Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Austropuccinia psidii
(myrtle rust)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Austropuccinia psidii
  • Preferred Common Name
  • myrtle rust
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •         Class: Pucciniomycetes
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Austropuccinia psidii is a rust fungus with a wide and expanding host range within the Myrtaceae, with over 440 host species currently known (Carnegi...

  • Principal Source
  • Draft datasheet under review

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); infecting flowers and stems of Chamelaucium uncinatum (Geraldton wax), Australia. June 2012.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); infecting flowers and stems of Chamelaucium uncinatum (Geraldton wax), Australia. June 2012.
Copyright©Fiona Giblin/All Rights Reserved
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); infecting flowers and stems of Chamelaucium uncinatum (Geraldton wax), Australia. June 2012.
SymptomsAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); infecting flowers and stems of Chamelaucium uncinatum (Geraldton wax), Australia. June 2012.©Fiona Giblin/All Rights Reserved
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); infecting leaves and stems of Melaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree). Australia. August 2013.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); infecting leaves and stems of Melaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree). Australia. August 2013.
Copyright©Fiona Giblin/All Rights Reserved
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); infecting leaves and stems of Melaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree). Australia. August 2013.
SymptomsAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); infecting leaves and stems of Melaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree). Australia. August 2013.©Fiona Giblin/All Rights Reserved
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); dieback on Rhodomyrtus psidioides. Australia. June 2014.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); dieback on Rhodomyrtus psidioides. Australia. June 2014.
Copyright©Fiona Giblin/All Rights Reserved
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); dieback on Rhodomyrtus psidioides. Australia. June 2014.
SymptomsAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); dieback on Rhodomyrtus psidioides. Australia. June 2014.©Fiona Giblin/All Rights Reserved
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); causing severe infection on endangered Rhodamnia angustifolia. Australia. January 2012.
TitleSymptoms on an endangered species
CaptionAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); causing severe infection on endangered Rhodamnia angustifolia. Australia. January 2012.
Copyright©Fiona Giblin/All Rights Reserved
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); causing severe infection on endangered Rhodamnia angustifolia. Australia. January 2012.
Symptoms on an endangered speciesAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); causing severe infection on endangered Rhodamnia angustifolia. Australia. January 2012.©Fiona Giblin/All Rights Reserved
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); infecting fruit of Eugenia reinwardtiana. Australia. May 2011.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); infecting fruit of Eugenia reinwardtiana. Australia. May 2011.
Copyright©Geoff Pegg-2011/All Rights Reserved
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); infecting fruit of Eugenia reinwardtiana. Australia. May 2011.
SymptomsAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); infecting fruit of Eugenia reinwardtiana. Australia. May 2011.©Geoff Pegg-2011/All Rights Reserved
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); infecting a Eucalyptus curtisii seedling. Australia. December 2013.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); infecting a Eucalyptus curtisii seedling. Australia. December 2013.
Copyright©Fiona Giblin/All Rights Reserved
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); infecting a Eucalyptus curtisii seedling. Australia. December 2013.
SymptomsAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); infecting a Eucalyptus curtisii seedling. Australia. December 2013.©Fiona Giblin/All Rights Reserved
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); uredospores and teliospores. Note tonsure (arrowed).
TitleUredospores and teliospores
CaptionAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); uredospores and teliospores. Note tonsure (arrowed).
Copyright©Angus J Carnegie/ New South Wales Dept. of Primary Industries
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); uredospores and teliospores. Note tonsure (arrowed).
Uredospores and teliosporesAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); uredospores and teliospores. Note tonsure (arrowed).©Angus J Carnegie/ New South Wales Dept. of Primary Industries
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); on Melaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree). Australia. July 2011.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); on Melaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree). Australia. July 2011.
Copyright©Angus J Carnegie/ New South Wales Dept. of Primary Industries
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); on Melaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree). Australia. July 2011.
SymptomsAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); on Melaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree). Australia. July 2011.©Angus J Carnegie/ New South Wales Dept. of Primary Industries
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); symptoms on a seedling of Rhodamnia rubescens. Australia. November 2010.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); symptoms on a seedling of Rhodamnia rubescens. Australia. November 2010.
Copyright©Angus J. Carnegie/ New South Wales Dept. of Primary Industries
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); symptoms on a seedling of Rhodamnia rubescens. Australia. November 2010.
SymptomsAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); symptoms on a seedling of Rhodamnia rubescens. Australia. November 2010.©Angus J. Carnegie/ New South Wales Dept. of Primary Industries
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); on seedling of Rhodamnia rubescens. Australia. November 2010.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); on seedling of Rhodamnia rubescens. Australia. November 2010.
Copyright©Angus J Carnegie/ New South Wales Dept. of Primary Industries
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); on seedling of Rhodamnia rubescens. Australia. November 2010.
SymptomsAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); on seedling of Rhodamnia rubescens. Australia. November 2010.©Angus J Carnegie/ New South Wales Dept. of Primary Industries
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); severe infection and damage on Eucalyptus clone. Brazil. April 2012.
TitleSevere symptoms
CaptionAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); severe infection and damage on Eucalyptus clone. Brazil. April 2012.
Copyright©Angus J Carnegie/ New South Wales Dept. of Primary Industries
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); severe infection and damage on Eucalyptus clone. Brazil. April 2012.
Severe symptomsAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); severe infection and damage on Eucalyptus clone. Brazil. April 2012.©Angus J Carnegie/ New South Wales Dept. of Primary Industries
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); on guava (Psidium guajava) fruit. Brazil. April 2012.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); on guava (Psidium guajava) fruit. Brazil. April 2012.
Copyright©Angus J Carnegie/ New South Wales Dept. of Primary Industries
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); on guava (Psidium guajava) fruit. Brazil. April 2012.
SymptomsAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); on guava (Psidium guajava) fruit. Brazil. April 2012.©Angus J Carnegie/ New South Wales Dept. of Primary Industries
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); urediniospores (yellow) and teliospores (brown) on Rhodamnia rubescens. Australia. March 2011.
TitleUrediniospores and teliospores
CaptionAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); urediniospores (yellow) and teliospores (brown) on Rhodamnia rubescens. Australia. March 2011.
Copyright©Angus J Carnegie/ New South Wales Dept. of Primary Industries
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); urediniospores (yellow) and teliospores (brown) on Rhodamnia rubescens. Australia. March 2011.
Urediniospores and teliosporesAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); urediniospores (yellow) and teliospores (brown) on Rhodamnia rubescens. Australia. March 2011.©Angus J Carnegie/ New South Wales Dept. of Primary Industries
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); dieback symptoms on Syzygium jambos (rose apple). Hawaii. March 2008.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); dieback symptoms on Syzygium jambos (rose apple). Hawaii. March 2008.
Copyright©Chris Kadooka/CTAHR-UHM
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); dieback symptoms on Syzygium jambos (rose apple). Hawaii. March 2008.
SymptomsAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); dieback symptoms on Syzygium jambos (rose apple). Hawaii. March 2008.©Chris Kadooka/CTAHR-UHM
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); Syzygium jambos (rose apple) in Hawaii with severe infection. March 2008.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); Syzygium jambos (rose apple) in Hawaii with severe infection. March 2008.
Copyright©Chris Kadooka/CTAHR-UHM
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); Syzygium jambos (rose apple) in Hawaii with severe infection. March 2008.
SymptomsAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); Syzygium jambos (rose apple) in Hawaii with severe infection. March 2008.©Chris Kadooka/CTAHR-UHM
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); dead Rhodomyrtus.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); dead Rhodomyrtus.
Copyright©Kris Kupsch/Ecoflora
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); dead Rhodomyrtus.
SymptomsAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust); dead Rhodomyrtus.©Kris Kupsch/Ecoflora

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Austropuccinia psidii (G. Winter) Beenken

Preferred Common Name

  • myrtle rust

Other Scientific Names

  • Bullaria psidii (G. Winter) Arthur & Mains
  • Dicaeoma psidii (G. Winter) Kuntze
  • Puccinia psidii G. Winter
  • Uredo rangelii J.A. Simpson, K. Thomas & C.A. Grgurinovic

International Common Names

  • English: Eucalyptus rust; guava rust
  • Spanish: roya de la guayaba; roya del guayabo
  • French: rouille du goyavier

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: ferrugem do eucalipto
  • Japan: sabi-byo
  • New Caledonia: rouille des myrtacées
  • USA/Hawaii: ohia rust

EPPO code

  • PUCCPS (Puccinia psidii)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

Austropuccinia psidii is a rust fungus with a wide and expanding host range within the Myrtaceae, with over 440 host species currently known (Carnegie and Lidbetter, 2012; Morin et al., 2012; Pegg et al., 2014). Like many rusts, urediniospores of A. psidii can be wind-dispersed over long distances. Viable spores have been detected on clothing and personal effects following visits to rust-affected plantations (Langrell et al., 2003), and this is a viable pathway for dispersal. Furthermore, there are several instances of (accidental) long-distance movement of A. psidii on diseased plants, both within and between continents (Loope et al., 2007; Kawanishi et al., 2009; Carnegie and Cooper, 2011; Zambino and Nolan, 2012). Under sub-optimal conditions, the rust can remain un-symptomatic within plants for more than a month (Carnegie and Lidbetter, 2012). This combination of wide host range and ease of long-distance dispersal make A. psidii a successful invasive pathogen. It has spread quickly once established in new countries, including Jamaica (MacLachlan, 1938), Hawaii (Uchida and Loope, 2009), Australia (Carnegie and Cooper, 2011; Pegg et al., 2014) and New Caledonia (DAVAR Nouvelle-Calédonie, 2014). Severe impact on a range of Myrtaceae has been recorded in amenity plantings, commercial plantations and the native environment. A. psidii was first identified as an invasive pathogen in the 1930s when it caused extensive damage to allspice (Pimenta dioica) plantations in Jamaica (Smith, 1935; MacLachlan, 1938). A. psidii has been identified as a quarantine risk for some time in many countries including Australia (Australian Quarantine Service, 1985; Grgurinovic et al., 2006), South Africa (Coutinho et al., 1998) and New Zealand (Kriticos and Leriche, 2008).

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •                 Class: Pucciniomycetes
  •                     Order: Pucciniales
  •                         Family: Sphaerophragmiaceae
  •                             Genus: Austropuccinia
  •                                 Species: Austropuccinia psidii

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Puccinia psidii was described from Psidium guajava (as Psidium pomiferum) by Winter in 1884. There have since been approximately 25 species of rust (mostly Puccinia or Uredo) described from Myrtaceae that are now considered synonyms of P. psidii (Walker 1983; Hennen et al., 2005; Simpson et al., 2006). Many of these were named after the host species they were found on. In 2006 Simpson et al. described Uredo rangelii based on two herbarium specimens from South and Central America previously determined as uredinial P. psidii but having urediniospores with a smooth patch (tonsure) in contrast to typical P. psidii that have completely echinulate urediniospores (Walker, 1983; Simpson et al., 2006). It is now accepted that the tonsure is a variable character, being identified in collections from a broad geographic range, including South and North America, Australia and South Africa (Carnegie and Cooper, 2011; Pérez et al., 2011; Zambino and Nolan, 2012; Roux et al., 2013). Recent molecular analysis has revealed no distinction between “U. rangelii” from Australia and P. psidii from numerous collections in Brazil, Hawaii and Uruguay (Carnegie et al., 2010a; Pegg et al., 2014).

Many common names have been ascribed to P. psidii: the first being guava rust, since the rust was described from common guava (Psidium guajava). In Brazil during the 1970s P. psidii became a major disease in eucalypt plantations, and hence the common name “ferrugem do eucalipto” (Eucalyptus rust) was coined (Ferreira, 1983). This was later commonly used globally, especially in Australia and South Africa where the threat to native and plantation eucalypts was a concern (Coutinho et al., 1998; Grgurinovic et al., 2006; Magarey et al., 2007). When P. psidii was detected in Hawaii in 2005 (Killgore and Heu, 2007), the initial concern was the threat to the native Metrosideros polymorpha ('ohi'a), a major forest species on the islands, and it was thus called ohia rust. When P. psidii was detected on M. polymorpha in Japan, Kawanishi et al. (2009) proposed the name sabi-byo of ohia. In 2010 P. psidii was identified (as U. rangelii) in Australia, and the common name provided was myrtle rust (Carnegie et al., 2010b), based on the common name of the host of the type of U. rangelii, common myrtle (Myrtus communis) (Simpson et al., 2006). When Roux et al. (2013) reported the discovery of P. psidii in South Africa, they proposed that the disease it causes should be referred to as myrtle rust, as “this captures the occurrence of the pathogen on a very wide host range including numerous genera and species of Myrtales”. In New Caledonia it is called rouille des myrtacées (DAVAR Nouvelle-Calédonie, 2014).

