Puccinia kuehnii (orange rust)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Vectors
- Plant Trade
- Wood Packaging
- Impact Summary
- Environmental Impact
- Impact: Biodiversity
- Social Impact
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Puccinia kuehnii (W. Krüger) E.J. Butler 1914
Preferred Common Name
- orange rust
Other Scientific Names
- Uromyces kuehnii W. Krüger 1890
International Common Names
- English: rust: sugarcane; sugarcane leaf rust; sugarcane rust
- Spanish: roya de la cana; roya de la cana de azucar
- French: rouille de la canne a sucre
Local Common Names
- Germany: Rost: Zuckerrohr
- PUCCKU (Puccinia kuehnii)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Fungi
- Phylum: Basidiomycota
- Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
- Class: Pucciniomycetes
- Order: Pucciniales
- Family: Pucciniaceae
- Genus: Puccinia
- Species: Puccinia kuehnii
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
DescriptionTop of page
The uredinia are amphigenous, sometimes only hypophyllous, usually orange to yellowish-brown but sometimes cinnamon-brown when older, linear, up to 1.5 mm long. Paraphyses are usually inconspicuous and peripheral, cylindrical to capitate, up to 45 µm long, thin-walled (1-2 µm) and hyaline to pale brown. Urediniospores are mostly obovoid or pyriform, sometimes ellipsoidal, very variable in size, 25-57 x 17-34 µm, with walls golden to orange or cinnamon-brown, 1-2 µm thick laterally, but usually with a pronounced apical thickening to 5 µm or more, and with four or five equatorial germ pores. The spores are moderately echinulate, the spines being 3-4 µm apart, not clustered at the pore caps and not regularly placed.
Telia are hypophyllous, small, blackish, linear and rarely present; only Butler (1918) seems to have found them. Paraphyses are similar to those in uredinia. The teliospores are oblong to clavate, rounded at the apex, two-celled and not constricted at the septa, with pale-yellow walls not thickened apically, 25-40 x 10-18 µm, and borne on short, hyaline pedicels. Spermogonia and aecia are unknown. Other descriptions of morphology are provided by Mordue (1985), Fang et al. (1986) and Coutinho et al. (1991).
DistributionTop of page
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Côte d'Ivoire||Present, Localized|
|Mozambique||Absent, Invalid presence record(s)|
|South Africa||Absent, Invalid presence record(s)|
|-Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Present|
|-Lesser Sunda Islands||Present|
|Dominican Republic||Present, Localized|
|El Salvador||Present, Localized|
|United States||Present, Localized|
|-Louisiana||Present, Few occurrences|
|-New South Wales||Present, Localized|
|-Northern Territory||Present, Localized|
|Federated States of Micronesia||Present|
|Papua New Guinea||Present|
|-Mato Grosso||Present, Localized|
|-Mato Grosso do Sul||Present|
|-Rio de Janeiro||Present|
|-Rio Grande do Norte||Present, Localized|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
The major development in recent times in Australia has been an apparent change in strain of the pathogen in, or before, 2000. In that year, the widely grown cultivar Q124, occupying 45% of the cropped area, suddenly became susceptible. Within 12 months, crops of this cultivar were badly diseased right along the coastal cropping areas (over 2100 km from Mossman in northern Queensland to northern New South Wales in the south). Molecular studies are ongoing and will shed more light on the possibility of strain differences.
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
Another potential means for spread is in the movement of diseased leaves into disease-free areas.
There has been no effort to specifically quarantine P. kuehnii, though normal sugarcane quarantine protocols are always followed/recommended when sugarcane is moved between regions and countries.
HabitatTop of page
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Saccharum arundinaceum (pin reedgrass)||Poaceae||Other|
|Saccharum edule||Poaceae||Wild host|
|Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)||Poaceae||Main|
|Saccharum robustum||Poaceae||Wild host|
|Saccharum spontaneum (wild sugarcane)||Poaceae||Wild host|
Growth StagesTop of page
SymptomsTop of page
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Leaves / abnormal colours|
|Leaves / fungal growth|
|Leaves / necrotic areas|
|Leaves / yellowed or dead|
|Whole plant / discoloration|
|Whole plant / dwarfing|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Chromosome studies are unknown. Genetic variation is suggested by the sudden susceptibility of a previously resistant commercial sugarcane cultivar (Q124) in 2000. Molecular studies suggest that there are differences between the species of Puccinia affecting sugarcane (Virtudazo et al., 2001a, b) and that D1/D2 region tree phylogeny is more consistent with phylogenetic relationships, and is consistent with morphological differences, as compared to ITS gene tree phylogeny.
