Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Puccinia pittieriana
(common rust of potato)

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Datasheet

Puccinia pittieriana (common rust of potato)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Documented Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Puccinia pittieriana
  • Preferred Common Name
  • common rust of potato
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •         Class: Pucciniomycetes
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • P. pittieriana is a microcyclic rust fungus occurring on potato [Solanum tuberosum], tomato [Solanum lycopersicum] and wild species of Solanum in South and Central America...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Underside of potato leaf with protruding pustules of P. pittieriana.
TitlePustules on potato leaf
CaptionUnderside of potato leaf with protruding pustules of P. pittieriana.
CopyrightCIP
Underside of potato leaf with protruding pustules of P. pittieriana.
Pustules on potato leafUnderside of potato leaf with protruding pustules of P. pittieriana.CIP
Upper side of potato leaf with depressions caused by P. pittieriana.
TitlePotato leaf with depressions
CaptionUpper side of potato leaf with depressions caused by P. pittieriana.
CopyrightCIP
Upper side of potato leaf with depressions caused by P. pittieriana.
Potato leaf with depressionsUpper side of potato leaf with depressions caused by P. pittieriana.CIP
Part of telium on leaf of Solanum tuberosum. Original x100. Note scale bar.
TitlePart of telium
CaptionPart of telium on leaf of Solanum tuberosum. Original x100. Note scale bar.
CopyrightUSDA-ARS/Systematic Mycology & Microbiology Laboratory
Part of telium on leaf of Solanum tuberosum. Original x100. Note scale bar.
Part of teliumPart of telium on leaf of Solanum tuberosum. Original x100. Note scale bar.USDA-ARS/Systematic Mycology & Microbiology Laboratory
Teliospores. Original x200. Note scale bar.
TitleTeliospores
CaptionTeliospores. Original x200. Note scale bar.
CopyrightUSDA-ARS/Systematic Mycology & Microbiology Laboratory
Teliospores. Original x200. Note scale bar.
TeliosporesTeliospores. Original x200. Note scale bar.USDA-ARS/Systematic Mycology & Microbiology Laboratory
Teliospores. Original x1000. Note scale bar.
TitleTeliospores
CaptionTeliospores. Original x1000. Note scale bar.
CopyrightUSDA-ARS/Systematic Mycology & Microbiology Laboratory
Teliospores. Original x1000. Note scale bar.
TeliosporesTeliospores. Original x1000. Note scale bar.USDA-ARS/Systematic Mycology & Microbiology Laboratory

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Puccinia pittieriana Henn. 1904

Preferred Common Name

  • common rust of potato

Other Scientific Names

  • Micropuccinia pittieriana (Henn.) Arthur and H.S. Jacks. 1922

International Common Names

  • English: common potato rust; potato common rust; potato rust; rust of potato; tomato rust
  • Spanish: roya comun; roya de la papa; roya de la patata; roya del tomate
  • French: rouille de la pomme de terre

Local Common Names

  • Ecuador: herrumbre de la papa el tomate
  • Germany: kartoffel rost

EPPO code

  • PUCCPT (Puccinia pittieriana)

Summary of Invasiveness

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P. pittieriana is a microcyclic rust fungus occurring on potato [Solanum tuberosum], tomato [Solanum lycopersicum] and wild species of Solanum in South and Central America and is an EPPO A1 quarantine organism for Europe (EPPO, 1988). Probably capable of causing disease on potatoes in cool, moist regions of the temperate and tropical zones, this fungus can be transported in fresh or dried plant material or crop debris in soil. As the basidiospores are short-lived and not produced in large numbers, the fungus is not spread far by natural agents such as the wind.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •                 Class: Pucciniomycetes
  •                     Order: Pucciniales
  •                         Family: Pucciniaceae
  •                             Genus: Puccinia
  •                                 Species: Puccinia pittieriana

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Arthur (1922a) established genera such as Micropuccinia based on the rust life cycles, but these have not been accepted.

Description

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P. pittieriana is a microcyclic (short cycle) rust that produces only teliospores and basidiospores.

Telia hypophyllous, gregarious, to 5 mm diameter, often fusing. Teliospores one-septate, broadly ellipsoid to ovoid, apex rounded, slightly constricted at the septum, smooth, orange to brown, 16-25 x 20-35 µm. Wall 1-2 at sides, 3-7 above. Pedicels hyaline to yellowish, up to 60 x 6 µm. Basidiospores hyaline, 8-18 x 11-25 µm. Single-celled mesopores occasionally present.