Several strains or biotypes/races of P. psidii are known to exist. Numerous authors have conducted cross-inoculation studies to provide evidence of variability in virulence of different strains of rust on a range of hosts (MacLachlan, 1938; Marlatt and Kimbrough, 1979; Ferreira, 1983; Coelho et al., 2001; Rayachhetry et al., 2001; Aparecido et al., 2003a). For example, isolates of P. psidii collected from Psidium guajava (guava) in Brazil did not infect Eucalyptus and vice versa (Ferreira, 1983). In Jamaica, two strains infected Pimento spp. (all-spice) and Syzygium spp. (rose apple), respectively, but neither infected Psidium guajava (MacLachlan, 1938). Xavier (2002) identified three races of P. psidii in Brazil by testing the virulence of 32 isolates - from a range of locations and hosts - on five different Myrtaceae species. Furtado and Marino (2003) identified four races. These races are now used operationally in Brazil to select rust-resistant Eucalyptus clones for commercial planting. A new race has recently been discovered in Brazil during routine screening of commercial eucalypt clones (Graça et al., 2011).

There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that P. psidii is not correctly placed in the Puccinaceae, even though teliospore morphology firmly places P. psidii within Puccinia.  Merwe et al. (2008) were the first to suggest, using molecular phylogeny based on ß-tub 1, that P. psidii did not belong in Puccinaceae. More recent molecular studies, using several gene regions and multiple isolates in studies specifically designed to address this issue, clearly show that P. psidii does not fall within the generic boundaries of Puciniaceae (Pegg et al., 2014; Liew et al., 2014). A new genus, Austropuccinia, has been erected for the myrtle rust P. psidii, placed within the redefined family Sphaerophragmiaceae (Beenken, 2017). The current preferred name for this pathogen is Austropuccinia psidii.

Description

Top of page

Detailed descriptions have been supplied by Walker (1983), Simpson et al. (2006) and Pegg et al. (2014) and in reviews by Coutinho et al. (1998) and Glen et al. (2007). Lesions mainly appear on young, actively growing leaves and shoots, but also on flowers and fruits. Often the first sign of infection is chlorotic flecks on leaves and shoots, followed by the production of masses of bright yellow urediniospores; more rarely yellow-brown teliospores are produced, often intermingled with urediniospores. Lesions often turn red-purple then grey with age, and often have a purple or dark brown margin. Lesions tend to be angular in shape, extending through the leaf, and more often coalescing. Uredinia are 0.1-0.5 mm diam., amphigenous, yellowish (but fade to pale tan when old), more common and larger on the abaxial surface, subepidermal becoming erumpent and up to 500 μm. Urediniospores vary from globose, ellipsoidal to ovoid and obpyriform, are yellowish, 14-27 x 14-29 μm, finely echinulate, with or without a tonsure; germ pores have not been observed. Telia are 0.1-0.5 mm diam., subepidermal to erumpent, abaxial, pulvinate and yellowish-brown. Teliospores are 22-50 x 14-28 μm, cylindrical to ellipsoidal, with a rounded apex, yellowish brown, 2-celled, constricted at the septum and pediculate. Basidia are cylindrical, up to 110 μm long, 6-8 μm wide, hyaline, 4-celled, produced from each cell of the teliospores, apically in upper cell and laterally in lower cell. Basidiospores are globose to pyriform, 8-11 μm, hyaline and smooth.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

South AfricaPresent, LocalizedIntroduced2013On Myrtus comunis from a single location

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroduced
-HainanPresentIntroduced2007Reported on cultivated Syzygium jambos in a park. No evidence of infection on cultivated Psidium guajava
IndiaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
IndonesiaPresent
-SumatraPresent, Localized
JapanPresentIntroduced2007On cuttings of Metrosideros polymorpha
SingaporePresent, Localized
TaiwanAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)

North America

British Virgin IslandsAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)A record from EPPO (2013) has not been included in the more recent CABI/EPPO (2014) map
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
DominicaPresentIntroduced1945
Dominican RepublicPresent
GuatemalaPresent
JamaicaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
MexicoPresent
PanamaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresent
United StatesPresent, Localized
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced2005
-FloridaPresent, WidespreadIntroduced1977Invasive
-HawaiiPresent, WidespreadIntroduced2005Invasive

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, LocalizedIntroduced2010
-Lord Howe IslandPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced2016
-New South WalesPresent, WidespreadIntroduced2010Invasive
-Northern TerritoryPresentIntroduced2015
-QueenslandPresent, WidespreadIntroduced2010Invasive
-TasmaniaPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced
-VictoriaPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced2011Restricted to nurseries, gardens and amenity plantings
New CaledoniaPresent, WidespreadIntroduced2013Invasive
New ZealandPresent, Few occurrences

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BrazilPresent, WidespreadNative
-AmapaPresent
-BahiaPresent, Widespread
-Espirito SantoPresent, Widespread
-Minas GeraisPresent, Widespread
-ParaPresent
-ParanaPresent, Widespread
-PernambucoPresent
-Rio de JaneiroPresent, Widespread
-Rio Grande do SulPresent, Widespread
-Santa CatarinaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent, Widespread
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent
ParaguayPresent
UruguayPresent, WidespreadNative
VenezuelaPresent

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

Although originally described from Brazil, it can be assumed that A. psidii is endemic to neighbouring countries. Its detection (spread?) in countries in South and Central America and the Caribbean can be tracked via publications reporting it (Simpson et al., 2006): Paraguay (1884), Uruguay (1889), Ecuador (1891), Colombia (1913), Puerto Rico (1913), Cuba (1926), Dominican Republic (1933), Jamaica (1933), Venezuela (1934), Argentina (1946), Dominica (1948), Trinidad and Tobago (1951), Guatemala (1968), El Salvador (1987) and Costa Rica (1998). It is likely that A. psidii was present in El Salvador and Costa Rica for some time prior to being reported. In North America, A. psidii was reported in Mexico in 1981 (Léon-Gallegos and Cummins, 1981), Florida in 1977 (Marlatt and Kimbrough, 1979), Hawaii in 2005 (Killgore and Heu, 2007) and California in 2006 (Mellano, 2006), although likely present there prior to 2006. The introduction into California is likely to have been from the live plant trade or foliage trade from Florida, based on data on interceptions and nursery detections (Zambino and Nolan, 2012). The introduction to Hawaii is also likely to have been from the live plant trade or foliage trade (Loope et al., 2007; Loope and Rosa, 2008), most likely from mainland USA. Currently A. psidii is restricted to the south-east of Florida, has a restricted distribution in California, but has spread throughout the islands in Hawaii.

In 2007 A. psidii was detected on rooted cuttings of Metrosideros polymorpha in Japan (Kawanishi et al. 2009), again most likely imported in the live plant trade. No further reference to its distribution in Japan has been found however. In 2011, A. psidii was reported from southern China from collections in 2009 (Zhuang and Wei, 2011). In 2010, A. psidii reached Australia (Carnegie et al., 2010b), and is now widespread along the east coast (Carnegie and Cooper, 2011; Pegg et al., 2014). There is no indication of the pathway of entry into Australia. In 2013, A. psidii was reported from both South Africa, where its distribution is restricted (Roux et al., 2013) and New Caledonia (IPPC, 2013), where it has now spread throughout the islands (DAVAR Nouvelle-Calédonie, 2014).

Introductions

Top of page
Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
California Florida <2006 Cut flower trade (pathway cause); Nursery trade (pathway cause) Yes No Mellano (2006); Zambino and Nolan (2012) Accidental
Hawaii USA 2005 Cut flower trade (pathway cause); Nursery trade (pathway cause) Yes No Loope et al. (2007) Accidental, from mainland USA
Japan 2007 Cut flower trade (pathway cause); Nursery trade (pathway cause) No No Kawanishi et al. (2009) Accidental
USA 2007 Cut flower trade (pathway cause); Nursery trade (pathway cause) No No Kawanishi et al. (2009) Accidental
Victoria New South Wales 2011 Cut flower trade (pathway cause); Nursery trade (pathway cause) Yes No Accidental. D Smith, DEPI, Australia, personal communication, 2014

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

Quarantine precautions were in place in Australia in 1985 against the introduction of A. psidii on plants and seeds of a number of susceptible genera, including Eucalyptus (Australian Quarantine Service, 1985). In 2004, Australia suspended trade in timber of species of Eucalyptus from countries with A. psidii because viable spores had been recovered from timber imports from Brazil (Grgurinovic et al., 2006). There are current restrictions on the importation of Myrtaceae from guava rust/eucalyptus rust (A. psidii) countries (www.daff.gov.au). A. psidii is listed as a quarantine pest under restrictions on importation of certain Myrtaceae into New Zealand (www.mpi.govt.nz). Strict quarantine measures were recommended by Coutinho et al. (1998) to prevent the entry of A. psidii into countries where it does not occur.

When A. psidii was first detected in Hawaii, a 12-month Plant Quarantine Interim Rule was enacted in 2007, which restricted importation of all Myrtaceae into Hawaii (http://www.cdfa.ca.gov/countyag/postings/files/PSA_33-2007_Hawa.pdf). This has since expired. The Hawaii Department of Agriculture leadership is currently behind establishing a permanent rule restricting Myrtaceae imports (e.g., http://hawaii.gov/dlnr/dofaw/nars/narsc/narsc%20letter.pdf). At the Federal level, there has been a push to make A. psidii an Actionable Pest, which would restrict diseased plants entering Hawaii from guava rust countries such as Brazil. If A. psidii is a non-actionable and non-reportable pest in the US, foliage and flowers of Myrtaceae can move freely into the United States (often via the ports of Miami and Los Angeles), and from state to state, and hence into Hawaii (Loope, 2010); or even directly into Hawaii. A. psidii has recently been made federally actionable for imports destined for Hawaii; but this does not affect domestic shipments. Authorities in Hawaii are also developing a proposal to have “Myrtaceae to Hawaii” added to the NAPPRA (Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis) list; this category lists taxa of “plants for planting” whose importation is not authorized pending pest risk analysis. This is further legislation to reduce the chance of new strains entering Hawaii from international sources (Burnett et al., 2012).

Grgurinovic et al. (2006) discussed the possible pathways for A. psidii to enter Australia, and these would apply globally. In 2004, the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS) recovered viable spores of A. psidii from timber, plastic wrapping and external surfaces of a shipping container of timber imports from Brazil. Contamination likely occurred when the products and containers were close to large amounts of A. psidii inoculum in Brazil. Trade in timber imports of Eucalyptus to Australia from countries with A. psidii was immediately suspended. Lana et al. (2012), however, dispute the premise that viable spores would survive as a contaminant on a long sea journey.

Other pathways of entry for A. psidii include movement of host plants, either regulated or unregulated, movement of people and long-distance dispersal via air currents (Grgurinovic et al., 2006). The live plant or foliage trade is the largest risk for movement of A. psidii. Although typical symptoms of A. psidii (bright yellow pustules) would be difficult to miss by quarantine/biosecurity personnel during pre-shipment inspections, it is known that under sub-optimal conditions it can take up to 4-6 weeks for such symptoms to be visible from the time of infection (Carnegie and Lidbetter, 2012). As such, pustules may only become visible at the port of entry, or later. There is evidence of the introduction of A. psidii into new countries and provinces/states via movement of seemingly regulated infected plant material, including into Hawaii (Loop et al., 2007), Japan (Kawanishi et al. 2009), and the state of Victoria in Australia (D. Smith, DEPI, personal communication, 2014). In Australia, the distribution of the rust during the early stages of the incursion was directly related to movement of infected plants in the nursery trade (Carnegie and Cooper, 2011). Undeclared (unregulated) nursery stock and fruit of myrtaceous hosts is also a possible pathway.

People returning from areas where the rust is prevalent are also possible pathways for A. psidii. Large amounts of viable rust spores from diverse species can be transported on people’s clothing and luggage (Wellings et al., 1987; Sheridan, 1989; Holliday et al., 2013). Long-distance dispersal of spores in air currents is also a likely pathway for both intra- and inter-continental spread. Poplar rust (Melampsora medusae), for example, was detected in the Sydney region in Australia in 1972 and within 14 weeks had spread north to Queensland and south to Victoria (Walker et al., 1974). Within a year it was detected in New Zealand, believed to have been a result of trans-Tasman Sea spread of wind-borne urediniospores (Walker et al., 1974).

Habitat

Top of page

All plants in the family Myrtaceae have the potential to be infected by myrtle rust. The disease in Australia has been identified from a range of native forest ecosystems including coastal heath, coastal and river wetlands, sand island ecosystems and littoral, montane, subtropical and tropical rainforests. The disease is prevalent in urban and peri-urban environments around major cities and towns and commonly reported from botanic gardens and nature reserves as well as backyard gardens. 

