyrightWu-Hsiung Tsai
Urediniospores (26-41 x 18.5-30 µm) of P. polysora (magnification x132).
UrediniosporesUrediniospores (26-41 x 18.5-30 µm) of P. polysora (magnification x132).Wu-Hsiung Tsai
Teliospores of P. polysora (magnification x132). Teliospores are two-celled and measure 26-50 x 16-27 µm.
TitleTeliospores
CaptionTeliospores of P. polysora (magnification x132). Teliospores are two-celled and measure 26-50 x 16-27 µm.
CopyrightWu-Hsiung Tsai
Teliospores of P. polysora (magnification x132). Teliospores are two-celled and measure 26-50 x 16-27 µm.
TeliosporesTeliospores of P. polysora (magnification x132). Teliospores are two-celled and measure 26-50 x 16-27 µm.Wu-Hsiung Tsai

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Puccinia polysora Underw.

Preferred Common Name

  • American corn rust

Other Scientific Names

  • Dicaeoma polysorum Arthur

International Common Names

  • English: lowland leaf rust; polysora rust; rust of maize; southern rust of maize
  • Spanish: roya del maíz
  • French: rouille du maïs
  • Chinese: yumi shiow ping

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Rost, Braun-: Mais; Rost, Südlicher: Mais
  • Japan: towimonokoshi napo sabi bin

EPPO code

  • PUCCPY (Puccinia polysora)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •                 Class: Pucciniomycetes
  •                     Order: Pucciniales
  •                         Family: Pucciniaceae
  •                             Genus: Puccinia
  •                                 Species: Puccinia polysora

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
BeninPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
CameroonPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
ChadPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentUK, CAB International (1992)
Congo, Republic of thePresentUK, CAB International (1992)
Côte d'IvoirePresentUK, CAB International (1992)
Equatorial GuineaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
GabonPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
GhanaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
GuineaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Kranz, 1964
KenyaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
LiberiaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
MadagascarPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
MalawiPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
MauritaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
MauritiusPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
MozambiquePresentUK, CAB International (1992)
NigerPresentKranz and Hammat (1979)
NigeriaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
RéunionPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
SenegalPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
Sierra LeonePresentUK, CAB International (1992)
SomaliaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
South AfricaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
SudanPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
TanzaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
TogoPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
UgandaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
ZambiaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
ZimbabwePresentUK, CAB International (1992)

Asia

BruneiPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
CambodiaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
ChinaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-HainanPresentDuan and He (1984)
-TianjinPresentLiu et al. (2018)
Cocos IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
IndiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-KarnatakaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1992); Payak (1994)
-SikkimPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
-West BengalPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
IndonesiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-JavaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
JapanPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-KyushuPresentTajimi (1985); Nishi et al. (1994); Ito et al. (1995)
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent, WidespreadTajimi (1983); Tajimi (1985)
MalaysiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
-SabahPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
-SarawakPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
PhilippinesPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
TaiwanPresent, WidespreadHou et al. (1978); Yeh (1986); CABI (Undated)
VietnamPresentUK, CAB International (1992)

North America

BelizePresentUK, CAB International (1992)
Costa RicaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
CubaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
Dominican RepublicPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
El SalvadorPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
GrenadaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
GuatemalaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
HondurasPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
JamaicaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
MartiniquePresentUK, CAB International (1992)
MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
NicaraguaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
PanamaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
Puerto RicoPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
Saint LuciaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresent, LocalizedFutrell (1975); UK, CAB International (1992)
-ArkansasPresent, LocalizedFutrell (1975); UK, CAB International (1992)
-FloridaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
-GeorgiaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
-HawaiiPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
-IllinoisPresent, LocalizedFutrell (1975); UK, CAB International (1992)
-IndianaPresent, WidespreadSchall et al. (1983); UK, CAB International (1992)
-IowaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
-KansasPresent, WidespreadSim (1980); UK, CAB International (1992)
-KentuckyPresent, LocalizedFutrell (1975)
-LouisianaPresent, LocalizedFutrell (1975); UK, CAB International (1992)
-MainePresentUK, CAB International (1992)
-MarylandPresentRaid et al. (1988); UK, CAB International (1992)
-MassachusettsPresentCUMMINS (1941)
-MississippiPresent, LocalizedFutrell (1975); UK, CAB International (1992)
-MissouriPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
-New JerseyPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
-North CarolinaPresent, WidespreadLeonard (1974); UK, CAB International (1992)
-OhioPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
-OklahomaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
-PennsylvaniaPresent, LocalizedRaid et al. (1988)
-South CarolinaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
-TennesseePresent, LocalizedFutrell (1975)
-TexasPresent, LocalizedFutrell (1975); UK, CAB International (1992)
-VirginiaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
-WisconsinPresentUK, CAB International (1992)