For additional details, see Kern (1933), Laundon and Rainbow (1971) and French (2001a).

Distribution

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P. pittieriana was first recorded in Costa Rica, where it was collected on cultivated potato [Solanum tuberosum], high on the slopes of Irazu volcano in 1903 and 1904 by Pittier (Arthur, 1920) and it was formally described by Hennings (1904). The rust was reported again in 1916 by Holway on wild potato (Hennings, 1904; Kern, 1933). Pachano reported it attacking both potato and tomato [Solanum lycopersicum] in Ecuador in 1919 (Kern, 1933). Chardon and Toro (1930) described its presence in Colombia on potato, causing severe losses in the central Cordillera region, primarily in Nariño and Tolima. In Peru, Abbott (1931) found this rust on potato only near Tarma. It was identified by Chardon in Venezuela in 1932 (Kern, 1933).

Reddick (1932) reported the presence of P. pittieriana on the wild potato, Solanum demissum, in central Mexico. Alvarez (1976) listed this species in Mexico, but no specimens exist in national collections.

In Brazil, Solanum rust was detected on cultivated potatoes and first reported by Goncalves da Silva (1939) for the state of Espirito Santo; it was later found in the state of São Paulo (Hennen et al., 1982). In Bolivia, Alandia-Borda (1966) reported P. pittieriana on leaves of the wild potato, Solanum platypterum, in Potosi, but this record is now doubtful (EPPO, 2000).

UK CAB International (1994) shows P. pittieriana in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Paraguay and Venezuela. Paraguay has been listed because of an error in a citation of Hennings (1904); he only reports P. pittieriana as present in Costa Rica.

See also CABI\EPPO (1997).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Risk of Introduction

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As dissemination of the disease has not been recorded on tubers in trade, there is no apparent risk of spread of this disease on plant material, unless dried or infected living specimens are distributed for research to regions free of P. pittieriana (EPPO, 1988). Thurston (1973) considered this pathogen to have “limited threat potential”, but noted that it could be established in tropical countries where potatoes [Solanum tuberosum] are grown at high altitudes.

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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Field observations were made on cultivated tomato [Solanum lycopersicum], cultivated potatoes (Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigenum and subsp. tuberosum), and the wild potato, Solanum demissum. All other records of susceptibility listed are the results of greenhouse tests (Reddick, 1932; Buritica et al., 1968).

P. pittieriana affects the following cultivated and wild potato species in greenhouse tests:

- Cultivated potato: Solanum ajanhuiri, Solanum curtilobum, Solanum juzepczukii, Solanum phureja, S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum and S. tuberosum subsp. tuberosum.

- Wild potato species: Solanum antipoviczii [Solanum stoloniferum], Solanum cardiophyllum, Solanum commersonii, S. demissum, Solanum ehrenbergii, Solanum gibberulosum, Solanum famatinae [Solanum spegazzinii], Solanum malinchense [Solanum stoloniferum], Solanum oplocense, Solanum parodii [Solanum chacoense], Solanum schickii, Solanum simplicifolium [Solanum microdontum], Solanum stoloniferum and Solanum verrucosum (Buritica et al., 1968).

- Other species of Solanum affected are Solanum caripense and Solanum nigrum in Colombia (Buritica et al., 1968).

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

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Lesions begin as minute, round, greenish-white spots that grow up to 3-4 mm diameter on the underside of leaves. Some lesions become elongated with their longer axes reaching 8 mm. They later become cream, with reddish centres that turn tomato-red and finally rusty-red to coffee-brown. The lesions protrude by 1-3 mm, with corresponding depressions on the upper leaf surface, and may be surrounded by chlorotic or necrotic halos. Defoliation results when hundreds of lesions form on a leaf. Elongated or irregular lesions occur on petioles and stems; fruits and flowers are also affected (French, 2001a).

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / lesions: on pods
Inflorescence / lesions; flecking; streaks (not Poaceae)
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / mould growth on lesion

Biology and Ecology

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Arthur (1922b) considered the source of inoculum for commercial crops to be wild hosts in Costa Rica and Ecuador.