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedProtected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Principal habitat Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

Carnegie and Lidbetter (2012) provide the most recent published host list for A. psidii, based on extensive searches of overseas records (see references therein) as well as the then current host records from surveys in Australia obtained from State Government agencies. The taxonomy of Myrtaceae is in a constant flux, with accepted naming of genera and species often controversial (even within a country). Carnegie and Lidbetter (2012) use the classification according to Govaerts et al. (2011), and as such altered original published host names to fit this classification where necessary (providing synonyms for many). The Australian records have since increased based on host testing (Morin et al., 2012; Sandhu and Park, 2013; F. Giblin, University of the Sunshine Coast, Queenland, Australia, unpublished data, 2014) and increased detections during field surveys (Pegg et al., 2014), with new hosts also from New Caledonia (DAVAR Nouvelle-Calédonie, 2014). This brings the current global host list for A. psidii to 445 species, in 73 genera and 16 tribes of Myrtaceae. A proportion of these hosts are known only from host testing. For example, in Australia there are 346 host species (56 genera) known (Carnegie and Lidbetter, 2012; Morin et al., 2012; Pegg et al., 2014), with approximately 116 of these known only from host testing (Morin et al., 2012; Sandhu and Park, 2013; F. Giblin, unpublished data, 2014).

For reasons of space, the Host plants and Other Plants Affected table in this datasheet lists only the genera affected and the species for which full datasheets are included in Compendia.

The most highly susceptible species recorded to date are Syzygium jambos, Eugenia reinwardtiana, Agonis flexuosa, Gossia inophloia, Melaleuca quinquenervia, Rhodamnia rubescens, R. maideniana, R. angustifolia, Chamelaucium uncinatum and Decaspermum humile (Pegg et al., 2014) and Rhodomyrtus psidioides (Carnegie and Cooper, 2011).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
AccaMyrtaceaeOther
    AgonisMyrtaceaeOther
      AllosyncarpiaMyrtaceaeOther
        AngophoraMyrtaceaeOther
          ArchirhodomyrtusMyrtaceaeOther
            ArillastrumMyrtaceaeOther
              AstarteaMyrtaceaeOther
                AsteromyrtusMyrtaceaeOther
                  AustromyrtusMyrtaceaeOther
                    BackhousiaMyrtaceaeOther
                      BaeckeaMyrtaceaeOther
                        BarongiaMyrtaceaeOther
                          BeaufortiaMyrtaceaeOther
                            Callistemon (Bottle brush)MyrtaceaeOther
                              Callistemon speciosusMyrtaceaeMain
                                Callistemon viminalisMyrtaceaeUnknown
                                CalothamnusMyrtaceaeMain
                                  CalycorectesMyrtaceaeOther
                                    CalytrixMyrtaceaeOther
                                      CampomanesiaMyrtaceaeOther
                                        ChamelauciumMyrtaceaeOther
                                          CloeziaMyrtaceaeOther
                                            CorymbiaMyrtaceaeOther
                                              Corymbia citriodora (lemon-scented gum)MyrtaceaeMain
                                                Corymbia maculata (spotted gum)MyrtaceaeMain
                                                  Corymbia torelliana (cadaga)MyrtaceaeMain
                                                    DarwiniaMyrtaceaeOther
                                                      DecaspermumMyrtaceaeOther
                                                        EremaeaMyrtaceaeOther
                                                          EucalyptusMyrtaceaeMain
                                                            Eucalyptus botryoides (southern mahogany)MyrtaceaeMain
                                                              Eucalyptus camaldulensis (red gum)MyrtaceaeMain
                                                                Eucalyptus cladocalyx (sugar gum)MyrtaceaeMain
                                                                  Eucalyptus cloeziana (Gympie messmate)MyrtaceaeMain
                                                                    Eucalyptus deglupta (kamarere)MyrtaceaeMain
                                                                      Eucalyptus dunnii (Dunn's white gum)MyrtaceaeMain
                                                                        Eucalyptus globulus (Tasmanian blue gum)MyrtaceaeMain
                                                                          Eucalyptus gomphocephala (tuart)MyrtaceaeMain
                                                                            Eucalyptus grandis (saligna gum)MyrtaceaeMain
                                                                            Eucalyptus microcorys (Tallowwood)MyrtaceaeMain
                                                                              Eucalyptus nitens (shining gum)MyrtaceaeMain
                                                                                Eucalyptus paniculata (grey ironbark)MyrtaceaeMain
                                                                                  Eucalyptus pellita (red mahogany)MyrtaceaeMain
                                                                                    Eucalyptus pilularis (blackbutt)MyrtaceaeMain
                                                                                      Eucalyptus punctataMyrtaceaeMain
                                                                                        Eucalyptus robusta (swamp mahogany)MyrtaceaeMain
                                                                                          Eucalyptus saligna (Sydney blue gum)MyrtaceaeMain
                                                                                            Eucalyptus spp.MyrtaceaeUnknown
                                                                                            Eucalyptus tereticornis (forest red gum)MyrtaceaeMain
                                                                                              EugeniaMyrtaceaeMain
                                                                                                Eugenia reinwardtianaMyrtaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                GossiaMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                  HeteropyxisMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                    HomoranthusMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                      HypocalymmaMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                        KunzeaMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                          Kunzea ericoides (kanuka)MyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                            LenwebbiaMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                              LeptospermumMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                LindsayomyrtusMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                  LithomyrtusMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                    LophomyrtusMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                      LophostemonMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                        MelaleucaMyrtaceaeMain
                                                                                                                          Melaleuca decoraMyrtaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                          Melaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree)MyrtaceaeMain
                                                                                                                          MetrosiderosMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                            Metrosideros polymorphaMyrtaceaeMain
                                                                                                                              MitrantiaMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                MyrciaMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                  MyrcianthesMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                    Myrcianthes fragransMyrtaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                    MyrciariaMyrtaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                    Myrciaria cauliflora (jaboticaba)MyrtaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                    MyrrhiniumMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                      MyrtastrumMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                        OsborniaMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                          PericalymmaMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                            PilidiostigmaMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                              PiliocalyxMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                PimentaMyrtaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                  Pimenta dioica (allspice)MyrtaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                  PliniaMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                    Psidium (guava)MyrtaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                      Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava)MyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                        Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                        RegeliaMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                          RhodamniaMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                            RhodomyrtusMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                              Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Downy rose-myrtle)MyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                RistantiaMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                  SannanthaMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                    SphaerantiaMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                      StockwelliaMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                        SyncarpiaMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                          SyzygiumMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                            Syzygium cumini (black plum)MyrtaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                            Syzygium jambos (rose apple)MyrtaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                              ThryptomeneMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                TristaniaMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                  TristaniopsisMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                    UgniMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                      UromyrtusMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                        VerticordiaMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                          XanthostemonMyrtaceaeOther

                                                                                                                                                                                            Growth Stages

                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                            Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

                                                                                                                                                                                            Symptoms

                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                            A. psidii attacks young, soft, actively-growing leaves, shoot tips and young stems. Fruit and flower parts are also susceptible. The first signs of rust infection are tiny spots or pustules. These symptoms can appear 2-4 d after infection. Symptoms can vary depending on the host species, susceptibility level within a host species, and age of the host leaf. After a few days, the pustules or uredinia erupt with the production of distinctive, yellow urediniospores. The infected area spreads radially outwards and multiple pustules eventually merge and coalesce with age. Secondary infections can occur within days but are usually confined to new young tissue, shoots and expending foliage. Left untreated, the disease can cause deformed leaves, heavy defoliation of branches, dieback, stunted growth and even plant death.

                                                                                                                                                                                            List of Symptoms/Signs

                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                            SignLife StagesType
                                                                                                                                                                                            Fruit / extensive mould
                                                                                                                                                                                            Fruit / lesions: scab or pitting
                                                                                                                                                                                            Fruit / premature drop
                                                                                                                                                                                            Growing point / dieback
                                                                                                                                                                                            Growing point / discoloration
                                                                                                                                                                                            Growing point / distortion
                                                                                                                                                                                            Growing point / lesions
                                                                                                                                                                                            Inflorescence / blight; necrosis
                                                                                                                                                                                            Inflorescence / discoloration (non-graminaceous plants)
                                                                                                                                                                                            Inflorescence / lesions; flecking; streaks (not Poaceae)
                                                                                                                                                                                            Leaves / abnormal colours
                                                                                                                                                                                            Leaves / abnormal forms
                                                                                                                                                                                            Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
                                                                                                                                                                                            Leaves / fungal growth
                                                                                                                                                                                            Leaves / necrotic areas
                                                                                                                                                                                            Stems / dieback
                                                                                                                                                                                            Stems / discoloration
                                                                                                                                                                                            Stems / discoloration of bark
                                                                                                                                                                                            Stems / distortion
                                                                                                                                                                                            Stems / mould growth on lesion
                                                                                                                                                                                            Stems / necrosis
                                                                                                                                                                                            Stems / stunting or rosetting
                                                                                                                                                                                            Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

                                                                                                                                                                                            Biology and Ecology

                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                            Reproductive Biology

                                                                                                                                                                                            The life cycle of A. psidii has been summarized and diagrammatically represented in reviews by Coutinho et al. (1998) and Glen et al. (2002), with a more recent study by Morin et al. (2014). A. psidii has a macrocyclic life cycle (Coutinho et al., 1998) and is considered to be autoecious (i.e. capable of completing its life cycle on species of Myrtaceae) with an incomplete life cycle, based on work by Figueiredo et al. (1984). However, basidiospores have not been confirmed to be capable of infecting Myrtaceae to provide unequivocal proof the rust is autoecious (Morin et al., 2014). Simpson et al. (2006) questioned the findings of Figueiredo et al. (1984), and believed A. psidii to be heteroecious, with an alternate host yet to be found.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Teliospores have been reported from the field and laboratory on a range of hosts in both its native and introduced ranges (Ferreira 1983; Perez et al., 2011; Carnegie and Lidbetter, 2012; Pegg et al., 2014; Alfenas et al., 2004; Morin et al., 2012; Aparecido et al., 2003). In Australia, teliospores appear to be more commonly observed in the field than occurs in Brazil (Pegg et al., 2014).

                                                                                                                                                                                            Urediniospores germinate in the presence of free water, in the absence of light, and at temperatures between 15 and 25°C (Ruiz et al., 1987a,b,c; Piza and Ribeiro, 1988). Following germination, an infection peg penetrates the host directly, usually between two epidermal cells (Hunt, 1968). The latent period is between 5 and 7 d (Alfenas et al., 1989). Rust pustules can mature to release spores in as little as 10-12 d (Alfenas et al., 2003).

                                                                                                                                                                                            Epidemiology

                                                                                                                                                                                            Disease development is favoured by low temperatures (approx. 20°C), high relative humidity (80%) at night and high levels of airborne inoculum (Blum and Dianese, 2001). In a study on rose apple (Syzygium jambos), rust epidemics were shown to depend on the duration of leaf wetness in the dark and also on night temperatures during that same wetness period (Tessman et al., 2001). It is also necessary for spores to encounter a host plant during stages of active growth or flush, which can occur several times and at different times throughout the year depending on the host species and climatic conditions, with periods of rainfall promoting more active plant growth.

                                                                                                                                                                                            During drought for several months in Brisbane, Australia, the level of rust across the range of hosts declined but some patches still existed. Even the microclimate within a plant can be sufficient to maintain the rust. Fog and dew can also provide sufficient moisture for survival. When the rain returned, new plant growth occurred and the disease recovered rapidly (Pegg et al., 2014).

                                                                                                                                                                                            Environmental Requirements

                                                                                                                                                                                            Laboratory studies and research conducted in Brazil have suggested that urediniospores need moderate temperatures (8-27°C, ideally 13-22°C) for germination (Piza and Ribeiro, 1989). Low light conditions are also preferred, with at least 8 h of darkness required for a reasonable germination rate (Piza and Ribeiro, 1988). However, the temperature range for rust survival in Australia is thought to be broader than recorded elsewhere and than has been speculated in the modelling data; optimum temperatures for A. psidii survival in Australia have not yet been determined. The physiology of the plant and its response to climate is possibly more significant than the capability of the fungus alone.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Climate

                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                            ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
                                                                                                                                                                                            Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
                                                                                                                                                                                            Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
                                                                                                                                                                                            As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
                                                                                                                                                                                            Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
                                                                                                                                                                                            Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
                                                                                                                                                                                            Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

                                                                                                                                                                                            Natural enemies

                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                            Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
                                                                                                                                                                                            Albonectria rigidiuscula Hyperparasite Amorim et al. (1993)

                                                                                                                                                                                            Notes on Natural Enemies

                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                            Amorim et al. (1993) reported the pathogenicity and hyperparasitic action of Fusarium decemcellulare (Albonectria rigidiuscula) on A. psidii in guava; N. rigidiuscula was not pathogenic on guava.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Means of Movement and Dispersal

                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                            Natural Dispersal

                                                                                                                                                                                            A. psidii can spread rapidly because it produces large numbers of small spores that can be dispersed over long distances by wind.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Vector Transmission

                                                                                                                                                                                            Animals such as birds, bats, possums and insects that have been in contact with rust spores can spread A. psidii. This pathogen has been reported to be transported over short distances by honey bees (Chapman, 1964; Carnegie et al., 2010b).