Molecular studies in Australia into strains of P. kuehnii are not yet complete but there is evidence of variation in pathogenicity within the pathogen population. A previously moderately susceptible cultivar (Q78) has been relatively unaffected by orange rust after the outbreak of the disease in Q124, even when badly affected crops of Q124 have been growing close to the same plots of Q78. This has made it difficult to collect enough material of the P. kuehnii infecting Q78, and suggests the possibility of two strains of the pathogen. No hybridization studies have been reported.
Physiology and Phenology
Phenological variation has not been noted or documented. The pathogen survives in Australia, where it is presumed not to be indigenous, on sugarcane crops at different growth stages; in commercial sugarcane production areas, sugarcane foliage is always present and the pathogen appears to survive on these structures. Although a new strain of the pathogen may have developed in recent years (this still requires further confirmation), this is the only instance where the pathogen has shown adaptability to an altered cropping environment. The pathogen is known to infect other species of Saccharum in their centre of diversity (Egan, 1981; Suma and Pais, 1996). Survival of the pathogen in these situations is considered to be through mechanisms as described for Australian cropping situations.
The pathogen is primarily spread through wind-blown or water-splashed urediniospores (Ryan and Egan, 1989). These settle on leaves of the sugarcane plant and infect under conducive temperature and moisture conditions. Spore germination experiments suggest that temperatures between 15 and 25°C are favourable for germination whereas germination increases rapidly above 97% RH (Magarey et al., 2003). Hsieh and Fang (1983) suggest the optimum temperature for germination of P. kuehnii urediniospores is 26°C, whereas for P. melanocephala it is 18°C. These authors found that spores were produced between 10 and 34°C. Fang et al. (1986) suggested that the optimum temperature for teliospore germination is also 26°C. No detailed descriptions of leaf infection have been reported for P. kuehnii. Purdy et al. (1983) also reported conditions for spore germination.
Hsieh and Fang (1983) suggested that urediniospores are produced between 10 and 34°C. Optimum temperatures for urediniospore production have been suggested as 15 and 25°C (Magarey et al., 2003) and 26°C (Hsieh and Fang, 1983). Relative humidities above 97% are known to favour urediniospore germination (Magarey et al., 2003). The effect of varying temperatures and humidities, during and after infection, on disease development has been studied, in part, by Hsieh and Fang (1983). They found the total number of urediniospores produced per sorus in the cultivar F176 was 4700. Urediniospore production occurred over a 23-day period. In the field, warm humid conditions appear to favour disease development, which peaks in late summer or during autumn.
Several organisms parasitize P. kuehnii. These include the parasitic fungus Darluca filum [Endarluca caricis] in India (Dube et al., 1978). In the Australian orange rust epiphytotic of 2000-2002, larvae belonging to the Cecidomyiidae were observed feeding on urediniospores on diseased leaves in the field (PR Samson, BSES, personal communication). In the high-rainfall areas on the north-east tropical coast of eastern Australia, parasitism is believed to have significantly reduced disease levels in the susceptible cultivar Q124, especially towards the end of the epiphytotic (late autumn each year).
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Natural transmission of P. kuehnii is by wind and wind-blown rain, and this is likely to be the most important means for disease spread. Wind transmission is thought to have led to dispersal of the disease over long distances (over 2000 km).
Vector transmission (insects) of P. kuehnii is unknown.
There are no reports of seedborne transmission of P. kuehnii. In sugarcane, seed is sometimes used in propagation and this seed still has flower structures attached (fuzz). This could provide a mechanism for pathogen attachment to the seed and subsequent spread.
Pathway VectorsTop of page
|Clothing, footwear and possessions||Clothes||Yes|
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Leaves||spores||Yes||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Growing medium accompanying plants|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches|
Wood PackagingTop of page
|Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Loose wood packing material|
|Processed or treated wood|
|Solid wood packing material with bark|
|Solid wood packing material without bark|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
ImpactTop of page
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impact: BiodiversityTop of page
Social ImpactTop of page
DiagnosisTop of page
Detection and InspectionTop of page
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
When the urediniospores are examined under a microscope, the spores of P. kuehnii are slightly larger than those of P. melanocephala, have a crescent-shaped apical thickening, an irregular covering of papillae (there is an even coverage in urediniospores of P. melanocephala) and paraphyses are present. Differences in morphology have been investigated by Mordue (1985), Coutinho et al. (1991) and Virtudazo et al. (2001a, b).