The development and spread of the fungus requires average temperatures of approximately 10°C with 10-12 h of free moisture on the plant surface. Inoculum is wind-borne, spreading from earlier sown crops or wild hosts (Laundon and Rainbow, 1971). In vitro, teliospores germinate in 1 hour to produce a basidium (promycelium) which, at temperatures above 15°C, usually continues to grow vegetatively. Below 15°C, most basidia give rise to four basidiospores (sporidia) in 3-24 h. When detached, the basidiospores germinate immediately and the first symptoms appear in 14-16 days on potato at temperatures of 16°C or below. Lesions are fully grown in 20-25 days. Teliospores mature in 30-40 days after inoculation (French, 2001a). Lesion size may vary on different species of Solanum and possibly with different races (Castaño, 1952).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Basidiospores are wind-borne (French, 2001a). Teliospores may be carried in crop debris or in soil (EPPO, 1988).

Seedborne Aspects

Top of page There is no record of transmission of P. pittieriana on contaminated seed.

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Plants or parts of plantsteliospores Yes Yes EPPO, 1988
Windbasidiospores Yes EPPO, 1988

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative

Impact: Economic

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Greatest losses are reported in northern Ecuador close to the equatorial line, where potatoes [Solanum tuberosum] are produced in a plateau area in Carchi and Tungurahua provinces. Parts of this region are above 3000 m in elevation, with conditions favourable for the development of common rust, where attempts have been made to control this disease with fungicides (Velastegui, 1991).

Serious losses have occasionally been reported in Colombia in Nariño and Tolima by Chardon and Toro (1930), and in Caldas and Tolima by Castaño (1952). Commercial “chola” plantations failed completely due to rust in the Mocha area of Ecuador in 1959 (Diaz and Echeverrria, 1963).

Common rust has been observed in Peru only in the highlands of Junin and La Libertad (French et al., 1972), primarily on the eastern watershed of the Andes at altitudes of 2700-4300 m (French, 2001a), where it is restricted to a few locations by the microclimate or inoculum availability. Losses are seldom severe even though symptoms may be conspicuous, primarily on the lower leaves, some of which may drop.

Losses have not been quantified in any of the countries in which common rust has been reported, but P. pittieriana only appears to be a limiting factor for potato production in northern Ecuador, sometimes in Colombia and only rarely in Peru.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
Impact mechanisms
  • Pathogenic
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Diagnosis

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Common rust is the only rust that affects tomato [Solanum lycopersicum]; therefore, there can be no confusion on this crop. Potatoes [Solanum tuberosum] are affected by both common rust and deforming rust (Aecidium cantense), but these diseases produce different symptoms. Potato common rust produces typical telia in lesions on leaves and stems, whereas deforming rust produces saucer-shaped aecia and growth distortions of the leaves and stems (French, 2001a,b).

At least one sequence for the LSU region of rDNA is publicly available for comparison (NCBI, 2009).

Detection and Inspection

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There are no records of transported contaminated crop produce causing spread of P. pittieriana. The only risk of spread is by the transport of infected plants or plant material, which is usually prohibited. Field-grown potatoes [Solanum spp.] from highland areas in countries where this disease is known should not enter international trade. There is no need for detection and inspection procedures if appropriate transport restrictions are observed.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Potatoes [Solanum tuberosum] can be damaged by another disease, known as “deforming rust”, caused by Aecidiumcantense. Deforming rust also attacks ulluco (Ullucus tuberosus). These two rusts usually occur in distinct geographical areas in the Andes. Deforming rust occurs primarily in Peru, but has also been reported in Argentina. Symptoms are distinct; common rust produces typical Puccinia telia in lesions on leaves and stems, whereas deforming rust produces groups of saucer-shaped aecia on leaves, petioles and stems, causing distortion and swelling of the leaves and stems (French, 2001b).

Additional rust fungi reported on Solanum species, other than cultivated potato, are described and illustrated by Kern (1933) and Pardo-Cardona (2002). These are differentiated primarily by minor differences in teliospore morphology. Puccinia solani-tristis is reported on a number of wild Solanum species in Brazil (Mendes et al., 1998); that and eight other species are reported from Colombia (Pardo-Cardona, 2002).