                                                                                                                                                                                            Accidental Introduction

                                                                                                                                                                                            The disease can also spread through the movement of:

                                                                                                                                                                                            ·       infected or contaminated planting material, nursery stock, plant cuttings, flowers and germplasm

                                                                                                                                                                                            ·       contaminated plant waste, timber, wood packaging and dunnage

                                                                                                                                                                                            ·       contaminated equipment and tools used on or around plants (e.g. chainsaws, secateurs)

                                                                                                                                                                                            ·       contaminated clothing, shoes and other personal effects

                                                                                                                                                                                            Initial detections in both New South Wales and Queensland, Australia, were focused around commercial operations including production and retail nurseries. Other focal points included amenity plantings in or near car parks at major tourist destinations, botanical gardens and revegetation areas using susceptible species.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Pathway Causes

                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                            CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                                                                                                                                                                                            Cut flower tradeAccidental movement on infected plant material Yes Yes Carnegie and Cooper (2011); Loope (2010); Loope et al. (2007)
                                                                                                                                                                                            Habitat restoration and improvementAccidental movement on infected plant material during bush regeneration plantings Yes Carnegie and Cooper (2011)
                                                                                                                                                                                            HitchhikerAccidental as contaminant on timber, packaging and containers; on personal effects and movement from Yes Yes Carnegie and Cooper (2011); Grgurinovic et al. (2006)
                                                                                                                                                                                            Landscape improvementAccidental movement on infected plant material Yes Carnegie and Cooper (2011)
                                                                                                                                                                                            Nursery tradeAccidental, on infected plant material Yes Yes Carnegie and Cooper (2011); Kawanishi et al. (2009); Loope (2010); Loope et al. (2007); Zambino and Nolan (2012)

                                                                                                                                                                                            Plant Trade

                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                            Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
                                                                                                                                                                                            Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx fruiting bodies; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
                                                                                                                                                                                            Fruits (inc. pods) fruiting bodies; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
                                                                                                                                                                                            Leaves fruiting bodies; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
                                                                                                                                                                                            Seedlings/Micropropagated plants fruiting bodies; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
                                                                                                                                                                                            Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fruiting bodies; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
                                                                                                                                                                                            Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
                                                                                                                                                                                            Bark
                                                                                                                                                                                            Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
                                                                                                                                                                                            Growing medium accompanying plants
                                                                                                                                                                                            Roots
                                                                                                                                                                                            True seeds (inc. grain)
                                                                                                                                                                                            Wood

                                                                                                                                                                                            Wood Packaging

                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                            Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
                                                                                                                                                                                            Loose wood packing material
                                                                                                                                                                                            Non-wood
                                                                                                                                                                                            Processed or treated wood
                                                                                                                                                                                            Solid wood packing material with bark
                                                                                                                                                                                            Solid wood packing material without bark

                                                                                                                                                                                            Economic Impact

                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                            A. psidii has caused significant impact in Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil (Ferreira, 1983). The first big outbreak occurred in a nursery in 1973, where 400,000 E. grandis seedlings, of South African origin, were severely damaged (Ferreira, 1983). Subsequent outbreaks in the mid- to late-1970s lead to A. psidii being identified as one of the most serious disease of eucalypts in Brazil (Ferreira, 1983). Another large outbreak occurred in 1995-1996, where 50% of plants were severely damaged (Furtado and Marino, 2003). Several outbreaks occur annually in plantations, but these have decreased due to active management of eucalyptus rust. Up to 20% of trees within a plantation (the highly susceptible individuals) can be severely damaged and killed (Tommerup et al., 2003). E. Zauza (Suzano, Brazil, unpublished data) reported a loss in mean annual increment of 20 m3/ha in young eucalypt plantations in Brazil. Significant losses have also been reported in eucalypt plantations in Uruguay (Telechea et al., 2003).

                                                                                                                                                                                            In guava (Psidium guajava) plantations in Brazil, A. psidii can cause massive losses by infecting fruit, resulting in loss of production of up to 80-100% (Ribeiro and Pommer, 2004; Ferreira et al., 1997; Martins et al., 2011). Chemical control is necessary in many instances to ensure a productive and financially viable crop.

                                                                                                                                                                                            When a new strain arrived in Jamaica in the early 1930s, it caused massive losses to the all-spice (Pimenta dioica) industry, resulting in the closing of oil distilleries in higher altitude areas (MacLachlan, 1938).

                                                                                                                                                                                            In Hawaii, nurseries growing ‘ohi’a (Metrosideros polymorpha) can experience mortality as high as 10%, even following regular fungicide application (Burnett et al., 2012).

                                                                                                                                                                                            In Australia, the most severely impacted industry is currently essential oil production, specifically lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora) (Carnegie and Cooper, 2011). Regular application of fungicide is required to control the rust, and this can lead to issues with fungicide residues. Another financial impact in Australia has been the increased use and reliance on fungicide application in commercial and retail nurseries.

                                                                                                                                                                                            A. psidii has been found in young Eucalyptus plantations in Australia but is currently not causing significant impact (Carnegie, 2014). There are however, likely financial impacts on timber (eucalypt) exporters due to quarantine restrictions on the importation of eucalypt timber into certain countries.

                                                                                                                                                                                            The long-term impact of myrtle rust in Australia is not known but industries such as nursery and garden, cut flower and foliage, forestry and timber, honey and pollination, bush foods and medicines, revegetation and tourism are all likely to be affected in some way. The quantum of these impacts is impossible to estimate until more is known about the disease, its host range, how it affects native myrtaceous species and how it behaves in the environment. The interaction between the pathogen and its hosts is complex and it is likely to take many years before the full impacts of the disease on industries, the environment and communities are evident.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Potential impacts include:

                                                                                                                                                                                            ·         Nursery – trade restrictions, loss of species/varieties, increased costs for inspections and chemical control

                                                                                                                                                                                            ·         Forestry – nurseries, large monocultures of susceptible hosts

                                                                                                                                                                                            ·         Bush regeneration – new plantings (bush care, etc.) and natural regeneration (particularly following fire/storm damage)

                                                                                                                                                                                            ·         Landscaping – housing estates, parks and gardens, playgrounds, road construction, building sites etc., treatment and removal of trees

                                                                                                                                                                                            ·         Arboriculture – amenity value, cost of removal of infected trees

                                                                                                                                                                                            ·         Cut flower/foliage – market access, loss of susceptible species

                                                                                                                                                                                            ·         Bee/honey – impact on flowering, access to sites

                                                                                                                                                                                            ·         Oil/fruit – susceptible species, increased production costs

                                                                                                                                                                                            ·         Natural ecosystems – fauna and flora, ecotourism

                                                                                                                                                                                            Environmental Impact

                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                            A. psidii is not known to cause significant damage to native Myrtaceae in its known countries of origin. Severe impact has occurred, however, to naïve hosts as A. psidii has invaded new areas. When new strains of A. psidii invaded Florida, USA, epiphytotics were reported on Melaleuca quinquenervia and Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, both exotic weeds in Florida (Rayachhetry et al., 1997; Rayamajhi et al., 2013). In Hawaii, recurrent epiphytotics on the exotic Szygium jambos results in dieback and death of mature, large trees at a landscape scale (Uchida and Loope, 2009). When P. psidii was first detected in Hawaii there was initial concern for native Metrosideros polymorpha and other native Myrtaceae (Loope, 2010). However, although damage is only minimal on naturally growing M. polymorpha, there is concern for the federally endangered and highly susceptible Eugenia reinwardtiana (Loope and Uchida, 2012).

                                                                                                                                                                                            In southern Florida and Hawaii, where A. psidii is exotic and widespread, there has been minimal impact to the endemic Myrtaceae in the native environment, with the most severe epiphytotics occurring on exotic weed species (Rayachhetry et al., 1997; Uchida and Loope, 2009; Rayamajhi et al., 2013). When A. psidii reached Australia, there was concern for the extensive myrtaceous flora, and this concern has been borne out in the intervening years. Although there has been significant impact to amenity plantings of exotic Myrtaceae, such as Syzygium jambos (Carnegie and Cooper, 2011; Pegg et al., 2014), the biggest concern is the highly susceptible species in the native bush. Severe impact has been observed on Rhodamnia rubescens (scrub turpentine) and Rhodomyrtus psidioides (native guava) throughout their native distribution in eastern Australia (Carnegie and Cooper, 2011; Carnegie and Libetter, 2012; Pegg et al., 2014), resulting in tree mortality. Several rare and endangered species are highly to extremely susceptible, including Backhousia oligantha, Gossia gonoclada and Rhodamnia angustifolia, with concerns for species survival (Pegg et al., 2014). There are multiple instances of A. psidii causing damage in National Parks, reserves and World Heritage Listed Areas (Carnegie and Cooper, 2011; Pegg et al., 2014). Current research is investigating the long-term impact of A. psidii on key Australian Myrtaceae and ecosystems.

                                                                                                                                                                                            In addition to the hosts included in the Threatened Species table, there are many other species within the Myrtaceae which are listed as Endangered (e.g. the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (http://www.iucnredlist.org/ ) includes 338 species within the Myrtaceae) however, susceptibility to myrtle rust is not known at this stage.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Threatened Species

                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                            Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
                                                                                                                                                                                            Backhousia oliganthaNational list(s)QueenslandPathogenicPegg et al. (2014)
                                                                                                                                                                                            Callistemon formosusNational list(s)AustraliaPathogenic
                                                                                                                                                                                            Eucalyptus argophloiaNational list(s)AustraliaPathogenic
                                                                                                                                                                                            Eucalyptus camfieldiiNational list(s)AustraliaPathogenic
                                                                                                                                                                                            Eucalyptus curtisiiNational list(s)AustraliaPathogenic
                                                                                                                                                                                            Eugenia koolauensisUSA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPathogenicLoope (2010)
                                                                                                                                                                                            Gossia fragrantissimaNational list(s)New South WalesPathogenicCarnegie and Lidbetter (2012)
                                                                                                                                                                                            Gossia gonocladaNational list(s)QueenslandPathogenicPegg et al. (2014)
                                                                                                                                                                                            Gossia inophloiaNational list(s)AustraliaPathogenic
                                                                                                                                                                                            Homoranthus papillatusNational list(s)AustraliaPathogenic
                                                                                                                                                                                            Homoranthus prolixusNational list(s)AustraliaPathogenic
                                                                                                                                                                                            Lenwebbia prominensNational list(s)AustraliaPathogenic
                                                                                                                                                                                            Lenwebbia sp. Blackall RangeNational list(s)AustraliaPathogenic
                                                                                                                                                                                            Leptospermum luehmanniiNational list(s)AustraliaPathogenic
                                                                                                                                                                                            Melaleuca biconvexaNational list(s)AustraliaPathogenic
                                                                                                                                                                                            Metrosideros punctataVU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable)New CaledoniaPathogenic
                                                                                                                                                                                            Mitrantia bilocularisNational list(s)AustraliaPathogenic
                                                                                                                                                                                            Piliocalyx eugenioidesEN (IUCN red list: Endangered)New CaledoniaPathogenic
                                                                                                                                                                                            Rhodamnia angustifoliaNational list(s)QueenslandPathogenicPegg et al. (2014)
                                                                                                                                                                                            Rhodamnia glabrescensNational list(s)AustraliaPathogenic
                                                                                                                                                                                            Rhodamnia pauciovulataNational list(s)AustraliaPathogenic
                                                                                                                                                                                            Ristantia waterhouseiNational list(s)AustraliaPathogenic
                                                                                                                                                                                            Sphaerantia discolorNational list(s)AustraliaPathogenic
                                                                                                                                                                                            Stockwellia quadrifidaNational list(s)AustraliaPathogenic
                                                                                                                                                                                            Syzygium aqueum (watery rose-apple)National list(s)AustraliaPathogenic
                                                                                                                                                                                            Syzygium hodgkinsoniaeNational list(s)AustraliaPathogenic
                                                                                                                                                                                            Syzygium macilwraithianumNational list(s)AustraliaPathogenic
                                                                                                                                                                                            Syzygium mooreiNational list(s)AustraliaPathogenic
                                                                                                                                                                                            Syzygium mulgraveanumNational list(s)AustraliaPathogenic
                                                                                                                                                                                            Syzygium paniculatum (australian brush-cherry)National list(s)New South WalesPathogenicCarnegie and Lidbetter (2012)
                                                                                                                                                                                            Syzygium velarumNational list(s)AustraliaPathogenic
                                                                                                                                                                                            Uromyrtus australisNational list(s)New South WalesPathogenicCarnegie and Lidbetter (2012)
                                                                                                                                                                                            Xanthostemon formosusNational list(s)AustraliaPathogenic
                                                                                                                                                                                            Xanthostemon oppositifoliusNational list(s)AustraliaPathogenic

                                                                                                                                                                                            Social Impact

                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                            The impact of the disease within communities can be diverse. Many lifestyles embrace outdoor activities and myrtle rust may reduce the aesthetic and amenity value of green spaces. Some impacts might include:

                                                                                                                                                                                            ·         Reduced public amenity with potential loss of green space due to vegetation reduction

                                                                                                                                                                                            ·         Reduced recreational appeal and value due to poor plant health, dieback, reduction in fauna

                                                                                                                                                                                            ·         Loss of identity and economic health of towns/regions dependent on the surrounding forest or natural environment

                                                                                                                                                                                            ·         Potential impacts on rural and indigenous communities reliant on natural environment

                                                                                                                                                                                            ·         Potential loss of iconic and endangered/threatened species

                                                                                                                                                                                            ·         Possible safety issues due to poor tree health

                                                                                                                                                                                            ·         Potential reduction in property values, where the aesthetic value of a property is affected

                                                                                                                                                                                            ·         Cost of disease management or removal of infected plants and trees

                                                                                                                                                                                            ·         Restricted access to recreational sites, national parks, etc.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Risk and Impact Factors

                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                            Invasiveness
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Invasive in its native range
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Proved invasive outside its native range
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Has a broad native range
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Highly adaptable to different environments
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Is a habitat generalist
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Has high reproductive potential
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Reproduces asexually
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Has high genetic variability
                                                                                                                                                                                            Impact outcomes
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Damaged ecosystem services
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Host damage
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Modification of successional patterns
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Negatively impacts agriculture
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Negatively impacts forestry
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Negatively impacts livelihoods
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Reduced amenity values
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Reduced native biodiversity
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Threat to/ loss of native species
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Damages animal/plant products
                                                                                                                                                                                            Impact mechanisms
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Pathogenic
                                                                                                                                                                                            Likelihood of entry/control
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Difficult/costly to control

                                                                                                                                                                                            Uses List

                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                            Animal feed, fodder, forage

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Invertebrate food

                                                                                                                                                                                            Environmental

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Biological control

                                                                                                                                                                                            General

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Laboratory use
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Research model

                                                                                                                                                                                            Diagnosis

                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                            Samples can be examined under a light microscope for sori and characteristic spores. Slides of sori and spores can be examined at ×400 for the presence of urediniospores, teliospores and basidiospores. Urediniospores can be further examined under oil immersion at ×1000 and by scanning electron microscopy as described by Pegg et al. (2008).