Magnesium deficiency in sugarcane causes small brown lesions somewhat similar to orange rust, but lacking in pustule development. At a distance, affected canopies may appear brown but close examination soon reveals the differences between magnesium deficiency and orange rust.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.Phytosanitary Measures
There have been few phytosanitary measures suggested for control of orange rust. This type of control is not generally useful in areas where the disease is endemic.
Cultural Control and Sanitary Methods
Cultural control is not an effective means for control of orange rust.
Host resistance is the main commercial disease control strategy. In most sugarcane industries, there has been more than adequate resistance in commercial cultivars (Atienza and Quimio, 1982; Magarey et al., 2001a). Only rarely has there been high susceptibility in any commercial cultivars. In Australia in 2000, a change in strain of the pathogen is thought to be the reason for the susceptibility of the widely grown Q124. Testing of the Australian germplasm for resistance suggested that most cultivars are resistant to the pathogen and only a small percentage susceptible (Magarey et al., 2001a, 2002a). There has been no difficulty in maintaining a pool of resistant commercial cultivars. Under these circumstances, the disease has been very adequately controlled with few other measures necessary to maintain high levels of crop production.
Commercial biological control systems have not been adopted, nor are they especially needed. However, some natural biological control mechanisms are thought to operate. The parasitic fungus Darluca filum [Eudarluca caricis] is known to infest P. kuehnii in diseased crops. In the wetter areas of the Australian sugar industry, mycoparasitism is considered to exert a significant influence on disease levels. However, the system has not been extensively studied.
With the large area planted to the susceptible Q124 in the year 2000, the outbreak of orange rust caused large yield losses in the central district of Queensland, Australia (Magarey et al., 2001a; Staier et al., 2003). A programme was established to screen fungicides for commercial control of the disease until such time as Q124 could be replaced by resistant canes. Several fungicides were found to have activity, including tebuconazole and mancozeb (Staier et al., 2003). Spray schedules were explored and recommendations made for commercial applications. These two fungicides were registered with the Australian National Registration Authority and the fungicides used for disease control, the first time fungicides had been used for leaf disease control in the Australian sugar industry. This was only the second time that fungicides have been used commercially for leaf disease control in sugarcane worldwide (Staier et al., 2003). Even though registered fungicides were available, their use was restricted due to the poor economics of the industry at the time.
Early Warning Systems
Research into the conditions favouring spore germination was undertaken particularly in relation to temperature and relative humidity. Using these as a guide to predicting disease incidence, weather conditions were monitored in the central district of Queensland, Australia, and farmers advised via the local media. The information extended included data from disease monitoring and information on the suitability of weather conditions. Farmers then had the option of applying fungicide if desired.
Field Monitoring/Economic Threshold Levels
Only preliminary studies have been conducted into threshold disease levels and little work has been published. However, crop monitoring has occurred and data suggest that a leaf disease area affected as low as 7% is sufficient to reduce yield (Staier et al., 2003).
IPM programmes for control of orange rust have centred on the use of resistance cultivars in association with fungicide control of the disease in the popular cultivar Q124. There has been a strong emphasis on control through cultivar resistance rather than a combination of other treatments in an IPM strategy.
ReferencesTop of page
Braithwaite K, Croft B, Brumbley S, 2004. Genetic diversity within collections of the sugarcane orange rust fungus. In: 2004 Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists held at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, 4-7 May 2004 [ed. by Hogarth, D. M.]. Brisbane, Australia: PK Editorial Services Pty Ltd, 82.
Braithwaite KS, Croft BJ, Magarey RC, Scharaschkin T, 2009. Phylogenetic placement of the sugarcane orange rust pathogen Puccinia kuehnii in a historical and regional context. Australasian Plant Pathology [Papers from Keynote Speakers at the 5th Australasian Soilborne Diseases Symposium, New South Wales, Australia, February 2009.], 38(4):380-388. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/39.htm
Briggs GC, Nakhid Z, Alleyne AT, Ayats J, Despradel JO, Elibox W, 2014. First report of orange rust disease of sugarcane in the Dominican Republic. Plant Disease, 98(7):1010. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis
Briggs, G. C., Cummings, M., Elibox, W., 2018. First report of orange rust of sugarcane caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Guyana., 102(4), 825-826. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-06-17-0915-PDN
Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. Land Grant Technical Report No. 44. Pago Pago, American Samoa: American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program.