Oceania

American SamoaPresentBrooks (2002)
AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-QueenslandPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
Christmas IslandPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
FijiPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
New CaledoniaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
Papua New GuineaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
SamoaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
Solomon IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
TongaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
VanuatuPresentUK, CAB International (1992)

South America

ArgentinaPresentHernández et al. (2002)
BoliviaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
BrazilPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-GoiasPresentJuliatti and Souza (2005)
-ParaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
-ParanaPresentVieira et al. (2009)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
ColombiaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
GuyanaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
PeruPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
VenezuelaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / internal red necrosis
Stems / mould growth on lesion

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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Allen EA, Hazen BE, Hoch HC, Kwon Y, Leinhos GME, Staples RC, Stumpf MA, Terhune BT, 1991. Appressorium formation in response to topographical signals by 27 rust species. Phytopathology, 81(3):323-331

Ayuk-Takem JA, Chheda HR, 1982. Effects of leaf blight and rust on maize in lowland and highland Cameroon environments. Experimental Agriculture, 18:299-304.

Bailey BA, Schuh W, Frederiksen RA, Bockholt AJ, Smith JD, 1987. Identification of slow-rusting resistance to Puccinia polysora in maize inbreds and single crosses. Plant Disease, 71(6):518-521

Bergquist RR, 1984. Virulence and isozyme differences for establishing racial identity in rusts of maize. Plant Disease, 68(4):281-283

Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. Land Grant Technical Report No. 44. Pago Pago, American Samoa: American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program.

Cammack RH, 1959a. Studies on Puccinia polysora Undew. II. A consideration of the method of introduction of P. polysora into Africa. Transaction of British Mycological Society, 42:27-32.

Cammack RH, 1959b. Studies on Puccinia polysora Undew. III. Description and life cycle of P. polysora in West Africa. Transaction of British Mycological Society, 42:55-58.

CMI, 1992. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases. Map No. 237. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Craig J, Webster OJ, Zuber MS, 1976. Registration of PR-MO2 maize germplasm (Reg. No. GP63). Crop Science, 16:446-447.

Crouch JA, Szabo LJ, 2011. Real-time PCR detection and discrimination of the southern and common corn rust pathogens Puccinia polysora and Puccinia sorghi. Plant Disease, 95(6):624-632. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Cummins GB, 1941. Identity and distribution of three rusts of corn. Phytopathology, 31:856-857.

Duan DR, He HZ, 1984. Description of a rust Puccinia polysora on corn in Hainan Island. Acta Mycologica Sinica, 3(2):125-126

Eaton DL, Byrne P, Deutsch J, Goertz P, Johnson E, Mihm J, Corona AO, Pandey S, Villena W, 1993. Registration of 'Mezcla Amarilla', 'Tuxpeno Caribé', Blanco Subtropical', and 'AED-Tuxpeno' maize populations. Crop Science, 33(2):352-353; 2 ref.

Futrell MC, 1975. Puccinia polysora epidemics on maize associated with cropping practice and genetic homogeneity. Phytopathology, 65(9):1040-1042

Futrell MC, Hooker AL, Scott GE, 1975. Resistance in maize to corn rust, controlled by a single dominant gene. Crop Science, 15(4):597-599

Hernández JR, Yasem de Romero M, Díaz CG, Ramallo JC, 2002. First report of Puccinia polysora on corn in Argentina. Plant Disease, 86(2):187.