                                                                                                                                                                                            A molecular diagnostic protocol for A. psidii was developed by Langrell et al. (2008) using a species-specific, nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection assay, using two primer sets designed from the rRNA ITS region.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Detection and Inspection

                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                            The primary symptom of myrtle rust is the appearance of yellow pustules (uredinia) on the upper and lower leaf surfaces of Myrtaceae, with more tending to be found on the lower surface. Pustules can also be found on stems, fruit and flowers. Slightly darker mustard-coloured pustules may indicate the teliospore stage of the fungus. After 1-2 weeks, the pustules begin to turn pale grey. From this stage, it is difficult to distinguish rust lesions from insect damage or other necrosis.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                            If material is examined closely it is not possible to confuse this disease with others affecting the host plants.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Prevention and Control

                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                            Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Prevention

                                                                                                                                                                                            SPS measures

                                                                                                                                                                                            A. psidii is a quarantine pathogen in most countries and, therefore, movement of plants and plant parts (seeds, rootstocks, etc.) is regulated, especially where the pathogen is not yet detected or where different strains of the pathogen may not be present.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Rapid response

                                                                                                                                                                                            In the event of a positive detection, eradication is only possible if the response is rapid and the pathogen is confined to a limited area and is in the very early stages of infection. As the pathogen produces wind-borne spores, spread can be rapid.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Public awareness

                                                                                                                                                                                            It is important that the nursery industry, forestry industry, scientific community, natural resource management community, revegetation groups and the general public are provided with information and tools to learn about myrtle rust so that educated decisions can be made relevant to their situation. At the same time, all of these stakeholders can play an important role in providing information relating to the impacts of myrtle rust in their community.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Control

                                                                                                                                                                                            Cultural control and sanitary measures

                                                                                                                                                                                            Always ensure that clothing, equipment, vehicles and machinery are clean and free of plant debris before starting work in a new bushland area and clean when leaving and moving between sites. If possible, organise the work programme to account for measures to minimise the spread of myrtle rust, and allow for decontamination and cleaning requirements. Set up a 'wash down' area so people can wash their face and hands and clean their footwear when leaving the site. If there are multiple sites in an area, limit the movement of people and equipment between these sites.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Do not remove myrtaceous plant material from bushland.

                                                                                                                                                                                            If myrtle rust becomes established, eventually those plants which are highly susceptible will deteriorate in condition. Therefore, it is recommended that those plants are removed and disposed of appropriately. Do not use infected plants as mulch, as this may spread myrtle rust.

                                                                                                                                                                                            To minimise the potential spread of spores during infected plant removal, spray infected plants with an approved fungicide the day before intended removal. If it is not possible to treat with a fungicide, carefully wet the plant foliage to dampen any spores that are likely to be dispersed during the removal process.

                                                                                                                                                                                            The method of plant removal will depend on the size and number of plants:

                                                                                                                                                                                            ·         small plants can be enclosed in a plastic bag to reduce spore dispersal before being pulled or dug out of the ground.

                                                                                                                                                                                            ·         large plants can be cut into smaller pieces, wrapped in black plastic and placed in the sun for 3-4 weeks (solarisation). Alternatively, plant parts can be placed in plastic bags and sealed for offsite disposal.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Dispose of infected plants (or plant parts) by implementing any of the following options:

                                                                                                                                                                                            ·         burying on-site (deep enough that decaying material can’t be disturbed for several weeks/months)

                                                                                                                                                                                            ·         placing in general domestic waste bins or transporting in a covered vehicle/trailer to a general waste disposal site (not green waste)

                                                                                                                                                                                            ·         securely covering and sealing the entire plant within black plastic (or similar) and placing in direct sunlight for 3-4 weeks (solarisation).

                                                                                                                                                                                            In order to reduce the inoculum levels of the rust, individuals might choose to remove healthy plants as a precaution. This is especially relevant for highly susceptible species which will eventually become infected. This is more important in nurseries and highly sensitive areas such as national parks and botanical gardens.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Chemical control

                                                                                                                                                                                            If myrtle rust becomes established a range of fungicides with the following active ingredients are currently available: triadimenol, triforine, mancozeb, azoxystrobin, copper oxychloride and propiconazole. Chemicals can be used as a preventative and/or curative measure and it is important to rotate them to maintain their usefulness and avoid resistance. Fungicide treatment will not be suitable for all situations (such as for large mature trees or in extensive bushland).

                                                                                                                                                                                            Host resistance

                                                                                                                                                                                            Several studies have been undertaken to identify resistance within species, cultivars, and provenances, etc. This work is particularly relevant for industries reliant on myrtaceous species such as forestry (Eucalyptus plantations), lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora), bush foods and oils (Melaleuca alternifolia, Syzygium anisatum, S. luehmannii), the nursery industry, and revegetation programmes, etc. Research is also investigating resistance genes utilised during the infection process.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                            The impact of P. psidii on Australian Myrtaceae is currently being quantified. 

                                                                                                                                                                                            References

                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                            Alfenas AC, Demuner NL, Barbosa MM, 1989. A ferrugem e as opçoes de controle. Correio Agricultura, 1:18-20

                                                                                                                                                                                            Alfenas AC, Zauza EAV, Assis TF, 2003. First record of Puccinia psidii on Eucalyptus globulus and E. viminalis in Brazil. Australasian Plant Pathology, 32(2):325-326

                                                                                                                                                                                            Alfenas AC, Zauza EAV, Mafia RG, Assis TF, 2004. Clonagem e Doenças do Eucalipto (Cloning and Diseases of Eucalyptus). Viçosa, Brazil: Editora UFV, 442 pp

                                                                                                                                                                                            Amorim EPR, Pio-Ribeiro G, Menezes M, Coelho RSB, 1993. The pathogenicity and hyperparasitic action of Fusarium decemcellulare on Puccinia psidii in guava (Psidium guajava). Fitopatologia Brasileira, 18(2):226-229; 14 ref

                                                                                                                                                                                            Anderson RC, 2012. A baseline analysis of the distribution, host-range, and severity of the rust Puccinia psidii in the Hawaiian Islands, 2005-2010. Technical Report HCSU-031. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: US Geological Survey. http://hilo.hawaii.edu/hcsu/documents/Anderson_TR-031_Ohia_Rustfinal.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                            Aparecido CC, Figueiredo MB, Furtado EL, 2003. Effect of temperature on infection, teliospore formation and basidiospore production for Puccinia psidii (Uredinales). (Influência da temperatura sobre a infecção, formação de teliosporos e produção de basidiosporos por Puccinia psidii (Uredinales).) Summa Phytopathologica, 29(3):239-243

                                                                                                                                                                                            Aparecido CC, Figueiredo MB, Furtado EL, 2003. Groups of physiological variability in Puccinia psidii populations. (Grupos de variabilidade fisiológica em populações de Puccinia psidii.) Summa Phytopathologica, 29(3):234-238

                                                                                                                                                                                            Australian Quarantine Service, 1985. Guava rust. Puccinia psidii Winter. Plant Quarantine Leaflet No. 45. Canberra, Australia: Commonwealth Department of Primary Industries

                                                                                                                                                                                            Baker RED, Dale WT, 1948. Fungi of Barbados and the Windward Islands. Mycological Papers, CMI, No. 25, 1-26

                                                                                                                                                                                            Baker RED, Dale WT, 1951. Fungi of Trinidad and Tobago. Mycological Papers, Commonwealth Mycological Institute, 33, 123 pp

                                                                                                                                                                                            Beenken, L., 2017. Austropuccinia: a new genus name for the myrtle rust Puccinia psidii placed within the redefined family Sphaerophragmiaceae (Pucciniales). Phytotaxa, 297(1), 53-61. http://www.mapress.com/j/pt/article/view/phytotaxa.297.1.5 doi: 10.11646/phytotaxa.297.1.5

                                                                                                                                                                                            Biosecurity Tasmania, 2017. Biosecurity factsheet. Biosecurity Tasmania Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment, 2 pp. http://dpipwe.tas.gov.au/Documents/myrtle.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                            Blum LEB, Dianese JC, 2001. Patterns of urediniospores release and development of rose apple rust. Pesquisa Agropecua^acute~ria Brasileira, 36(6):845-850; 19 ref

                                                                                                                                                                                            Burnett K, D'Evelyn S, Loope L, Wada CA, 2012. An economic approach to assessing import policies designed to prevent the arrival of invasive species: the case of Puccinia psidii in Hawai'i. Environmental Science & Policy, 19/20:158-168. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1462901112000433

                                                                                                                                                                                            CABI/EPPO, 2014. Puccinia psidii species complex. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.April. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 181 (Edition 5)

                                                                                                                                                                                            Carnegie AJ, 2014. First report of Puccinia psidii (myrtle rust) in Eucalyptus plantations in Australia. Plant Disease Notes [submitted]

                                                                                                                                                                                            Carnegie AJ, 2015. First report of Puccinia psidii (myrtle rust) in Eucalyptus plantations in Australia. Plant Disease, 99(1):161. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

                                                                                                                                                                                            Carnegie AJ, Cooper K, 2011. Emergency response to the incursion of an exotic myrtaceous rust in Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 40(4):346-359. http://www.springerlink.com/content/g56g4260t27l4873/

                                                                                                                                                                                            Carnegie AJ, Glen M, Mohammed C, 2010. Rapid screening of commercial forestry species to Uredo rangelii (myrtle rust) and distinguishing U. rangelii from Puccinia psidii (guava rust). Report (Project No: PRC179-0910). Melbourne, Australia: Forests and Wood Products Australia Ltd., 22 pp. http://www.fwpa.com.au/images/resources/PRC179-0910_Research_Report_Screening_0.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                            Carnegie AJ, Lidbetter JR, 2012. Rapidly expanding host range for Puccinia psidii sensu lato in Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 41(1):13-29. http://www.springerlink.com/content/w8538 mu25rh72870/fulltext.html

                                                                                                                                                                                            Carnegie AJ, Lidbetter JR, Walker J, Horwood MA, Tesoriero L, Glen M, Priest MJ, 2010. Uredo rangelii, a taxon in the guava rust complex, newly recorded on Myrtaceae in Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 39(5):463-466. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/39.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                            Chapman PG, 1964. Urediospore collections by honey bees from Puccinia psidii. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 57:264

                                                                                                                                                                                            Chardón CE, Toro RA, 1934. Mycological explorations of Venezuela. Contributions from the Department of Biology, University of Puerto Rico, No. 8. 353 pp

                                                                                                                                                                                            CMI, 1987. Puccinia psidii. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, October (Edition 4). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 181

                                                                                                                                                                                            Coelho L, Alfenas AC, Ferreira FA, 2001. Physiological variability of Puccinia psidii - eucaplyptus rust. (Variabilidade fisiologica de Puccinia psidii - ferrugem do eucalipto.) Summa Phytopathologica, 27:295-300

                                                                                                                                                                                            Coutinho TA, Wingfield MJ, Alfenas AC, Crous PW, 1998. Eucalyptus rust: a disease with the potential for serious international implications. Plant Disease, 82(7):819-825; 58 ref