Butler EJ, 1918. Fungi and Diseases in Plants. London, UK: Spink & Co.
Chavarría E, Subirós F, Vega J, Ralda G, Glynn NC, Comstock JC, Castlebury LA, 2009. First report of orange rust of sugarcane caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Plant Disease, 93(4):425. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis
Chaves A, Simões Neto DE, Dutra Filho Jde A, Oliveira ACde, Rodrigues WDde L, Pedrosa EMR, Borges VJL, França PRPde, 2013. Presence of orange rust on sugarcane in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Tropical Plant Pathology, 38(5):443-446. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/tpp/v38n5/10.pdf
Comstock JC, Sood SG, Glynn NC, Shine JM Jr, McKemy JM, Castlebury LA, 2008. First report of Puccinia kuehnii, causal agent of orange rust of sugarcane, in the United States and Western Hemisphere. Plant Disease, 92(1):175. HTTP://www.apsnet.org
Coutinho LN, Cardoso CON, Figueiredo MB, 1991. Puccinia melanocephala H. & P. Sydow, a sugarcane rust in Sao Paulo State, Brazil: morphological characteristics, differentiation from Puccinia kuehnii Butler and varietal resistance. Revista Brasileira de Botanica, 14(2):121-126
Cummins GB, 1971. The Rust Fungi of Cereals, Grasses, and Bamboos. Berlin and New York: Springer-Verlag.
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Flores RC, Loyo JR, Ojeda RA, Rangel OCA, Cerón FA, Márquez W, Guerra-Moreno AS, Hernandez-Ibarra HM, González RE, Castlebury LA, Dixon LJ, Glynn NC, Comstock JC, Flynn J, Amador J, 2009. First report of orange rust of sugarcane caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Mexico, El Salvador, and Panama. Plant Disease, 93(12):1347. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis
Garcés FF, Fiallos FF, Silva E, Martinez F, Aime MC, Comstock JC, Glynn NC, Castlebury LA, 2014. First report of orange rust of sugarcane caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Ecuador. Plant Disease, 98(6):842. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis
Grisham MP, Hoy JW, Haudenshield JS, Hartman GL, 2013. First report of orange rust caused by Puccinia kuehnii in sugarcane in Louisiana. Plant Disease, 97(3):426-427. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis
IPPC, 2010. Pest Notification - Sugar Cane Orange Rust - January 5th 2010. IPPC Official Pest Report, BRA-01/1. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/index.php?id=1110520&no_cache=1&type=pestreport&L=0
Kruger W, 1890. Mededeel, Proefstation West-Java, Kagok-Tegal, Deel 1.
Liu LJ, Bernard F, 1979. Sugarcane rust in the Dominican Republic. Sugarcane Pathologist's Newsletter, No. 22: 5-7.
Magarey RC, 2000. Orange rust. In: Rott P, Bailey RA, Comstock JC, Croft BJ, Saumtally AS, eds. A Guide to Sugarcane Diseases. Montpellier, France, CIRAD-ISSCT, 121-125.
Magarey RC, Bull JI, 2009. Environmental parameters affecting the reliability of resistance-screening trials for orange rust and yellow spot. In: Proceedings of the 2009 Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists held at Ballina, New South Wales, Australia, 5-8 May 2009 [ed. by Bruce, R. C.]. Mackay, Australia: Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists, 307-315.
Magarey RC, Bull JI, 2009. Orange rust resistance screening in parent canes at BSES Meringa 2000-2008. In: Proceedings of the 2009 Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists held at Ballina, New South Wales, Australia, 5-8 May 2009 [ed. by Bruce, R. C.]. Mackay, Australia: Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists, 204-211.
Magarey RC, Bull JI, Neilsen W, Magnanini A, 2002. Use of breeding trials to estimate disease-induced yield losses and to refine selection strategies. Proceedings of the 2002 Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists held at Cairns, Queensland, Australia, 29 April - 2 May 2002, 113-122; 7 ref.
Magarey RC, Bull JI, Neilsen WA, 2003. Yield losses caused by several endemic diseases in Queensland. In: 2003 Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists held at Townsville, Queensland, Australia, 6-9 May 2003 [ed. by Hogarth, D. M.]. Brisbane, Australia: PK Editorial Services Pty Ltd, 30.
Magarey RC, Bull JI, Neilsen WA, Camilleri JR, Magnanini AJ, 2004. Relating cultivar resistance to sugarcane yield using breeding selection trial analyses; orange rust and yellow spot. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 44(10):1057-1064.