Hiratsuka N, Chen Z-C, 1991. A list of Uredinales collected from Taiwan. Transactions of the Mycological Society of Japan, 32:3-22.

Hollier CA, King SB, 1985. Effect of dew period and temperature on infection of seedling maize plants by Puccinia polysora. Plant Disease, 69(3):219-220

Hollier CA, King SB, 1985. Effects of temperature and relative humidity on germinability and infectivity of Puccinia polysora uredospores. Plant Disease, 69(11):937-939

Hou HS, Tseng JM, Sun MH, 1978. Occurrence of corn rusts in Taiwan. Plant Disease Reporter, 62:183-186.

Ito E, Koinuma K, Ikegaya F, 1995. Relation of southern rust severity to ear and stover yield losses in silage maize (Zea mays) hybrids. Bulletin of the Kyushu National Agricultural Experiment Station, 28(3):167-174

Juliatti FC, Souza RM, 2005. Effects of sowing date on the occurence of leaf diseases and on productivity of corn hybrids. (Efeito de épocas de plantio na severidade de doenças foliares e produtividade de híbridos de milho.) Bioscience Journal, 21(1):103-112. http://www.biosciencejournal.ufu.br

Kim SK, Efron Y, Khadr F, Fajemisin KJ, Lee MH, 1987. Registration of 16 maize streak virus resistant tropical maize parental inbred lines. Crop Science, 27:824-825.

Kranz J, Hammat H, 1979. New records of phytopathogens on cultivated plants. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 27(3):97-99

Laundon GF, Waterston JM, 1964. Puccinia polysora. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 4. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Leonard KJ, 1974. Foliar pathogens of corn in North Carolina. Plant Disease Reporter, 58(6):532-534

Liu, X. F., Xu, J. Y., Gu, Y. L., Sun, Q. Y., Yuan, W. Y., Ma, Z. H., 2018. Occurrence of Puccinia polysora causing southern corn rust in the northeast Huanghuaihai region of China., 102(4), 826. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-05-17-0646-PDN

Lu HS, Tsai WH, Shieh GJ, Ho CL, 1990. Evaluation of base population resistance to common and southern rust in maize. Journal of Agricultural Research of China, 39(4):269-276

MEYER WCVON, 1963. The influence of storage conditions on the longevity of uredospores of Puccinia polysora Underw. and Puccinia sorghi Schw. Plant Disease Reporter, 47(7):614-616 pp.

Nishi K, Kayamura T, Namiki F, 1994. Southern rust of corn in Kumamoto Prefecture. Proceedings of the Association for Plant Protection of Kyushu, 40:22-24

Onofeghara FA, Kapooria RG, 1975. Effects of systemic fungicides on corn rust. Ghana Journal of Science, 15(1):89-92

Payak MM, 1994. Introduction of Puccinia polysora, polysora rust of maize in India. Current Science, 66(4):317-318

Raid RN, Pennypacker SP, Stevenson RE, 1988. Characterization of Puccinia polysora epidemics in Pennsylvania and Maryland. Phytopathology, 78(5):579-585

Reyes GM, 1957. Recent outbreaks of maize rust in the Philippines. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 6(3):39-40.

Rhind D, Waterston JM, Deighton FC, 1952. Occurrence of Puccinia polysora Underw. in West Africa. Nature (London), 169:631.

Robert AL, 1962. Host ranges and races of the corn rusts. Phytopathology, 52:1010-1015.

Rodriguez-Ardon R, Scott GE, King SB, 1980. Maize yield losses caused by southern corn rust. Crop Science, 20(6):812-814

Ryland AK, Storey HH, 1955. Physiological races of Puccinia polysora Underw. Nature (London), 176:655-656.

Santiago-Oro R, Exconde OR, 1974. Penetration and infection of corn by Puccinia polysora Underwent. Philippine Agriculturist, 58(1/2):50-60

Schall RA, McCain JW, Hennen JF, 1983. Distribution of Puccinia polysora in Indiana and absence of a cool weather form as determined by comparison with P. sorghi. Plant Disease, 67:767-770.