                                                                                                                                                                                            DAVAR Nouvelle-Calédonie, 2014. Santé produits végétaux: La rouille des Myrtacées. New Caledonia: Direction des Affaires Vétérinaires, Alimentaires et Rurales. http://www.davar.gouv.nc/portal/page/portal/davar/sante_animaux_vegetaux/maladies_ravageurs

                                                                                                                                                                                            DEPI Victoria, 2014. Myrtle rust. Myrtle rust. Victoria, Australia: Department of Environment and Primary Industries. http://www.depi.vic.gov.au/agriculture-and-food/pests-diseases-and-weeds/plant-diseases/shrubs-and-trees/myrtle-rust

                                                                                                                                                                                            EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                            EPPO, 2018. EPPO Global database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. https://gd.eppo.int/

                                                                                                                                                                                            EPPO, 2019. EPPO Global Database. Paris, France: EPPO.https://gd.eppo.int/

                                                                                                                                                                                            Ferrari JT, Nogueira EMde C, Santos AJTdos, 1997. Control of rust (Puccinia psidii) in guava (Psidium guajava). In: Acta Horticulturae, No. 452 [ed. by Donadio, L. C.]. 55-57

                                                                                                                                                                                            Ferreira FA, 1983. Eucalyptus rust. (Ferrugem do eucalipto.) Revista Ârvore, 7(2):91-109

                                                                                                                                                                                            Fiqueiredo MB, Coutinho LN, Hennen JF, 1984. Estudos para determinção do cicio vital de Puccinia psidii Winter. VII. (Abstr. 32) Congresso Paulista Fitopathologia UNESP. Botucatu, SP

                                                                                                                                                                                            Fonzo MA Di, 1946. The Uredineas of Chaco. (Las Uredineas del Chaco.) Publicação Misceláneo Ministério Agricultura Buenos Aires Series A, ii 12:1-12

                                                                                                                                                                                            Furtado EL, Marino CL, 2003. Eucalyptus rust management in Brazil. In: Proceedings 2nd IUFRO Rusts of Forest Trees. WP Conference, August 2002, Yangling, China.Forest Research, 16(Suppl.). 118-124

                                                                                                                                                                                            Giblin, F., 2013. University of the Sunshine Coast Maroochydore. Queensland, Australia, 18 pp. https://davar.gouv.nc/sites/default/files/atoms/files/rapport_de_mission_de_fiona_giblin_universite_de_la_sunshine_coast_-_australie.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                            Glen M, Alfenas AC, Zauza EAV, Wingfield MJ, Mohammed C, 2007. Puccinia psidii: a threat to the Australian environment and economy - a review. Australasian Plant Pathology, 36(1):1-16. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/39.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                            Glen M, Tommerup IC, Bougher NL, O'Brien PA, 2002. Are Sebacinaceae common and widespread ectomycorrhizal associates of Eucalyptus species in Australian forests? Mycorrhiza, 12(5):243-247

                                                                                                                                                                                            Govaerts R, Sobral M, Ashton P, Barrie F, Holst B, Landrum L, Matsumoto K, Mazine F, Lughadha E, Proenca C, Soares-Silva L, Wilson P, Lucas E, 2011. World Checklist of Myrtaceae. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.kew.org/wcsp/

                                                                                                                                                                                            Graça RN, Aun CP, Guimarães LMS, Rodrigues BVA, Zauza EAV, Alfenas AC, 2011. A new race of Puccinia psidii defeats the Ppr-1 resistance gene in Eucalyptus grandis. Australasian Plant Pathology, 40:442-447

                                                                                                                                                                                            Graça RN, Ross-Davis AL, Klopfenstein NB, Kim MS, Peever TL, Cannon PG, Aun CP, Mizubuti ESG, Alfenas AC, 2013. Rust disease of eucalypts, caused by Puccinia psidii, did not originate via host jump from guava in Brazil. Molecular Ecology, 22(24):6033-6047. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-294X

                                                                                                                                                                                            Grgurinovic CA, Walsh D, Macbeth F, 2006. Eucalyptus rust caused by Puccinia psidii and the threat it poses to Australia. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 36(3):486-489. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=epp

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hardiyanto EB, Tridasa AM, 2000. Early performance Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis hybrid on several sites in Indonesia. Hybrid Breeding and Genetics of Forest Trees. Proceedings of QFRI/CRC-SPF Symposium, 9-14 April 2000, Noosa, Queensland, Australia [Proceedings of QFRI/CRC-SPF Symposium, 9-14 April 2000, Noosa, Queensland, Australia]. http://www.bio-hutanea.com/?download=Hardiyanto_Eko.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hennen JF, Figueiredo MB, Carvalho Jr AAde, Hennen PG, 2005. Catalogue of the species of plant rust fungi (Uredinales) of Brazil, 490 pp. http://www.jbrj.gov.br/publica/uredinales/Brazil_Catalogue1drevisado.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                            Holliday JL, Jones SA, Simpson JA, Glen M, Edwards J, Robinson A, Burgman MA, 2013. A novel spore collection device for sampling exposure pathways: a case study of Puccinia psidii. Plant Disease, 97(6):828-834. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

                                                                                                                                                                                            Holloway, P., 2016. Lord Howe Island Business Paper, open session. Board Meeting November 2016, Agenda Number 4, File Ref: AD0100, 11 pp

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hunt P, 1968. Cuticular penetration by germinating uredospores. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 51:103-112

                                                                                                                                                                                            IMI Herbarium, 1900-. Herbarium specimen. International Mycological Institute (now CABI Bioscience) Herbarium. Egham, UK: CABI Bioscience

                                                                                                                                                                                            IPPC, 2013. Puccinia psidii in New Caledonia. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. NCL-01/2. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/IPP/En/default.jsp

                                                                                                                                                                                            Joffily J, 1944. Eucalyptus rust. (Ferragem do Eucalipto.) Bragantia, 4(8):475-487 pp

                                                                                                                                                                                            Kawanishi T, Uematsu S, Kakishima M, Kagiwada S, Hamamoto H, Horie H, Namba S, 2009. First report of rust disease on ohia and the causal fungus, Puccinia psidii, in Japan. Journal of General Plant Pathology, 75(6):428-431. http://www.springerlink.com/content/4578039767457128/?p=b5de5d35c3ed49938f1f8b67678f9d15&pi=3

                                                                                                                                                                                            Kern FD, Ciferri R, Thurston HW Jr, 1933a. The rust flora of Dominican Republic. Annales Mycologici, 31:1-40

                                                                                                                                                                                            Killgore EM, Heu RA, 2007. A rust disease on 'Ohi'a, Puccinia psidii Winter. New Pest Advisory 05-04 (Updated December 2007). Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Hawaii Department of Agriculture. http://www.hawaiiag.org/hdoa/npa/npa05-04-ohiarust.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                            Kriticos DJ, Leriche A, 2008. The current and future potential distribution of guava rust, Puccinia psidii in New Zealand. MAF Biosecurity New Zealand Technical Paper No. 2009/28. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry

                                                                                                                                                                                            Lana VM, Mafia RG, Ferreira MA, Sartório RC, Zauza EAV, Mounteer AH, Alfenas AC, 2012. Survival and dispersal of Puccinia psidii spores in eucalypt wood products. Australasian Plant Pathology, 41(3):229-238. http://www.springerlink.com/content/x8n72335k0752626/

                                                                                                                                                                                            Langrell SRH, Glen M, Alfenas AC, 2008. Molecular diagnosis of Puccinia psidii (guava rust) - a quarantine threat to Australian eucalypt and Myrtaceae biodiversity. Plant Pathology, 57(4):687-701. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

                                                                                                                                                                                            Langrell SRH, Tommerup IC, Zauza EAV, Alfenas AC, 2003. PCR based detection of Puccinia psidii from contaminated eucalyptus germplasm–implications for global biosecurity and commercial resources. Vo. 2, p. 57 (Abstr.). 8th International Plant Pathology Congress, 2-7 February 2003, Christchurch, New Zealand

                                                                                                                                                                                            León-Gallegos HM, Cummins GB, 1981. Uredinales (royas) de México. Vol. 1. Puccinia (Uredinales (rusts) of Mexico. Vol. 1. Puccinia). Culiacán, Sinaloa, Mexico: Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulicos de México

                                                                                                                                                                                            Liew ECY, Maier W, Merwe M van der, 2014. Phylogenetic position of Puccinia psidii within the Pucciniales. Project 3.5. Project executive summary only. Australia: National Myrtle Rust Transition to Management Program. http://myrtlerust.net.au/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Phylogenetic-position-of-Puccinia-psidii-within-the-Pucciniales-Executive-Summary.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                            Loope L, 2010. A summary of information on the rust Puccinia psidii Winter (guava rust) with emphasis on means to prevent introduction of additional strains to Hawaii. Geological Survey Open File Report 2010-1002. Reston, Virginia, USA: US Geological Survey

                                                                                                                                                                                            Loope L, Rosa AMLa, 2008. An analysis of the risk of the introduction of additional strains of the rust Puccinia psidii Winter ('Ohi'a rust) to Hawai'i. Reston, Virginia, USA: US Geological Survey

                                                                                                                                                                                            Loope L, Uchida J, Mehrhoff L, 2007. The threat of the non-native Neotropical rust Puccinia psidii to Hawaiian biodiversity and native ecosystems: a case example of the need for prevention. In: Proceedings of the 2007 George Wright Society Conference. 112-117

                                                                                                                                                                                            Loope LL, Uchida JY, 2012. The challenge of retarding erosion of island biodiversity through phytosanitary measures: an update on the case of Puccinia psidii in Hawai'i. Pacific Science, 66(2):127-139. http://www.uhpress.hawaii.edu/journals

                                                                                                                                                                                            MacLachlan JD, 1938. A rust of the Pimento tree in Jamaica, B.W.I. Phytopathology, 28:157-170

                                                                                                                                                                                            Magarey RD, Fowler GA, Borchert DM, Sutton TB, Colunga-Garcia M, Simpson JA, 2007. NAPPFAST: an internet system for the weather-based mapping of plant pathogens. Plant Disease, 91(4):336-345. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

                                                                                                                                                                                            Marlatt RB, Kimbrough JW, 1979. Puccinia psidii on Pimenta dioica in south Florida. Plant Disease Reporter, 63(6):510-512

                                                                                                                                                                                            Martins MVV, Silveira SF, Maffia LA, Rocabado JMA, Mussi-Dias V, 2011. Chemical control of guava rust (Puccinia psidii) in the Northern Region of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Australasian Plant Pathology, 40(1):48-54. http://www.springerlink.com/content/6677l5551882w7r0/

                                                                                                                                                                                            Mayor E, 1913. Contribution to the study of the Uredineas of Colombia. (Contribution á l'étude des Uredinées de Colombia.) Mémoires de la Société Neuchâteloise des Sciences Naturelles, 5:442-599

                                                                                                                                                                                            McTaggart AR, Roux J, Granados GM, Gafur A, Tarrigan M, Santhakumar P, Wingfield MJ, 2016. Rust (Puccinia psidii) recorded in Indonesia poses a threat to forests and forestry in South-East Asia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 45(1):83-89. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13313-015-0386-z

                                                                                                                                                                                            Mellano V, 2006. Rust on myrtle found in San Diego County. Healthy Garden-Healthy Home. University of California Cooperative Extension Retail Nursery Newsletter, 1:3

                                                                                                                                                                                            Merwe MM van der, Walker J, Ericson L, Burdon JJ, 2008. Coevolution with higher taxonomic host groups within the Puccinia/Uromyces rust lineage obscured by host jumps. Mycological Research, 112(12):1387-1408. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7XMR-4T0FFDS-6&_user=10&_coverDate=12%2F31%2F2008&_rdoc=3&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%2329677%232008%23998879987%23757163%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=29677&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=14&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=e623515ca9e1d0a8213df1ea12c51528

                                                                                                                                                                                            Merwe MM van der, Wyk AE van, Botha AM, 2005. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae), with emphasis on southern African taxa. Plant Systematics and Evolution [Evolution of southern hemisphere Myrtaceae: molecular and morphological evidence. Symposium at the 2003 conference of the Australian Systematic Botany Society, University of Melbourne, Australia.], 251(1):21-34. http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=104878

                                                                                                                                                                                            Morin L, Aveyard R, Lidbetter JR, Wilson PG, 2012. Investigating the host-range of the rust fungus Puccinia psidii sensu lato across tribes of the family Myrtaceae present in Australia. PLoS ONE, 7(4):e35434. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0035434

                                                                                                                                                                                            Morin L, Talbot MJ, Glen M, 2014. Quest to elucidate the life cycle of Puccinia psidii sensu lato. Fungal Biology, 118(2):253-263. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1878614613001827

                                                                                                                                                                                            Pegg GS, Giblin FR, McTaggart AR, Guymer GP, Taylor H, Irelenad KB, Shivas RG, Perry S, 2014. Puccinia psidii in Queensland, Australia: disease symptoms, distribution and impact. Plant Pathology, 63:1005-1021