Prevention and Control

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Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

In areas of the steeply sloping Andes of Peru, where the disease is most severe, farmers often choose to plant potatoes [Solanum spp.] in fields in nearby microclimates that are less favourable to the disease (French et al., 1972).

Chemical Control

In northern Ecuador, where losses due to common rust can limit production, chemical control has been tested over a number of years. Diaz and Echevarria (1963) reported that the organic fungicides folpet, maneb, thiram and zineb, applied every 14 days, gave better preventative control than five other fungicides tested. Better results were obtained with the systemic fungicides oxycarboxin and propiconazole (Velastegui, 1991). Quijano and Molina Valero (1988) reported best control in field tests in Colombia with Tilt (propiconazole), Plantvax (oxycarboxin), and Sicarol 500 (pyracarbolid) reducing disease more than 80%; best yields were obtained with Plantvax, Tilt and Elosal 720 (azufre). Plantvax and Tilt inhibited teliospore germination in vitro.

Chemical control is not common in Peru, although applications of metiram every 7-10 days have been shown to reduce incidence (French et al., 1972).

Host Resistance

Resistance to common rust was found when 136 potato cultivars were screened by natural field infection at two locations in Tungurahua province, Ecuador. A total of 12 cultivars were reported as having adequate resistance. The three most resistant were Ecuadorian Potato Collection (Coleccion Ecuatoriana de Papa) numbers 305, 314 and 503 (Coronel-Orijalva, 1970).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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The genetic relationship of P. pittieriana to other species of Puccinia on Solanum in South America should be studied to clarify the actual distribution of these pathogens and the threat of their introduction.

References

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Abbott EV, 1931. Further notes on plant diseases in Peru. Phytopathology, 21(11):1061-1071 pp.

Alandia-Borda S, 1966. (New identifications of plant parasitic fungi on economic plants of Bolivia) Nuevas identificaciones de hongos parasitos de plantas economicas de Bolivia. Turrialba, 16: 398-401.

Alvarez MG, 1976. Primer catalogo de enfermedades de plantas Mexicanas. Fitofilo, 71:1-169.

Arthur JC, 1918. Uredinales of Costa Rica based on collections by E.W.D. Holway. Mycologia, 10:111-154.

Arthur JC, 1920. Two destructive rusts ready to invade the United States. Science, 51:246-247.

Arthur JC, 1922. Aecidiaceae in North America. Flora, 7:481-604.

Arthur JC, 1922. Origin of potato rust. Science, 53: 228-229.

Buritica P; Orjuela J; Bustamante E, 1968. (Potato rust in Colombia and its implications) La roya de la papa en Colombia y sus implicaciones. Agricultura Tropical (Colombia), 24: 221-222.

CABI\EPPO, 1997. Puccinia pittieriana. Quarantine Pests for Europe. Second edition. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 914-916.

Castaño JJ, 1952. (Potato rust) Roya de la papa. Agricultura Tropical (Bogota), 8: 47-48.

Chardon CE; Toro R, 1930. Mycological explorations of Colombia. J. Department of Agriculture Puerto Rico, 14: 195-369.

Coronel-Orijalva MA, 1970. (Determination of resistances to late blight and common rust and other characteristics of potato germplasm) Determinacion de las resistancias a "lancha" y "roya" y otras caracteristicas germoplasmicas en papa. Tesis Ing. Agr. Universidad Central del Ecuador (Quito). 80 pp.

Diaz JR; Echeverria J, 1963. Chemical control of Puccinia pitteriana on potatoes in Ecuador. Plant Disease Reporter, 47:800-801.

EPPO, 1988. Data sheets on quarantine organisms. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 18:517-519. [No. 155, Puccinia pittieriana.]

EPPO, 2000. Corrections to PQR 3.9, quarantine pests for Europe, maps of quarantine pests for Europe. Corrections to PQR 3.9, quarantine pests for Europe, maps of quarantine pests for Europe. Paris, France: EPPO, unpaginated. http://archives.eppo.org/EPPOReporting/2000/Rse-0001.pdf

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

French ER, 1981. Compendium of Potato Diseases. Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, p. 65.

French ER, 2001. Common rust. In: Compendium of Potato Diseases. Second edition [ed. by Stevenson, W. R.\Loria, R.\Franc, G. D.\Weingartner, D. P.]. Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 20-21.