Schieber E, 1975. Puccinia polysora rust found on Tripsacum laxum in the jungle of Chiapas, Mexico. Plant Disease Reporter, 59(7):625-626

Schieber E, Dickson JG, 1963. Comparative pathology of three tropical corn rusts. Phytopathology 53:517-521.

Scott GE, Davis FM, 1981. Registration of MpSWCB-4 population of maize (Reg. No. GP 87). Crop Science, 21:148.

Scott GE, Davis FM, Williams WP, 1982. Registration of Mp701 and Mp702 germplasm lines of maize (Reg. No. GP119 and GP120). Crop Science, 22:1270.

Scott GE, King SB, Armour JW Jr, 1984. Inheritance of resistance to southern corn rust in maize populations. Crop Science, 24(2):265-267

Shurtleff MC, ed. , 1980. Compendium of corn diseases. Compendium of corn diseases. American Phytopathological Society St. Paul, Minn. USA, Edition 2:105 pp.

Sim TIV, 1980. Southern rust of corn recognized in Kansas. Plant Disease, 64(5):500

Stanton WR, Cammack RH, 1953. Resistance to the maize rust, Puccinia polysora Underw. Nature (London), 172:505-506.

Storey HH, Howland AK, 1957. Resistance in maize to the tropical American rust fungus Puccinia polysora Underw. I. Genes Rpp1 and Rpp2. Heredity, 11:289-301.

Storey HH, Howland AK, 1959. Resistance in maize to the tropical American rust fungus p Puccinia polysora. II. Linkage of genes Rpp1 and Rpp2. Heredity, 13:61-65.

Tajimi A, 1983. Two rusts of corn in Japan, 1982. Journal of Japanese Society of Grassland Science, 29(3):261-262

Tajimi A, 1985. Differences in resistance to common rust and southern rust in maize varieties. Research Bulletin of the Hokkaido National Agricultural Experiment Station, No. 143:85-94

Tsai WH, 1991. Occurrence of corn rust disease and meteorological factors. Journal of Agricultural Research of China, 40(4):459-471

Tsai WH, Tsai JN, 1992. Occurrence and meteorological factors of corn rust disease and yield losses. Plant Protection Bulletin (Taipei), 34(2):80-100

Tsai WH, Tsai JN, 1993. Verification of predictive equations of corn southern rust disease. Plant Protection Bulletin (Taipei), 35(2):89-94

Tuley P, 1961. Puccinia polysora on Tripsacum laxum and Zea mays. Nature (London), 190:284.

Turner GJ, 1974. Possible transmission of Puccinia polysora by bees. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 62(1):205-206

Ullstrup AJ, 1950. Corn diseases in Indiana in 1949. Plant Disease Reporter, 34:89-99.

Ullstrup AJ, 1965. Inheritance and linkage of a gene determining resistance in maize American race of Puccinia polysora. Phytopathology, 55:425-430.

Underwood LM, 1897. Some new fungi from Alabama. Torrey Botany Club Bulletin, 24:81-86.

Vieira RA, Tessmann DJ, Scapim CA, Hata FT, Rodovalho Mde A, Barreto RR, 2009. Genetic resistance of new popcorn hybrids to foliar diseases. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology, 9(2):140-146. http://www.sbmp.org.br/cbab/

Williams WP, Davis FM, 1980. Registration of Mp703 germplasm line of maize (Reg. No. GP83). Crop Science, 20:418.

Williams WP, Davis FM, 1982. Registration of Mp704 germplasm line of maize (Reg. No. GP116). Crop Science, 22:1269-1270.

Williams WP, Davis FM, 1984. Registration of Mp705, Mp706, and Mp707 germplasm lines of maize. Crop Science, 24(6):1217

Yeh CC, 1984. Diagnosis of maize rusts and screening for rust resistance. Journal of Agricultural Research of China, 33:306-315.