Magarey RC, Bull JI, Neilsen WA, Magnanini A, 2003. Relative humidity requirements for spore germination in three sugarcane leaf pathogens. 8th International Congress of Plant Pathology, V2: 3 (abstract 1.1).
Magarey RC, Croft BJ, Willcox TG, 2001. An epidemic of orange rust on sugarcane in Australia. International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists. Proceedings of the XXIV Congress, Brisbane, Australia, 17-21 September 2001. Volume 2, 410-416; 7 ref.
Magarey RC, Neilsen WA, Bull JI, 2004. The effect of orange rust on sugarcane yield in breeding selection trials in Central Queensland: 1999-2001. In: 2004 Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists held at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, 4-7 May 2004 [ed. by Hogarth, D. M.]. Brisbane, Australia: PK Editorial Services Pty Ltd, 1-6.
Magarey RC, Nielsen WA, Magnanini AJ, 2004. Environmental requirements for spore germination in three sugarcane leaf pathogens. In: 2004 Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists held at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, 4-7 May 2004 [ed. by Hogarth, D. M.]. Brisbane, Australia: PK Editorial Services Pty Ltd, 1-7.
Magarey RC, Staier T, Willcox TG, 2002. Fungicides for control of orange rust in the 2001 Queensland crop. Proceedings of the 2002 Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists held at Cairns, Queensland, Australia, 29 April - 2 May 2002, 269-274; 3 ref.
Magarey RC, Suma S, Irawan, Kuniata LS, Allsopp PG, 2002. Sik na binatang bilong suka - diseases and pests encountered during a survey of Saccharum germplasm 'in the wild' in Papua New Guinea. Proceedings of the 2002 Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists held at Cairns, Queensland, Australia, 29 April - 2 May 2002, 219-227; 13 ref.
Magarey RC, Willcox T, Croft BJ, Cordingley AJ, 2001. Orange rust, a major pathogen affecting crops of Q124 in Queensland in 2000. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Sugarcane Technologists, 23: 274-280.
Pillay L, McFarlane SA, Rutherford RS, 2005. A preliminary report on genetic diversity in populations of sugarcane rust in KwaZulu-Natal. In: Proceedings of the 79th Annual Congress of South African Sugar Technologists' Association, held at Kwa-Shukela, Mount Edgecombe, South Africa, 19-22 July 2005. Mount Edgecombe, South Africa: South African Sugar Technologists' Association, 132-136.
Rauka GB, Magarey RC, Kuniata LS, 2005. The current disease situation on the commercial estate of Ramu sugar, Papua New Guinea. In: Proceedings of the 2005 Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists held at Bundaberg, Queensland, Australia, 3-6 May 2005 [ed. by Hogarth, D. M.]. Brisbane, Australia: PK Editorial Services Pty Ltd, 266-272.
Ryan CC, Egan BT, 1989. Rust. In: Ricaud C, Egan BT, Gillaspie AG Jr., Hughes CG, eds. Diseases of Sugarcane. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 189-210.
Staier T, Magarey R, Willcox TG, 2003. Control of orange rust in sugarcane with fungicides. 2003 Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists held at Townsville, Queensland, Australia, 6-9 May 2003, 31; [Full text on CD-ROM]; 1 ref.
Staier TN, Magarey RC, Finlayson WA, 2004. Meteorological data collection, analysis and sugarcane disease forecasting for orange rust. In: 2004 Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists held at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, 4-7 May 2004 [ed. by Hogarth, D. M.]. Brisbane, Australia: PK Editorial Services Pty Ltd, 1-6.
Suma S, Pais E, 1996. Major diseases affecting sugarcane production on the Ramu Sugar estate, Papua New Guinea. Sugarcane germplasm conservation and exchange: report of an international workshop held in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, 28-30 June 1995., 30-33; [ACIAR Proceedings No. 67.]; 13 ref.
Virtudazo EV, Nojima H, Kakshima M, 2001. Ribosomal DNA-ITS sequence polymorphism in the sugarcane rust, Puccinia kuehnii. Mycoscience, 42:447-453.
Wakker JH, Went FAFC, 1898. Die Ziekten van het Suikerriet op Java. Deel 1. Leiden, Netherlands: EJ Brill.