                                                                                                                                                                                            Pegg GS, O'Dwyer C, Carnegie AJ, Burgess TI, Wingfield MJ, Drenth A, 2008. Quambalaria species associated with plantation and native eucalypts in Australia. Plant Pathology, 57(4):702-714. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

                                                                                                                                                                                            Pérez CA, Reyna R, Montanari L, Torres-Dini D, Nikichuk N, Simeto S, 2014. First report of rust caused by Puccinia psidii on Eucalyptus dunnii in Uruguay. Plant Disease, 98(10):1444. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

                                                                                                                                                                                            Pérez CA, Wingfield MJ, Altier NA, Simeto S, Blanchette RA, 2011. Puccinia psidii infecting cultivated Eucalyptus and native Myrtaceae in Uruguay. Mycological Progress, 10(3):273-282. http://www.springerlink.com/content/p5465709631r0817/fulltext.html

                                                                                                                                                                                            Piza SM de T, Ribeiro IJA, 1988. Influence of light and temperature on uredospore germination of Puccinia psidii Winter. Bragantia, 47(1):75-78

                                                                                                                                                                                            Piza SMT, Ribeiro IJA, 1989. Influence of temperature, water type and incubation period on the germination of uredospores of Puccinia psidii. (Influência da temperatura, tipo de ãgua e período de incubação sobre a germanação de uredosporos de Puccinia psidii.) Summa Phytopathologica, 15:222-226

                                                                                                                                                                                            Plessis, E. du, McTaggart, A. R., Granados, G. M., Wingfield, M. J., Roux, J., Ali, M. I. M., Pegg, G. S., Makinson, J., Purcell, M., 2017. First report of myrtle rust caused by Austropuccinia psidii on Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Myrtaceae) from Singapore. Plant Disease, 101(9), 1676. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/pdis-04-17-0530-pdn

                                                                                                                                                                                            Rayachhetry MB, Elliot ML, TKVan, 1997. Natural epiphytotic of a rust fungus (Puccinia psidii) on Melaleuca quinquenervia in Florida. Plant Disease, 81:831

                                                                                                                                                                                            Rayachhetry MB, Van TK, Center TD, Elliott ML, 2001. Host range of Puccinia psidii, a potential biological control agent of Melaleuca quinquenervia in Florida. Biological Control, 22(1):38-45; 27 ref

                                                                                                                                                                                            Rayamajhi MB, Pratt PD, Center TD, Wheeler GS, 2010. Differential response by Melaleuca quinquenervia trees to attack by the rust fungus Puccinia psidii in Florida. Plant Disease, 94(9):1165. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

                                                                                                                                                                                            Rayamajhi MB, Pratt PD, Klopfenstein NB, Ross-Davis AL, Rodgers L, 2013. First report of Puccinia psidii caused rust disease epiphytotic on the invasive shrub Rhodomyrtus tomentosa in Florida. Plant Disease, 97(10):1379-1380. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

                                                                                                                                                                                            Ribeiro IJA, Pommer CV, 2004. Breeding guava (Psidium guajava) for resistance to rust caused by Puccinia psidii. Acta Horticulturae [Citrus and other subtropical and tropical fruit crops: issues, advances and opportunities, a proceedings of the XXVI International Congress, Toronto, Canada, 11-17 August, 2002.], No.632:75-78. http://www.actahort.org

                                                                                                                                                                                            Roux J, Greyling I, Coutinho TA, Verleur M, Wingfield MJ, 2013. The Myrtle rust pathogen, Puccinia psidii, discovered in Africa. IMA Fungus, 4(1):155-159. http://www.imafungus.org/Issue/41/24.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                            Ruiz RAR, Alfenas AC, Ferreira FA, 1989. Effect of temperature, light and inoculum source on teliospore and urediniospore production of Puccinia psidii. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 14:70-73

                                                                                                                                                                                            Ruiz RAR, Alfenas AC, Ferreira FA, Vale FXRdo, 1989. Influence of temperature, leaf wetness time, photoperiod and light intensity on the infection of Puccinia psidii in eucalyptus. (Influência da temperature, do tempo molhamento foliar, fotoperíodo e da intensidade de luz sobre a infeccao de Puccinia psidii em eucalipto.) Fitopatologia Brasileira, 14:55-64

                                                                                                                                                                                            Ruiz RAR, Alfenas AC, Maffia LA, Barbosa MB, 1989. Progress of the eucalypt rust, caused by Puccinia psidii in the field. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 14:73-81

                                                                                                                                                                                            Sandhu KS, Park RF, 2013. Final Report: Genetic basis of pathogenicity in Uredo rangelii. [Report to Plant Health Australia, project no. P218]. Cobbitty, New South Wales, Australia: University of Sydney, Plant Breeding Institute. http://myrtlerust.net.au/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Genetic-basis-of-pathogenicity-in-Uredo-rangelii.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                            Schieber E, Sanchez A, 1968. Preliminary list of plant diseases in Guatemala. (Lista preliminar de las enfermedades de las plantas in Guatemala.) Boln Tec. Min. Agric, 30(25; 123):56 pp

                                                                                                                                                                                            Seaver FJ, Chardón CE, 1926. Botany of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Mycology. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, 8. 1-208

                                                                                                                                                                                            Sheridan JE, 1989. Quarantine risks imposed by overseas passengers. In: New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 19(2-3) [ed. by Griffith, J.A.]. 338-346

                                                                                                                                                                                            Simpson JA, Thomas K, Grgurinovic CA, 2006. Uredinales species pathogenic on species of Myrtaceae. Australasian Plant Pathology, 35(5):549-562. http://publish.csiro.au/nid/39/paper/AP06057.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                            Smith FEV, 1935. Rust disease of Pimento. Journal of the Jamaican Agricultural Society, 39:408-411

                                                                                                                                                                                            Spegazzini CL, 1884. Fungi Guaranitici. Pugillus 1. (Fungi Guaranitici. Pugillus 1.) Anales de la Sociedad Científica Argentina, 17:119-134

                                                                                                                                                                                            Spegazzini CL, 1889. Fungi Puiggariani. Pugillus 1. (Fungi Puiggariani. Pugillus 1.) Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias en Córdoba, 11:378-622

                                                                                                                                                                                            Stéfano JFDi, Fournier LA, Carranza J, Marin W, Mora A, 1998. Invasive potential of Syzygium jambos (Myrtaceae ) in forest fragments: the case of Ciudad Coln, Costa Rica. (Potencial invasor de Syzygium jambos (Myrtaceae) en fragmentos boscosos: el caso de Ciudad Coln, Costa Rica.) Revista de Biologia Tropical, 46:567-573

                                                                                                                                                                                            Stevenson JA, 1926. U.S. Dept. of Agric., Fed. Hort. Board. Washington, Govt. Printing Office, 198 pp

                                                                                                                                                                                            Telechea N, Rolfo M, Coutinho TA, Wingfield MJ, 2003. Puccinia psidii on Eucalyptus globulus in Uruguay. Plant Pathology, 52(3):427

                                                                                                                                                                                            Tessmann DJ, Dianese JC, Miranda AC, Castro LHR, 2001. Epidemiology of a Neotropical rust (Puccinia psidii): periodical analysis of the temporal progress in a perennial host (Syzygium jambos). Plant Pathology, 50(6):725-731; 22 ref

                                                                                                                                                                                            Tommerup IC, Alfenas AC, Old KM, 2003. Guava rust in Brazil - a threat to Eucalyptus and other Myrtaceae. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science [Forest pathology papers presented at the 8th International Congress of Plant Pathology, 2-7 February, 2003, Christchurch, New Zealand.], 33(3):420-428

                                                                                                                                                                                            Uchida J, Zhong S, Killgore E, 2006. First report of a rust disease on Ohia caused by Puccinia psidii in Hawaii. Plant Disease, 90(4):524

                                                                                                                                                                                            Uchida JY, Loope LL, 2009. A recurrent epiphytotic of guava rust on rose apple, Syzygium jambos, in Hawaii. Plant Disease, 93(4):429. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

                                                                                                                                                                                            Upadhyay DN, Bordoloi DN, 1975, publ. 1976. New records of diseases on cultivated essential oil bearing plants from North-East India. Indian Phytopathology, 28(4):532-534

                                                                                                                                                                                            Walker J, 1983. Pacific mycogeography: deficiencies and irregularities in the distribution of plant parasitic fungi. Australian Journal of Botany Supplementary Series, 10:89-136

                                                                                                                                                                                            Walker J, Hartigan D, Bertus AL, 1974. Poplar rusts in Australia with comments on potential conifer hosts. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 4:100-118

                                                                                                                                                                                            Wang W, 1992. Survey of Eucalyptus diseases in Taiwan. Bulletin of the Taiwan Forestry Research Institute New Series, 7:179-194

                                                                                                                                                                                            Wellings CR, McIntosh RA, Walker J, 1987. Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici in Eastern Australia - possible means of entry and implications for plant quarantine. Plant Pathology, 36(3):239-241

                                                                                                                                                                                            Westerway, J. O., 2016. The pathogen Myrtle rust ('Puccinia psidii') in the Northern Territory: First detection, new host and potential impacts. Northern Territory Naturalist, 27, 13-28.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Winter G, 1884. Repertorium. Rabenhorstii fungi europaei et extraeuropaei exsiccati cura Dr. Winter, Centuria XXXI et XXXII. Hedwigia, 23:164-172

                                                                                                                                                                                            Xavier AA, 2002. Histopatologia da interaçao Puccinia psidii e virulência de isolados do patógeno em espécies de Myrtaceae. PhD Thesis (Histopathology of the interaction of Puccinia psidii and virulence of isolates of the pathogen in species of Myrtaceae. PhD Thesis). Minas Gerais, Brazil: Federal University of Viçosa, 71 pp

                                                                                                                                                                                            Zambino PJ, Nolan PA, 2012. First report of rust caused by Puccinia psidii on paperbark, Melaleuca quinquenervia, in California. Plant Disease, 95(10):1314

                                                                                                                                                                                            Zhuang J-Y, Wei S-X, 2011. Additional materials for the rust flora of Hainan Province, China. Mycosystema, 30:853-860

                                                                                                                                                                                            Distribution References

                                                                                                                                                                                            Alfenas A C, Zauza E A V, Assis T F, 2003. First record of Puccinia psidii on Eucalyptus globulus and E. viminalis in Brazil. Australasian Plant Pathology. 32 (2), 325-326. DOI:10.1071/AP03021

                                                                                                                                                                                            Anderson RC, 2012. A baseline analysis of the distribution, host-range, and severity of the rust Puccinia psidii in the Hawaiian Islands, 2005-2010., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: US Geological Survey. http://hilo.hawaii.edu/hcsu/documents/Anderson_TR-031_Ohia_Rustfinal.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                            Baker R E D, Dale W T, 1948. Fungi of Barbados and the Windward Islands. In: Mycological Papers. Kew, Surrey, UK: Commonwealth Mycological Institute. 1-26.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Baker R E D, Dale W T, 1951. Mycological Papers, Kew, Surrey, UK: Commonwealth Mycological Institute. 123 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Biosecurity Tasmania, 2017. Biosecurity factsheet., Biosecurity Tasmania Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment. 2 pp. http://dpipwe.tas.gov.au/Documents/myrtle.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                            CABI, EPPO, 2014. Puccinia psidii species complex. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CABI. Map 181 (Edition 5). DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20143156812

                                                                                                                                                                                            CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

                                                                                                                                                                                            CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

                                                                                                                                                                                            Carnegie A J, 2015. First report of Puccinia psidii (myrtle rust) in Eucalyptus plantations in Australia. Plant Disease. 99 (1), 161. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-14-0901-PDN

                                                                                                                                                                                            Carnegie A J, Cooper K, 2011. Emergency response to the incursion of an exotic myrtaceous rust in Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology. 40 (4), 346-359. http://www.springerlink.com/content/g56g4260t27l4873/ DOI:10.1007/s13313-011-0066-6

                                                                                                                                                                                            Carnegie A J, Lidbetter J R, 2012. Rapidly expanding host range for Puccinia psidii sensu lato in Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology. 41 (1), 13-29. http://www.springerlink.com/content/w8538 mu25rh72870/fulltext.html DOI:10.1007/s13313-011-0082-6

                                                                                                                                                                                            Carnegie A J, Lidbetter J R, Walker J, Horwood M A, Tesoriero L, Glen M, Priest M J, 2010. Uredo rangelii, a taxon in the guava rust complex, newly recorded on Myrtaceae in Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology. 39 (5), 463-466. DOI:10.1071/AP10102

                                                                                                                                                                                            DAVAR Nouvelle-Calédonie, 2014. (Santé produits végétaux: La rouille des Myrtacées). In: New Caledonia: Direction des Affaires Vétérinaires, Alimentaires et Rurales, http://www.davar.gouv.nc/portal/page/portal/davar/sante_animaux_vegetaux/maladies_ravageurs

                                                                                                                                                                                            DEPI Victoria, 2014. Myrtle rust., Victoria, Australia: Department of Environment and Primary Industries. http://www.depi.vic.gov.au/agriculture-and-food/pests-diseases-and-weeds/plant-diseases/shrubs-and-trees/myrtle-rust