Yeh CC, 1986. Studies on rusts of maize. Journal of Agricultural Research of China, 35(1):81-93

York JO, 1991. Registration of Ark. SWCB Syn., Ark. Leaf Feed. Res. Syn., and Ark. Corn-Borer Comp. 1, 2, and 3 maize germplasm. Crop Science, 31(2):501-502

Zummo N, 1988. Components contributing to partial resistance in maize to Puccinia polysora. Plant Disease, 72(2):157-160

Distribution References

Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. Land Grant Technical Report No. 44., Pago Pago, American Samoa: American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CUMMINS G B, 1941. Identity and distribution of three rusts of Corn. Phytopathology. 31 (9), 856-857 pp.

Duan D R, He H Z, 1984. Description of a rust Puccinia polysora on corn in Hainan Island. ([on maize].). Acta Mycologica Sinica. 3 (2), 125-126.

Futrell M C, 1975. Puccinia polysora epidemics on maize associated with cropping practice and genetic homogeneity. Phytopathology. 65 (9), 1040-1042. DOI:10.1094/Phyto-65-1040

Hernández J R, Yasem de Romero M, Díaz C G, Ramallo J C, 2002. First report of Puccinia polysora on corn in Argentina. Plant Disease. 86 (2), 187. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2002.86.2.187B

Hou H-S, Tseng J-M, Sun M-H, 1978. Occurrence of corn rusts in Taiwan. Plant Disease Reporter. 62 (2), 183-186.

Ito E, Koinuma K, Ikegaya F, 1995. Relation of southern rust severity to ear and stover yield losses in silage maize (Zea mays) hybrids. Bulletin of the Kyushu National Agricultural Experiment Station. 28 (3), 167-174.

Juliatti F C, Souza R M, 2005. Effects of sowing date on the occurence of leaf diseases and on productivity of corn hybrids. (Efeito de épocas de plantio na severidade de doenças foliares e produtividade de híbridos de milho.). Bioscience Journal. 21 (1), 103-112. http://www.biosciencejournal.ufu.br

Kranz J, Hammat H, 1979. New records of phytopathogens on cultivated plants. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin. 27 (3), 97-99.

Leonard K J, 1974. Foliar pathogens of corn in North Carolina. Plant Disease Reporter. 58 (6), 532-534.

Liu X F, Xu J Y, Gu Y L, Sun Q Y, Yuan W Y, Ma Z H, 2018. Occurrence of Puccinia polysora causing southern corn rust in the northeast Huanghuaihai region of China. Plant Disease. 102 (4), 826. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-17-0646-PDN

Nishi K, Kayamura T, Namiki F, 1994. Southern rust of corn in Kumamoto Prefecture. ([Puccinia polysora].). Proceedings of the Association for Plant Protection of Kyushu. 22-24.

Payak M M, 1994. Introduction of Puccinia polysora, polysora rust of maize in India. Current Science. 66 (4), 317-318.

Raid R N, Pennypacker S P, Stevenson R E, 1988. Characterization of Puccinia polysora epidemics in Pennsylvania and Maryland. Phytopathology. 78 (5), 579-585. DOI:10.1094/Phyto-78-579

Schall RA, McCain JW, Hennen JF, 1983. Distribution of Puccinia polysora in Indiana and absence of a cool weather form as determined by comparison with P. sorghi. In: Plant Disease, 67 767-770.

Sim T IV, 1980. Southern rust of corn recognized in Kansas. Plant Disease. 64 (5), 500.

Tajimi A, 1983. Two rusts of corn in Japan, 1982. Journal of Japanese Society of Grassland Science. 29 (3), 261-262.

Tajimi A, 1985. Differences in resistance to common rust and southern rust in maize varieties. Research Bulletin of the Hokkaido National Agricultural Experiment Station. 85-94.

UK, CAB International, 1992. Puccinia polysora. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 237.

Vieira R A, Tessmann D J, Scapim C A, Hata F T, Rodovalho M de A, Barreto R R, 2009. Genetic resistance of new popcorn hybrids to foliar diseases. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology. 9 (2), 140-146. http://www.sbmp.org.br/cbab/

Yeh C C, 1986. Studies on rusts of maize. Journal of Agricultural Research of China. 35 (1), 81-93.

Distribution Maps

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