French ER, 2001. Deforming rust. In: Compendium of Potato Diseases. Second edition [ed. by Stevenson, W. R.\Loria, R.\Franc, G. D.\Weingartner, D. P.]. Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 21.

French ER; Torres H; Icochea TA de; Salazar L; Fribourg C; Fernandez EN; Martin A; Franco J; Scurrah MM de; Herrera IA; Vise C; Lazo L; Hidalgo OA, 1972. Enfermedades de la Papa en el Peru (Potato diseases in Peru). Boletin Tecnico No. 77, Estacion Experimental Agricola La Molina, 36 pp.

Goncalves de Silva S, 1939. (Preliminary list of diseases of plants in Santo Espirito state) Lista preliminar das doencas das plantas no Estado do Espirito Santo. Boletin Ministerio Agricultura Rio de Janeiro, 12 pp.

Hennen JF; Hennen MM; Figueiredo MB, 1982. Index of the rust fungi (Uredinales) of Brazil. Arquivos do Instituto Biologico, 49(Supplement 1):201 pp.

Hennings P, 1904. (Some new fungi from Costa Rica and Paraguay) Einige neue pilze aus Costarica und Paraguay. Hedwigia, 43:147-149.

Hernández JR; Piepenbring M; Vega Rios MB, 2007. A new species, Dicheirinia panamensis, and new records of rust fungi from Panama. Mycological Progress, 6(2):81-91. http://www.springerlink.com/content/v75167866617847p/?p=da4bd7723ea0409cab9dcf2d75ddfbaa&pi=1

IMI, 1994. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Map No. 460. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Kern FD, 1933. The microcyclic species of Puccinia on Solanum. Mycologia, 25:435-441.

Laundon GF; Rainbow AF, 1971. Puccinia pittieriana. [Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria]. IMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria, No. 29. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Sheet 286.

Mendes MAS; Silva VL da; Dianese JC; Ferreira MASV; Santos CEN dos; Neto EG; Urben AF; Castro C, 1998. Fungos em Plantas no Brasil. Brasilia, DF, Brazil: Embrapa-SPI/Embrapa-Cenargen, 555 pp.

NCBI, 2009. Entrez cross-database search engine. Maryland, USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/gquery

Pardo Cardona VM, 2002. [English title not available]. (Especies microciclicas de Puccinia Persoon sobre Solanum L. en Colombia.) Caldasia, 23:427-434.

Pardo-Cardona VM, 1998. Distribution of the Colombian species of Uredinales in relation to taxonomical groups of its hosts. (Distribucion de las especies Colombianas de Uredinales segun los grupos taxonomicos de sus hospederos.) Revista - Facultad Nacional de Agronomía Medellín, 51(2):285-319.

Quijano SO; Molina Valero LA, 1988. [English title not available]. (Control químico de la roya (Puccinia pittieriana Henn.) en papa de la variedad Parda Pastusa en el departamento de Nariño.) Revista de Ciencias Agrícolas (Colombia), 10(3-4):31-49.

Reddick D, 1932. Some diseases of wild potatoes in Mexico. Phytopathology, 22: 609-612.

Thurston HD, 1973. Threatening plant diseases. Annual review of phytopathology. Volume 11 [ed. by Baker, K.F.]. Palo Alto, California: Annual Reviews Inc., USA 27-52.

UK CAB International, 1994. Puccinia pittieriana. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, September (Edition 3). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 113.

Velastegui JR, 1991. (Chemical control of Puccinia pittieriana P. Henn., causal agent of potato rust, with systemic fungicides). Control quimico de Puccinia pittieriana P. Henn., agente de la roya de la papa, con fungicidas sistemicos. In Memorias del V seminario Nacional de Sanidad Vegetal, 7-9 Junio 1988, Universidad de Cuenca, Ecuador, 104-105.

Watson AJ, 1971. Foreign bacterial and fungus diseases of food, forage and fiber crops: An annotated list. Washington, D.C., USA: US Department of Agriculture Handbook No. 418, 111 pp.

Organizations

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Peru: Centro Internacional de la Papa (CIP), Apartado 1558, Lima 12, http://www.cipotato.org

Contributors

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06/11/09 Updated by:

Systematic Mycology & Microbiology Laboratory, USDA-ARS, 10300 Baltimore Ave., Beltsville, MD 20705, USA

Distribution Maps

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