Willcox T, Croft BJ, 2004. Quantifying risk of loss from sugarcane diseases and other variety related causes. In: 2004 Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists held at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, 4-7 May 2004 [ed. by Hogarth, D. M.]. Brisbane, Australia: PK Editorial Services Pty Ltd, 1-8.
Barbasso D, Jordão H, Maccheroni W, Boldini J, Bressiani J, Sanguino A, 2010. First report of Puccinia kuehnii, causal agent of orange rust of sugarcane, in Brazil. Plant Disease. 94 (9), 1170. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-94-9-1170C
Briggs G C, Cummings M, Elibox W, 2018. First report of orange rust of sugarcane caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Guyana. Plant Disease. 102 (4), 825-826. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-17-0915-PDN
Briggs G C, Nakhid Z, Alleyne A T, Ayats J, Despradel J O, Elibox W, 2014. First report of orange rust disease of sugarcane in the Dominican Republic. Plant Disease. 98 (7), 1010. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-14-0044-PDN
Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. In: Land Grant Technical Report No. 44, Pago Pago, American Samoa: American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program.
CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Cadavid M, Ángel J C, Victoria J I, 2012. First report of orange rust of sugarcane caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Colombia. Plant Disease. 96 (1), 143. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-11-0406
Chavarría E, Subirós F, Vega J, Ralda G, Glynn N C, Comstock J C, Castlebury L A, 2009. First report of orange rust of sugarcane caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Plant Disease. 93 (4), 425. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-93-4-0425C
Chaves A, Simões Neto D E, Dutra Filho J de A, Oliveira A C de, Rodrigues W D de L, Pedrosa E M R, Borges V J L, França P R P de, 2013. Presence of orange rust on sugarcane in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Tropical Plant Pathology. 38 (5), 443-446. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/tpp/v38n5/10.pdf DOI:10.1590/S1982-56762013000500010
Comstock J C, Sood S G, Glynn N C, Shine J M Jr, McKemy J M, Castlebury L A, 2008. First report of Puccinia kuehnii, causal agent of orange rust of sugarcane, in the United States and Western Hemisphere. Plant Disease. 92 (1), 175. HTTP://www.apsnet.org DOI:10.1094/PDIS-92-1-0175A
Flores R C, Loyo J R, Ojeda R A, Rangel O C A, Cerón F A, Márquez W, Guerra-Moreno A S, Hernandez-Ibarra H M, González R E, Castlebury L A, Dixon L J, Glynn N C, Comstock J C, Flynn J, Amador J, 2009. First report of orange rust of sugarcane caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Mexico, El Salvador, and Panama. Plant Disease. 93 (12), 1347. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-93-12-1347B
Garcés F F, Fiallos F F, Silva E, Martinez F, Aime M C, Comstock J C, Glynn N C, Castlebury L A, 2014. First report of orange rust of sugarcane caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Ecuador. Plant Disease. 98 (6), 842. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-13-0574-PDN
Grisham M P, Hoy J W, Haudenshield J S, Hartman G L, 2013. First report of orange rust caused by Puccinia kuehnii in sugarcane in Louisiana. Plant Disease. 97 (3), 426-427. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-12-0873-PDN
Magarey RC, 2000. Orange rust. In: A Guide to Sugarcane Diseases, [ed. by Rott P, Bailey RA, Comstock JC, Croft BJ, Saumtally AS]. Montpellier, France: CIRAD-ISSCT. 121-125.
NAPPO, 2010. Phytosanitary Alert System: Detection of orange rust of sugar cane (Puccinia kuenii) in Mexico. In: Phytosanitary Alert System: Detection of orange rust of sugar cane (Puccinia kuenii) in Mexico. NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=424
Ovalle W, Comstock J C, Glynn N C, Castlebury L A, 2008. First report of Puccinia kuehnii, causal agent of orange rust of sugarcane, in Guatemala. Plant Disease. 92 (6), 973. HTTP://www.apsnet.org DOI:10.1094/PDIS-92-6-0973C
Ryan CC, Egan BT, 1989. Rust. In: Diseases of Sugarcane, [ed. by Ricaud C, Egan BT, Gillaspie AG Jr, Hughes CG]. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier. 189-210.
Saumtally A S, Viremouneix T R, Ahondokpê B, Girard J C R, Castlebury L A, Dixon L, Glynn N C, Comstock J C, 2011. First report of orange rust of sugarcane caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Ivory Coast and Cameroon. Plant Disease. 95 (3), 357. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-10-0690
Distribution MapsTop of page
Select a dataset
CABI Summary Records
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/