                                                                                                                                                                                            DI FONZO M A, 1946. The Uredineae of the Chaco. (Las Uredineas del Chaco.). Publicaciones Miscelaneas. Ministerio de agricultura. 2 (12), 12 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                            EPPO, 2021. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

                                                                                                                                                                                            Ferreira F A, 1983. Eucalyptus rust. (Ferrugem do eucalipto.). Revista Árvore. 7 (2), 91-109.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Giblin F, 2013. University of the Sunshine Coast Maroochydore., Queensland, Australia: 18 pp. https://davar.gouv.nc/sites/default/files/atoms/files/rapport_de_mission_de_fiona_giblin_universite_de_la_sunshine_coast_-_australie.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                            Graça R N, Ross-Davis A L, Klopfenstein N B, Kim M S, Peever T L, Cannon P G, Aun C P, Mizubuti E S G, Alfenas A C, 2013. Rust disease of eucalypts, caused by Puccinia psidii, did not originate via host jump from guava in Brazil. Molecular Ecology. 22 (24), 6033-6047. DOI:10.1111/mec.12545

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hardiyanto EB, Tridasa AM, 2000. Early performance Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis hybrid on several sites in Indonesia. In: Hybrid Breeding and Genetics of Forest Trees [Proceedings of QFRI/CRC-SPF Symposium, 9-14 April 2000, Noosa, Queensland, Australia], http://www.bio-hutanea.com/?download=Hardiyanto_Eko.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hennen J F, Figueiredo M B, Carvalho A A Jr, Hennen P G, 2005. Catalogue of the species of plant rust fungi (Uredinales) of Brazil. In: Catalogue of the species of plant rust fungi (Uredinales) of Brazil, 490 pp. http://www.jbrj.gov.br/publica/uredinales/Brazil_Catalogue1drevisado.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                            Ho W H, Baskarathevan J, Griffin R L, Quinn B D, Alexander B J R, Havell D, Ward N A, Pathan A K, 2019. First report of myrtle rust caused by Austropuccinia psidii on Metrosideros kermadecensis on raoul island and on M. excelsa in Kerikeri, New Zealand. Plant Disease. 103 (8), 2128-2128. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-18-2243-PDN

                                                                                                                                                                                            Holloway P, 2016. Lord Howe Island Business Paper, open session. In: Board Meeting November 2016, Agenda Number 4, File Ref: AD0100, 11 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                            IPPC, 2013. Puccinia psidii in New Caledonia. In: IPPC Official Pest Report, No. NCL-01/2, Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/IPP/En/default.jsp

                                                                                                                                                                                            Joffily J, 1944. Eucalyptus rust. (Ferragem do Eucalipto.). Bragantia. 4 (8), 475-487 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Kawanishi T, Uematsu S, Kakishima M, Kagiwada S, Hamamoto H, Horie H, Namba S, 2009. First report of rust disease on ohia and the causal fungus, Puccinia psidii, in Japan. Journal of General Plant Pathology. 75 (6), 428-431. DOI:10.1007/s10327-009-0202-0

                                                                                                                                                                                            Maclachlan J D, 1938. A rust of the Pimento tree in Jamaica, B.W.I. Phytopathology. 28 (3), 157-170 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Marlatt R B, Kimbrough J W, 1979. Puccinia psidii on Pimenta dioica in south Florida. Plant Disease Reporter. 63 (6), 510-512.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Mayor E, 1913. Contribution to the study of the Uredinales of Colombia. (Contribution l étude des Uredinées de Colombie). Mémoires de la Société Neuchateloise de Sciences Naturelles. 442-509.

                                                                                                                                                                                            McTaggart A R, Roux J, Granados G M, Gafur A, Tarrigan M, Santhakumar P, Wingfield M J, 2016. Rust (Puccinia psidii) recorded in Indonesia poses a threat to forests and forestry in South-East Asia. Australasian Plant Pathology. 45 (1), 83-89. DOI:10.1007/s13313-015-0386-z

                                                                                                                                                                                            Mellano V, 2006. Rust on myrtle found in San Diego County. Healthy Garden-Healthy Home. In: University of California Cooperative Extension Retail Nursery Newsletter, 1 3.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Mohali S R, Aime M C, 2016. First report of Puccinia psidii (myrtle rust) on Syzygium jambos in Venezuela. New Disease Reports. 18. DOI:10.5197/j.2044-0588.2016.034.018

                                                                                                                                                                                            Pegg G S, Giblin F R, McTaggart A R, Guymer G P, Taylor H, Ireland K B, Shivas R G, Perry S, 2014. Puccinia psidii in Queensland, Australia: disease symptoms, distribution and impact. Plant Pathology. 63 (5), 1005-1021. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ppa.12173/full DOI:10.1111/ppa.12173

                                                                                                                                                                                            Pérez C A, Reyna R, Montanari L, Torres-Dini D, Nikichuk N, Simeto S, 2014. First report of rust caused by Puccinia psidii on Eucalyptus dunnii in Uruguay. Plant Disease. 98 (10), 1444. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-14-0700-PDN

                                                                                                                                                                                            Pérez C A, Wingfield M J, Altier N A, Simeto S, Blanchette R A, 2011. Puccinia psidii infecting cultivated Eucalyptus and native myrtaceae in Uruguay. Mycological Progress. 10 (3), 273-282. DOI:10.1007/s11557-010-0698-x

                                                                                                                                                                                            Pieri C de, Furtado E L, Passador M M, 2016. First record of rust caused by Puccinia psidii (Pucciniaceae) in Acmena smithii in Brazil. Summa Phytopathologica. 42 (4), 372-373. DOI:10.1590/0100-5405/2122

                                                                                                                                                                                            Plessis E du, McTaggart A R, Granados G M, Wingfield M J, Roux J, Ali M I M, Pegg G S, Makinson J, Purcell M, 2017. First report of myrtle rust caused by Austropuccinia psidii on Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Myrtaceae) from Singapore. Plant Disease. 101 (9), 1676. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/pdis-04-17-0530-pdn

                                                                                                                                                                                            Rayachhetry M B, Van T K, Center T D, Elliott M L, 2001. Host range of Puccinia psidii, a potential biological control agent of Melaleuca quinquenervia in Florida. Biological Control. 22 (1), 38-45. DOI:10.1006/bcon.2001.0949

                                                                                                                                                                                            Rayamajhi M B, Pratt P D, Center T D, Wheeler G S, 2010. Differential response by Melaleuca quinquenervia trees to attack by the rust fungus Puccinia psidii in Florida. Plant Disease. 94 (9), 1165. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-94-9-1165B

                                                                                                                                                                                            Rayamajhi M B, Pratt P D, Klopfenstein N B, Ross-Davis A L, Rodgers L, 2013. First report of Puccinia psidii caused rust disease epiphytotic on the invasive shrub Rhodomyrtus tomentosa in Florida. Plant Disease. 97 (10), 1379-1380. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-13-0225-PDN

                                                                                                                                                                                            Rodas C A, Roux J, Maier W, Granados G M, Bolaños M D, McTaggart A R, Wingfield M J, 2015. First report of Puccinia psidii on Corymbia citriodora and Eucalyptus in Colombia. Forest Pathology. 45 (6), 534-536. DOI:10.1111/efp.12223

                                                                                                                                                                                            Roux J, Greyling I, Coutinho T A, Verleur M, Wingfield M J, 2013. The Myrtle rust pathogen, Puccinia psidii, discovered in Africa. IMA Fungus. 4 (1), 155-159. DOI:10.5598/imafungus.2013.04.01.14

                                                                                                                                                                                            Salazar Yepes M, Carvalho Júnior A A de, 2013. Uredinales (rust fungi) biota of the Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, Brazil: an analysis of composition, species diversity and altitudinal distribution. Caldasia. 35 (1), 165-176. http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0366-52322013000100012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

                                                                                                                                                                                            Schieber E, Sanchez A, 1968. Preliminary list of plant diseases in Guatemala. (Lista preliminar de las enfermedades de las plantas in Guatemala.). Boln Tec. Min. Agric. 30 (25; 123), 56 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Seaver F J, Chardon C E, 1926. Botany of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, Vol. 8. 208 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Simpson J A, Thomas K, Grgurinovic C A, 2006. Uredinales species pathogenic on species of Myrtaceae. Australasian Plant Pathology. 35 (5), 549-562. DOI:10.1071/AP06057

                                                                                                                                                                                            SMITH F E V, 1935. Rust disease of Pimento. Journal of the Jamaica Agricultural Society. 39 (5-7), 408-411 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Spegazzini CL, 1884. (Fungi Guaranitici. Pugillus 1). In: Anales de la Sociedad Científica Argentina, 17 119-134.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Spegazzini CL, 1889. (Fungi Puiggariani. Pugillus 1. (Fungi Puiggariani. Pugillus 1.)). In: Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias en Córdoba, 11 378-622.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Stéfano JFDi, Fournier LA, Carranza J, Marin W, Mora A, 1998. Invasive potential of Syzygium jambos (Myrtaceae ) in forest fragments: the case of Ciudad Coln, Costa Rica. (Potencial invasor de Syzygium jambos (Myrtaceae) en fragmentos boscosos: el caso de Ciudad Coln, Costa Rica). In: Revista de Biologia Tropical, 46 567-573.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Stevenson J A, 1926. U.S. Dept. of Agric., Fed. Hort. Board. Washington, Govt. Printing Office. 198 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Telechea N, Rolfo M, Coutinho T A, Wingfield M J, 2003. Puccinia psidii on Eucalyptus globulus in Uruguay. Plant Pathology. 52 (3), 427. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-3059.2003.00853.x

                                                                                                                                                                                            Uchida J Y, Loope L L, 2009. A recurrent epiphytotic of guava rust on rose apple, Syzygium jambos, in Hawaii. Plant Disease. 93 (4), 429. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-93-4-0429B

                                                                                                                                                                                            Uchida J, Zhong S, Killgore E, 2006. First report of a rust disease on Ohia caused by Puccinia psidii in Hawaii. Plant Disease. 90 (4), 524. DOI:10.1094/PD-90-0524C

                                                                                                                                                                                            Walker J, 1983. Pacific mycogeography: deficiencies and irregularities in the distribution of plant parasitic fungi. In: Australian Journal of Botany Supplementary Series, 10 89-136.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Wang WeiYoung, 1992. Survey of Eucalyptus disease in Taiwan. Bulletin of the Taiwan Forestry Research Institute. 7 (2), 179-194.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Westerway JO, 2016. The pathogen Myrtle rust ('Puccinia psidii') in the Northern Territory: First detection, new host and potential impacts., 27 13-28.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Winter G, 1884. (Repertorium. Rabenhorstii fungi europaei et extraeuropaei exsiccati cura Dr. Winter, Centuria XXXI et XXXII). In: Hedwigia, 23 164-172.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Zambino PJ, Nolan PA, 2012. First report of rust caused by Puccinia psidii on paperbark, Melaleuca quinquenervia, in California. In: Plant Disease, 95 (10) 1314.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Zhuang JY, Wei SX, 2011. Additional materials for the rust flora of Hainan Province, China. In: Mycosystema, 30 853-860.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Links to Websites

                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                            WebsiteURLComment
                                                                                                                                                                                            Myrtle Rust Transition to Management Programhttp://myrtlerust.net.au/

                                                                                                                                                                                            Organizations

                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                            USA: University of Hawaii UH, Manoa, Honolulu, http://www.hawaii.edu

                                                                                                                                                                                            USA: USDA Agricultural Research Service, USDA-ARS, Invasive Plant Reseach Lab., Fort Lauderdale, FL 33314

                                                                                                                                                                                            USA: USDA Forest Service, Forestry Sciences Laboratory, 1221 South Main Street, Moscow, ID 83843

                                                                                                                                                                                            Australia: Department of Agriculture, Fisheries & Forests, DAFF, Brisbane, Qld

                                                                                                                                                                                            Australia: New South Wales Department of Primary Industry, NSW DPI, Sydney, NSW

                                                                                                                                                                                            Brazil: Federal University of Viçosa, UFV, 36570-000 Viçosa, Minas Gerais

                                                                                                                                                                                            Principal Source

                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                            Draft datasheet under review

                                                                                                                                                                                            Contributors

                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                            08/05/14 Original text by:

                                                                                                                                                                                            Angus J. Carnegie, Biosecurity NSW, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Sydney, Australia

                                                                                                                                                                                            Fiona R. Giblin, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, Queensland, Australia

                                                                                                                                                                                            Distribution Maps

                                                                                                                                                                                            Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                            You can pan and zoom the map
                                                                                                                                                                                            Save map
                                                                                                                                                                                            Select a dataset
                                                                                                                                                                                            Map Legends
                                                                                                                                                                                            • CABI Summary Records
                                                                                                                                                                                            Map Filters
                                                                                                                                                                                            Extent
                                                                                                                                                                                            Invasive
                                                                                                                                                                                            Origin
                                                                                                                                                                                            Third party data sources: